Ray freeman aus mtn bike tourism conference presentation - critical success factors - feb-2-2012

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Mountain Bike Tourism and Community Development in British Columbia, Canada: Critical Success Factors for the Future. A presentation for the 5th Australian Cycle Tourism Conference, Canberra, February 2nd, 2012.

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  • http://vimeo.com/35428031
  • Photo Credit: S. Freeman
  • Photo Credit: R. Freeman
  • http://www.th.gov.bc.ca/seatosky/RFQ/maps/Corridor_Map.pdf Vancouver Island is 460 Km in length
  • Source: http://www.th.gov.bc.ca/seatosky/RFQ/maps/Corridor_Map.pdf
  • Figures in Canadian Dollars
  • core CSF`s derived from: Wilson, S., Fesenmaier, D., Fesenmaier, J., & van Es, J. (2001). Factors for Success in Rural Tourism Development. Journal of Travel Research , 40 (2), 132 ; Basic Elements for Mtn Bike Tourism(MTBA, 2010); BC Community Development Assessment Framework (Tourism BC, 2008); and Delphi study participants (2011).
  • Diversity of product
  • Stakeholder Integration applied to cycling tourism
  • Photo Credit: R. Freeman
  • core CSF`s derived from: Wilson, S., Fesenmaier, D., Fesenmaier, J., & van Es, J. (2001). Factors for Success in Rural Tourism Development. Journal of Travel Research , 40 (2), 132 ; Basic Elements for Mtn Bike Tourism(MTBA, 2010); BC Community Development Assessment Framework (Tourism BC, 2008); and Delphi study participants (2011)*.
  • Abundance (2008) By Chris Paul Tsartlip First Nations Artist Sandblasted salvaged old growth red cedar core CSF`s derived from: Wilson, S., Fesenmaier, D., Fesenmaier, J., & van Es, J. (2001). Factors for Success in Rural Tourism Development. Journal of Travel Research , 40 (2), 132 ; Basic Elements for Mtn Bike Tourism(MTBA, 2010); BC Community Development Assessment Framework (Tourism BC, 2008); and Delphi study participants (2011)*.
  • Photo Credit: R. Freeman
  • Photo Credit: R. Freeman
  • Photo credit: SIMBS.com
  • 57% average response rate across three rounds.
  • Ray freeman aus mtn bike tourism conference presentation - critical success factors - feb-2-2012

    1. 1. Mountain Bike Tourism and Community Development in British Columbia, Canada: Critical Success Factors for the Future Presented by: Ray Freeman Royal Roads University Mountain Bike Tourism Australian Cycle Tourism Conference Canberra - February 2 nd , 2012
    2. 2. Purpose Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><li>An Enquiry of: </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Success Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual Framework for Community-Based Mountain Bike Tourism Development </li></ul><ul><li>to support sustainable planning and implementation </li></ul>
    3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Why Mountain Bike Tourism? </li></ul><ul><li>Community Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>How to get there…building blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Research Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations for Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix: Methodology </li></ul>Mountain Bike Tourism
    4. 4. Mountain Bike Tourism Kalamalka Lake, Cosen’s Bay Trail, Okanagan Valley, Vernon, BC
    5. 5. Why Mountain Bike Tourism? Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><li>gaining critical-mass globally </li></ul><ul><li>fast growing segment in adventure tourism </li></ul><ul><li>business/govt & social media momentum </li></ul><ul><li>cost-effective for communities (however, must leverage partnerships: Peter Drucker, 1973; Michael Porter, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>multiple potential benefits ( Gajda, 2008; Koepke, 2005…see Blake Roswell </li></ul><ul><li>SMBDC, 2009; Tourism BC, 2008) </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Hornby Island, BC </li></ul>Mountain Bike Tourism
    7. 7. Potential Community Benefits Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><li>recreational opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>youth / community social / health </li></ul></ul><ul><li>destination awareness </li></ul><ul><li>tourism revenue, taxation revenue </li></ul><ul><li>community infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>spin-offs for direct and indirect businesses </li></ul><ul><li>social capital </li></ul><ul><li>this list is NOT comprehensive </li></ul>
    8. 8. Mountain Bike Tourism
    9. 9. British Columbia: Cluster Example Mountain Bike Tourism Source: http://www.th.gov.bc.ca/seatosky/RFQ/maps/Corridor_Map.pdf Vancouver Island is 460 Km in length
    10. 10. Sea to Sky Corridor (Cluster) Mountain Bike Tourism Source: http://www.sitesandtrailsbc.ca/documents/sea-to-sky-trail-strategy.pdf
    11. 11. Sea to Sky Economic Impact Study Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><li>Sea to Sky Mountain Biking Economic Impact Study </li></ul><ul><li>Outside visitors to the North Shore, Squamish, </li></ul><ul><li>Whistler, Pemberton corridor </li></ul><ul><li>$10.3 m revenue (June 4 to September 16) </li></ul><ul><li>Whistler Mountain Bike Park $16.2 m </li></ul><ul><li>Crankworx Mountain Bike Festival $11.5 m </li></ul><ul><li>$38 m cumulatively </li></ul><ul><li>Whistler: 1 millionth rider in 2011 (over 12 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Source: MBTA, 2006 </li></ul>
    12. 12. How to get there? Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><li>Critical Success Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Community Champions / Stakeholders / Political Will </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure / Amenities / Supporting Services </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation / Regulatory Frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Destination Marketing / Management </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Geography / Terrain / Trails </li></ul><ul><li>Funding Sources (Private / Public / In-Kind) </li></ul><ul><li>Mtn Bike Clubs / Schools / Camps / Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Mtn Bike Culture / Lifestyle / Events ( APEC, 2010; BCMTCA, 2005, LinkBC, 2009; Rockart & Bullen, 1981; Wilson, Fesenmaier, Fesenmaier, & van Es, 2001) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Critical Success Factors Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><li>Community Champions / Stakeholders / Political Will : </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain Bike Resorts </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial Tour Operators </li></ul><ul><li>Destination Marketing Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>First Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Groups (Mountain Bike Clubs) </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain Bike Tourism Services (Accommodation, food, rental, transport) </li></ul><ul><li>Provincial Government Agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Regional & Municipal Governments </li></ul><ul><li>Trail Stewardship Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Private & Public-Sector Landowners </li></ul><ul><li>Event Organizers (Festivals/Races) </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain Bike Consultants </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance Experts </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes & Professional Mountain Bikers Source: Tourism BC, 2010 </li></ul>
    14. 14. Diversity of Tourism Product Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><li>Mountain Biking Product : </li></ul><ul><li>Bike Parks/lift accessed biking </li></ul><ul><li>Local trails for freeriding & cross-country biking </li></ul><ul><li>Touring and family trails (ie: rails-to-trails) </li></ul><ul><li>Epic Rides </li></ul><ul><li>Races, Festivals & Events </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain Bike Camps </li></ul><ul><li>Community-based programs </li></ul><ul><li>( APEC, 2010; MTBA, 2010) </li></ul>
    15. 15. Integration Process Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><li>Stakeholder Integration : </li></ul><ul><li>Identify salient stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive yet selective process </li></ul><ul><li>Strong leadership / facilitation / champions </li></ul><ul><li>Community vision / strategic planning </li></ul><ul><li>Build social capital / collaborative experience </li></ul><ul><li>Participant / visitor experience-orientation </li></ul><ul><li>(Hawkins, 2002; Lord & Elmendorf, 2008; Mitchell, Agle, & Wood,1997; Savage, Nix, Whitehead, & Blair, 1991; Scott, Baggio, & Cooper, 2008; Wagener & Fernandez-Gimenez, 2008 ) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Integration Process Strategy Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>Develop regional cycling tourism initiative </li></ul><ul><li>ie: Touring and family trails (rails-to-trails) </li></ul><ul><li>Communications with regional partners </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Critical Success Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Identify collaborative opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Seek external knowledge / resources </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation and periodic evaluation of plan </li></ul>
    17. 17. Mountain Bike Tourism Transporters (2008) By Chris Paul Tsartlip First Nations Artist Mt. Seymour, North Shore of Vancouver, B.C.
    18. 18. Conceptual Framework for Community-Based Mountain Bike Tourism Development <ul><li>Critical Success Factors (Wilson, et al, 2001; etc...) </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Elements for Mtn Bike Tourism (MTBA, 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>BC Community Development Assessment Framework (Tourism BC, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Delphi study (Freeman, 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>*Data derived from Graduate Paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Tourism Management at Royal Roads University </li></ul>Mountain Bike Tourism
    19. 19. Mountain Bike Tourism Contingent Factors (Emerging Clusters) Non-Contingent Factors (Maturing Clusters) Innovation / Outlier Strategies / Alternative Factors and Approaches
    20. 20. Contingent Factors (Emerging Cluster) Mountain Bike Tourism
    21. 21. Non-Contingent Factors (Maturing Cluster) Mountain Bike Tourism Transporters (2008) By Chris Paul Tsartlip First Nations Artist
    22. 22. Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><ul><li>(Davies , 2003; Jiang, Sui, and Cao, 2008; Patterson, 2000) </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>Shuttle Run, Mt. Prevost, Duncan / North Cowichan, B.C. </li></ul>Mountain Bike Tourism Teachers Drum (2004) By Chris Paul Tsartlip First Nations Artist Painted deer hide drum
    24. 24. Case-Study Research Example Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><li>Identify bike-related activities currently in the region </li></ul><ul><li>Current issues / challenges / demographics / trends </li></ul><ul><li>Range of potential opportunities & impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Create awareness among stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Alignment with OCP and Community Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage Spin-Off benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Compare with other community (cycling) plans </li></ul><ul><li>(per Municipality of North Cowichan Case-Study) </li></ul>
    25. 25. CSF: Examples of Funding Sources (Public / Private / In-Kind) Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><li>Municipality trails development / maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Bike clubs / volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>IMBA Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.imbacanada.com/resources/fundraising/canadian-grants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community Futures </li></ul><ul><li>BC Provincial Government (program examples) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bike BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACT Now BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LocalMotion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Island Coastal Economic Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Cowichan Valley Regional District </li></ul><ul><li>Cowichan Tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Other Government (Health Authority) </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Sponsors </li></ul><ul><li>Trans Canada Trail </li></ul><ul><li>Other NGO’s </li></ul><ul><li>Service Clubs </li></ul><ul><li>CSF example from Municipality of North Cowichan Case Study, Appendix “O” </li></ul>
    26. 26. Mountain Bike Tourism Whale Paddle (2005) By Chris Paul Tsartlip First Nations Artist Painted ash Burnt Bridge, Cowichan Lake, B.C.
