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Arsikom #1


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  • 1. Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer [5235-005-2] Pertemuan ke 1
  • 2. Daftar Pustaka1. Mostafa Abd-El-Barr dan Hesham El- Rewini. 2005. “Fundamental of Computer Organization and Architecture”, A John Wiley & Sons, Inc Publication. Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 2
  • 3. Staf InfoWisnu Djatmikowisnu.djatmiko@gmail.comwisnu_djatmiko@yahoo.com0811 82 7441 Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 3
  • 4. Jadwal Kuliah5223 Selasa 08.00 s.d. 10.00 wib (R 406)5272 Selasa 10.00 s.d. 11.40 wib (R 305)5258 Selasa 16.20 s.d. 18.00 wib (R 406)5278 Jum’at 16.20 s.d. 18.00 wib (R 406) Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 4
  • 5. Penilaian1. Minimal 75% kehadiran [syarat UAS]2. UTS 35%3. UAS 35%4. Tugas mandiri/terstruktur 30% Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 5
  • 6. Pokok Bahasan Sistem komputer, desain dan konsep ISA (Instruction Set Computer), Assembly Language Programming, Aritmatika Komputer, desain CPU, sistem memori, desain dan organisasi I/O unit, Pipelining Design Techniques, Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISCs), dan Multiprocessor. Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 6
  • 7. Pokok Bahasan #11. Latar Belakang Sejarah2. Perkembangan Arsitektur Komputer3. Perkembangan Teknologi Komputer4. Pengukuran Performa Komputer5. Simpulan6. Latihan Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 7
  • 8. Latar Belakang Sejarah1. Z1 (1938) Program-controlled (mechanical) computer2. Z2 (1939) Program-controlled computer with fixed-point arithmetic.3. Z3 (Germany in 1941) complete design of a fully functional programmable special- purpose machine Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 8
  • 9. Latar Belakang Sejarah4. ENIAC (1944) Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (first operational general-purpose machine built using vacuum tubes)5. IAS (1946) Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton) 10 times faster than the ENIAC6. EDSAC (1949) Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (stored-program computer)7. EDVAC (1952) Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (stored programs) Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 9
  • 10. Latar Belakang Sejarah8. Harvard Architecture (MARK I, II, III, and IV) introduced the concept of separate memories for instructions and data9. UNIVersal Automatic Computer - UNIVAC I (1951) - The first general-purpose commercial computer10.IBM 701 (1952)11.IBM 360 series (1964) Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 10
  • 11. Latar Belakang Sejarah11.Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) - PDP-8 (1964)12.Intel 4004 (1971)13.Apple computer PC, VAX-11/780 by DEC (1977) Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 11
  • 12. the different computing paradigms Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 12
  • 13. ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENT ANDSTYLES• Computer architects have always been striving to increase the performance of their architectures• reducing the “semantic gap” between the instructions in a high-level language and those in the low-level (machine) language.• A single (machine) instruction to convert several binary coded decimal (BCD) numbers to binary is an example for how complex some instructions were intended to be. Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 13
  • 14. ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENT ANDSTYLES• The huge number of addressing modes considered (more than 20 in the VAX machine) further adds to the complexity of instructions.• Machines following this philosophy have been referred to as complex instructions set computers (CISCs)• Examples of CISC machines include the Intel PentiumTM, the Motorola MC68000TM, and the IBM & Macintosh PowerPCTM. Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 14
  • 15. ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENT ANDSTYLES• It should be noted that as more capabilities were added to their processors, manufacturers realized that it was increasingly difficult to support higher clock rates that would have been possible otherwise.• This is because of the increased complexity of computations within a single clock period. Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 15
  • 16. ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENT ANDSTYLES• A number of studies from the mid-1970s and early-1980s also identified that in typical programs more than 80% of the instructions executed are those using assignment statements, conditional branching and procedure calls.• It was also surprising to find out that simple assignment statements constitute almost 50% of those operations. Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 16
  • 17. ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENT ANDSTYLES• the optimization of architectures by speeding up those operations that are most frequently used while reducing the instruction complexities and the number of addressing modes.• Machines following this philosophy have been referred to as reduced instructions set computers (RISCs)• Examples of RISCs include the Sun SPARCTM and MIPSTM machines. Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 17
  • 18. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 18
  • 19. PERFORMANCE MEASURES• A user of a computer measures its performance based on the time taken to execute a given job (program)• A laboratory engineer measures the performance of his system by the total amount of work done in a given time• A metric for assessing the performance of a computer helps comparing alternative designs Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 19
