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The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011
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The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011

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Slides of a presentation I gave at the Mauna Kea Visitor Center on May 7, 2011, as part of a series called the Universe Tonight, about extrasolar planets and the means of detecting them. It was …

Slides of a presentation I gave at the Mauna Kea Visitor Center on May 7, 2011, as part of a series called the Universe Tonight, about extrasolar planets and the means of detecting them. It was followed by a stargazing session on the Visitor Center Parking Lot.

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Transcript

  • 1. Frantz Martinache Subaru Telescope New tools to image new worldsSunday, May 8, 2011
  • 2. Since 1995, many Extrasolar planets http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/Sunday, May 8, 2011
  • 3. Before that, one example only... small big, gaseous rocky and/or icy Our own Solar System! http://www.wikipedia.org For ~ 400 years, astronomers agreed on a theory built from this one single example, that made perfect senseSunday, May 8, 2011
  • 4. And then: Surprise! 51 Pegasi Mayor et Queloz, 1995, Nature, 378, 355Sunday, May 8, 2011
  • 5. How can that be? 51 Pegasi An exception maybe?Sunday, May 8, 2011
  • 6. 15 years of observations pay off... Jupiter Earth ... the Solar System is the exception!Sunday, May 8, 2011
  • 7. When planets cast shadows... Light curve of HD209458 Transit of Venus, 2004 Images by Olivier Lardière (next one in 2012, visible from Mass + radius ➙ Density Hawaii, the one after: 2117!) Model planet interior Charbonneau et al, 2000, ApJ, 529, L45Sunday, May 8, 2011
  • 8. Transiting planets teach a lot HD 209458 is the exoplanet that know the bestSunday, May 8, 2011
  • 9. Now, where to look? Movie by Olivier GuyonSunday, May 8, 2011
  • 10. One space mission: Kepler Launched in 2009 Stares at the same region of the sky for 3.5-6 years http://kepler.nasa.gov/Sunday, May 8, 2011
  • 11. An incredible harvest 15 confirmed planets, but... 1235 candidates! Moreover: Earth-like planets appear to be ubiquitousSunday, May 8, 2011
  • 12. This is happening in our neighborhood Sagittarius arm Orion arm our Galaxy, the Milky WaySunday, May 8, 2011
  • 13. How about some pictures now? A two-fold difficulty: 51 Pegasi b 1. Stars are bright, planets not so bright: blinded by the star 2. Stars are far: difficult to make star 51 Pegasi and planet apart Euh... we have a problem here.Sunday, May 8, 2011
  • 14. Let’s learn from nature again! Total Solar Eclipse, 2001, Olivier Lardière The Moon is big/far enough to hide the Sun, and reveal the faint structures in the Solar Corona.Sunday, May 8, 2011
  • 15. ... and reproduce this in the lab Bernard Lyot, 1932 Les flammes du Soleil (1953) http://www.cerimes.fr/le-catalogue/flammes-du-soleil.htmlSunday, May 8, 2011
  • 16. But the problem isn’t quite the same The Sun A star The coronagraph must operate on a very small region of the field of view.Sunday, May 8, 2011
  • 17. It turns out that... Alpha Ophiucus The image of a star depends on: - the telescope itself - the observing conditionsSunday, May 8, 2011
  • 18. Adaptive Optics Simulations by Pr James LloydSunday, May 8, 2011
  • 19. How much does that help? A LOT !!!Sunday, May 8, 2011
  • 20. We begin to “see” planets HR 8799 GJ 758 30 Myr old, 8 Gyr old, 3 (4?) 7Mj planetary companions 30 Mj @ 40 AU Both images were taken right here, from Mauna Kea!Sunday, May 8, 2011
  • 21. Planets within disks Star: Spectral type: A6V Age: 12 Myr Debris Disk: Warped, signs of comets falling on the central Star Beta Pictoris b Planet: 8 Mj @ 8 AU Lagrange et al, 2008Sunday, May 8, 2011
  • 22. Planets seen from space Star: Spectral type: A3V Age: 200 Myr Planet: 1 Mj @ 115 AU Imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope, at visible wavelength.Sunday, May 8, 2011
  • 23. The Habitable Zone GJ 758 The window is very shallow... and close to the star We have developed the ideas and the technology to do itSunday, May 8, 2011
  • 24. Taming the light to look closer to stars! SCExAOSunday, May 8, 2011
  • 25. Extrasolar planets: Subaru is on the hunt SCExAO HiCIAO Subaru HiCIAO operational and observing since ~2009 Next SCExAO observations: July Stay tuned for results! http://www.scexao.blogspot.com http://www.frantzmartinache.com/blog/Sunday, May 8, 2011

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