Classification

copyright cmassengale

1
Species of Organisms

•There are 13 billion known
species of organisms
•This is only 5% of all
organisms that ever lived!!...
What is Classification?
Classification is the
arrangement of organisms into
orderly groups based on their
similarities
Cla...
Benefits of Classifying

•organisms & uniformly names
Accurately
•starfish &misnomers that aren't
Prevents
such as
jellyfi...
Confusion in Using Different
Languages for Names

copyright cmassengale

5
Latin Names are Understood by
all Taxonomists

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6
Early Taxonomists

•2000 years

ago, Aristotle was
the first taxonomist
Aristotle divided
organisms into
plants & animals
...
Early Taxonomists

•John Ray, a

botanist, was
the first to
use Latin for
naming
His names
were very long
descriptions
tel...
Carolus Linnaeus
1707 – 1778

• 18th century
taxonomist
• Classified

•

organisms by
their structure
Developed
naming sys...
Carolus Linnaeus

•Called the “Father of
Taxonomy”
•Developed the modern

system of naming known
as binomial nomenclature
...
Standardized Naming

•Binomial
nomenclature used
•Genus species
•Latin or Greek
•Italicized in print
•Capitalize
genus, bu...
Binomial Nomenclature

Which TWO are more closely related?
copyright cmassengale

12
Rules for Naming Organisms

• The International Code for

Binomial Nomenclature contains

•

•

the rules for naming organ...
Classification Groups

• Taxon ( taxa-plural) is a
•
•

category into which related
organisms are placed
There is a hierar...
Hierarchy-Taxonomic Groups
BROADEST TAXON
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum (Division – used for plants)
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Spec...
Dumb
King
Phillip
Came
Over
For
Gooseberry

Soup!
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16
copyright cmassengale

17
Domains

• Broadest, most inclusive taxon
• Three domains
• Archaea and Bacteria are
•

unicellular prokaryotes (no
nucleu...
ARCHAEA

• Kingdom - ARCHAEBACTERIA
• Probably the 1 cells to evolve
• Live in HARSH environments
• Found in:
–Sewage Trea...
ARCHAEAN

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20
BACTERIA

• Kingdom - EUBACTERIA
• Some may cause DISEASE
• Found in ALL HABITATS except
harsh ones
• Important decomposer...
Live in the intestines of animals

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22
Domain Eukarya is Divided
into Kingdoms

•Protista
(protozoans, algae…)
•Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts …)
•Plantae (multicellul...
•Most are
unicellular
•Some are
multicellular
•Some are

Protista

autotrophic, while
others are
heterotrophic
Aquatic

•
...
Fungi

• Multicellular,
except yeast
• Absorptive

•

heterotrophs
(digest food
outside their
body & then
absorb it)
Cell ...
Plantae

•Multicellular
•Autotrophic
•Absorb sunlight

to make glucose –
Photosynthesis
Cell walls made of
cellulose

•

c...
• Multicellular
• Ingestive
•

Animalia

heterotrophs
(consume food
& digest it
inside their
bodies)
Feed on plants
or ani...
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28
Taxons

•Most genera contain a
number of similar species
•The genus Homo is an
exception (only contains
modern humans)
Cla...
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30
Basis for Modern Taxonomy

•Homologous structures (same
structure, different
function)
Similar embryo development
Molecula...
Homologous Structures (BONES in the FORELIMBS) shows
Similarities in mammals.
copyright cmassengale

32
Similarities in Vertebrate
Embryos

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33
Cladogram
Diagram showing how organisms are related
based on shared, derived characteristics
such as feathers, hair, or sc...
Primate
Cladogram
copyright cmassengale

35
Dichotomous Keying

•Used to identify organisms
•Characteristics given in
pairs
•Read both characteristics
and either go t...
Example of Dichotomous Key
1a
1b
2a
2b
3a
3b
4a
4b

Tentacles present – Go to 2
Tentacles absent – Go to 3
Eight Tentacles...
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38
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Classification of life