  • 20. PERFORMANCE MEASURES• Performance analysis should help answering questions such as how fast can a program be executed using a given computer?• we need to determine the time taken by a computer to execute a given job and we define the clock cycle time as the time between two consecutive rising (trailing) edges of a periodic clock signal (Fig. 1.1) Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 20
  • 21. a periodic clock signal Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 21
  • 22. PERFORMANCE MEASURES• We denote the number of CPU clock cycles for executing a job to be the cycle count (CC), the cycle time by CT, and the clock frequency by f ¼ 1/CT.• The time taken by the CPU to execute a job can be expressed as Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 22
  • 23. PERFORMANCE MEASURES• Therefore, the average number of clock cycles per instruction (CPI) has been used as an alternate performance measure Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 23
  • 24. PERFORMANCE MEASURES• It is known that the instruction set of a given machine consists of a number of instruction categories: ALU (simple assignment and arithmetic and logic instructions), load, store, branch, and so on.• where Ii is the number of times an instruction of type i is executed in the program and CPIi is the average number of clock cycles needed to execute such instruction. Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 24
  • 25. PERFORMANCE MEASURES• Example Consider computing the overall CPI for a machine A for which the following performance measures were recorded when executing a set of benchmark programs. Assume that the clock rate of the CPU is 200 MHz. Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 25
  • 26. PERFORMANCE MEASURES Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 26
  • 27. Pokok Bahasan #11. Latar Belakang Sejarah2. Perkembangan Arsitektur Komputer3. Perkembangan Teknologi Komputer4. Pengukuran Performa Komputer5. Simpulan6. Definisi Komputer7. Definisi Organisasi Komputer8. Definisi Arsitektur komputer Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 27
  • 28. Definisi Komputersuatu alat elektronik yg mampu melakukan beberapa tugas seperti menerima input, memproses input tadi sesuai dengan programnya, menyimpan perintah-perintah dan hasil pengolahan, serta menyediakan output dalam bentuk informasi [Robert H. Blissmer dlm buku Computer Annual] Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 28
  • 29. Definisi Komputersistem elektronik utk memanipulasi data yg cepat dan tepat serta dirancang dan diorganisasikan supaya secara otomatis menerima dan menyimpan data input, memprosesnya dan menghasilkan output dibawah pengawasan suatu langkah-langkah, instruksi2 program yg tersimpan di memori (stored program) [Donald H. Sanders dlm buku Computer Today] Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 29
  • 30. Definisi Komputermesin penghitung eletronik yg cepat dapat menerima informasi input digital, memprosesnya sesuai dengan suatu program yg tersimpan di memorinya dan menghasilkan output informasi [Hamacher dkk, dlm buku Computer Organization] Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 30
  • 31. Definisi Komputer Sekumpulan alat elektronik yang saling bekerja sama, dapat menerima data (input), mengolah data (proses) dan memberikan informasi (output) serta terkoordinasi dibawah kontrol program yang tersimpan di memorinya. Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 31
  • 32. Fungsi Komputer1. Pengolahan data - Data processing2. Penyimpanan data - Data storage3. Pemindahan data - Data movement4. Kendali - Control Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 32
  • 33. Struktur Komputer Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 33
  • 34. Struktur Komputer Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 34
  • 35. Pengolahan Data Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 35
  • 36. Komponen Sistem Komputer1. Hardware  CPU unit  IO unit  Memory unit2. Software3. Brainware Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 36
  • 37. Definisi Organisasi KomputerOrganisasi komputer berkaitan dengan unit- unit operasional dan interkoneksinya yang merealisasikan spesifikasi arsitekturalMisal : Control signals, interfaces, memory technology Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 37
  • 38. Definisi Arsitektur KomputerArsitektur komputer berkaitan dengan atribut – atribut yang mempunyai dampak langsung pada eksekusi logis sebuah program. [William Stalling]Misal : Set Instruksi, jumlah bit yang digunakan untuk penyajian data, mekanisme I/O, teknik pengalamantan (addressing techniques). Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 38
  • 39. Definisi Arsitektur Komputeradalah konsep perencanaan dan struktur pengoperasian dasar dari suatu sistem komputer.bagaimana CPU bekerjacara pengaksesan data dan alamat dari dan ke memoriArsitektur von Neumann, CISC, dan RISC Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 39
  • 40. Arsitektur Komputer1. Set instruksi (ISA)2. Arsitektur mikro dari ISA, dan3. Sistem desain dari seluruh komponen dalam perangkat keras komputer Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 40
  • 41. Organisasi vs Arsitektur KomputerPabrik komputer menawarkan sekelompok model komputer, yang semuanya memiliki arsitektur yang sama tetapi dengan organisasi yang berbeda.Akibatnya, model – model yang berbeda akan memiliki harga dan karakteristik kinerja yang berbeda. Selain itu suatu arsitektur dapat bertahan selama bertahun – tahun dan meliputi sejumlah model komputer yang berbeda, namun organisasinya dapat berubah – ubah sesuai seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi. Organisasi & Arsitektur Komputer 41