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Classification of life

  1. 1. Classification copyright cmassengale 1
  2. 2. Species of Organisms •There are 13 billion known species of organisms •This is only 5% of all organisms that ever lived!!!!! •New organisms are still being found and identified copyright cmassengale 2
  3. 3. What is Classification? Classification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities Classification is also known as taxonomy Taxonomists are scientists that identify & name organisms copyright cmassengale 3
  4. 4. Benefits of Classifying •organisms & uniformly names Accurately •starfish &misnomers that aren't Prevents such as jellyfish really fish Uses same language (Latin or some Greek) for all names • Sea”horse”?? copyright cmassengale 4
  5. 5. Confusion in Using Different Languages for Names copyright cmassengale 5
  6. 6. Latin Names are Understood by all Taxonomists copyright cmassengale 6
  7. 7. Early Taxonomists •2000 years ago, Aristotle was the first taxonomist Aristotle divided organisms into plants & animals He subdivided them by their habitat --land, sea, or air dwellers • • copyright cmassengale 7
  8. 8. Early Taxonomists •John Ray, a botanist, was the first to use Latin for naming His names were very long descriptions telling everything about the plant • copyright cmassengale 8
  9. 9. Carolus Linnaeus 1707 – 1778 • 18th century taxonomist • Classified • organisms by their structure Developed naming system still used today copyright cmassengale 9
  10. 10. Carolus Linnaeus •Called the “Father of Taxonomy” •Developed the modern system of naming known as binomial nomenclature Two-word name (Genus & species) • copyright cmassengale 10
  11. 11. Standardized Naming •Binomial nomenclature used •Genus species •Latin or Greek •Italicized in print •Capitalize genus, but NOT species Underline when writing Turdus migratorius • copyright cmassengale American Robin 11
  12. 12. Binomial Nomenclature Which TWO are more closely related? copyright cmassengale 12
  13. 13. Rules for Naming Organisms • The International Code for Binomial Nomenclature contains • • the rules for naming organisms All names must be approved by International Naming Congresses (International Zoological Congress) This prevents duplicated names copyright cmassengale 13
  14. 14. Classification Groups • Taxon ( taxa-plural) is a • • category into which related organisms are placed There is a hierarchy of groups (taxa) from broadest to most specific Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species copyright cmassengale 14
  15. 15. Hierarchy-Taxonomic Groups BROADEST TAXON Domain Kingdom Phylum (Division – used for plants) Class Order Family Genus Species Most Specific copyright cmassengale 15
  16. 16. Dumb King Phillip Came Over For Gooseberry Soup! copyright cmassengale 16
  17. 17. copyright cmassengale 17
  18. 18. Domains • Broadest, most inclusive taxon • Three domains • Archaea and Bacteria are • unicellular prokaryotes (no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles) Eukarya are more complex and have a nucleus and membranebound organelles copyright cmassengale 18
  19. 19. ARCHAEA • Kingdom - ARCHAEBACTERIA • Probably the 1 cells to evolve • Live in HARSH environments • Found in: –Sewage Treatment Plants (Methanogens) –Thermal or Volcanic Vents (Thermophiles) –Hot Springs or Geysers that are acid –Very salty water (Dead Sea; st Great Salt Lake) - Halophiles copyright cmassengale 19
  20. 20. ARCHAEAN copyright cmassengale 20
  21. 21. BACTERIA • Kingdom - EUBACTERIA • Some may cause DISEASE • Found in ALL HABITATS except harsh ones • Important decomposers for environment • Commercially important in making cottage cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, etc. copyright cmassengale 21
  22. 22. Live in the intestines of animals copyright cmassengale 22
  23. 23. Domain Eukarya is Divided into Kingdoms •Protista (protozoans, algae…) •Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts …) •Plantae (multicellular plants) •Animalia (multicellular animals) copyright cmassengale 23
  24. 24. •Most are unicellular •Some are multicellular •Some are Protista autotrophic, while others are heterotrophic Aquatic • copyright cmassengale 24
  25. 25. Fungi • Multicellular, except yeast • Absorptive • heterotrophs (digest food outside their body & then absorb it) Cell walls made of chitin copyright cmassengale 25
  26. 26. Plantae •Multicellular •Autotrophic •Absorb sunlight to make glucose – Photosynthesis Cell walls made of cellulose • copyright cmassengale 26
  27. 27. • Multicellular • Ingestive • Animalia heterotrophs (consume food & digest it inside their bodies) Feed on plants or animals copyright cmassengale 27
  28. 28. copyright cmassengale 28
  29. 29. Taxons •Most genera contain a number of similar species •The genus Homo is an exception (only contains modern humans) Classification is based on evolutionary relationships • copyright cmassengale 29
  30. 30. copyright cmassengale 30
  31. 31. Basis for Modern Taxonomy •Homologous structures (same structure, different function) Similar embryo development Molecular Similarity in DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequence of Proteins • • copyright cmassengale 31
  32. 32. Homologous Structures (BONES in the FORELIMBS) shows Similarities in mammals. copyright cmassengale 32
  33. 33. Similarities in Vertebrate Embryos copyright cmassengale 33
  34. 34. Cladogram Diagram showing how organisms are related based on shared, derived characteristics such as feathers, hair, or scales copyright cmassengale 34
  35. 35. Primate Cladogram copyright cmassengale 35
  36. 36. Dichotomous Keying •Used to identify organisms •Characteristics given in pairs •Read both characteristics and either go to another set of characteristics OR identify the organism copyright cmassengale 36
  37. 37. Example of Dichotomous Key 1a 1b 2a 2b 3a 3b 4a 4b Tentacles present – Go to 2 Tentacles absent – Go to 3 Eight Tentacles – Octopus More than 8 tentacles – 3 Tentacles hang down – go to 4 Tentacles upright–Sea Anemone Balloon-shaped body–Jellyfish Body NOT balloon-shaped - 5 copyright cmassengale 37
  38. 38. copyright cmassengale 38

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