    27. 27. Summary Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><li>Framework may be applicable to other tourism product </li></ul><ul><li>Successful integration is all about Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Conversations can reveal hidden resources (Outliers) </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic planning with a collective vision </li></ul><ul><li>It’s been done before! </li></ul>Conservation Drum (2006) By Chris Paul Tsartlip First Nations Artist Painted deer hide drum
    28. 28. Mountain Bike Tourism Super-D Race, Hartland, Victoria, BC
    29. 29. Mountain Bike Tourism Questions? Ray Freeman +001.250.744.5653 +001.250.893.3191 [email_address] [email_address] Twitter: @LeftCoastInsite http://ca.LinkedIn.com/in/rayfreeman www.Facebook.com/rayrfreeman Skype: ray.freeman.ism Graduate Paper: http://t.co/3ZZWPJ3
    30. 30. Methodology Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><li>Delphi Study </li></ul><ul><li>Purposive Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Survey Plan & Instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Research Process </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Data Collection & Analysis </li></ul>
    31. 31. Delphi Technique Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><li>“… for forecasting and planning by </li></ul><ul><li>analyzing the collective responses of </li></ul><ul><li>a select group of experts” </li></ul><ul><li>Linstone & Turoff (1975) </li></ul><ul><li>“ … obtain the most reliable consensus of </li></ul><ul><li>opinion of a group of experts by a series </li></ul><ul><li>of intensive questionnaires interspersed </li></ul><ul><li>with controlled opinion feedback…” </li></ul><ul><li>du Plessis & Human (2007) </li></ul>
    32. 32. Purposive Selection Criteria Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><li>Position power : in a position to influence and build the commitment of colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise : to ensure different relevant points of view are adequately reflected </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility : essential so that any decisions are taken seriously </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted from: Wilson & Moffat (2010 ) </li></ul>
    33. 33. Sample Frame Mountain Bike Tourism 1. Mountain Bike Resorts 2. Commercial Tour Operators 3. Destination Marketing Organizations 4. First Nations 5. Industry Groups (Mountain Bike Clubs) 6. Mountain Bike Tourism Services (accommodation, food retail, rental, transport) 7. Provincial Government Agencies 8. Regional & Municipal Governments 9. Trail Stewardship Groups 10. Private Landowners 11. Event Organizers (festivals/races) 12. Educational Institutions 13. Mountain Bike Consultants 14. Insurance Experts 15. Athletes and Professional Mountain Bikers Source: Tourism British Columbia (2010)
    34. 34. Survey…Instrument <ul><li>three rounds of online survey questions </li></ul><ul><li>mixed quantitative & qualitative analysis </li></ul><ul><li>facilitates exploratory research </li></ul>Mountain Bike Tourism
    35. 35. Circular Model of Mixed Research Mountain Bike Tourism Source: Veal (2006)
    36. 36. Collection & Analysis <ul><li>Round 1: data reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Round 2: identify recurring themes </li></ul><ul><li>Round 3: correlation </li></ul>Mountain Bike Tourism
    37. 37. Population Behaviour Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><li>51 informants initially identified…41 responses </li></ul><ul><li>Round One : 27 response completions (65% response rate) </li></ul><ul><li>Round Two : 26 response completions (63% response rate) </li></ul><ul><li>Round Three : 19 response completions (46% response rate) </li></ul>
    38. 38. Round One Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><li>Open commentary: identified CSF’s based upon respondents’ respective perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>identified respondents’ initial priorities of CSF’s </li></ul><ul><li>corroborated the CSF’s identified in the literature </li></ul><ul><li>also identified several Outlier factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountain Bike Culture / Lifestyle / and Events; Funding Sources (Private / Public / In-Kind); and, Mountain Bike Clubs / Schools / Camps / Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Davies, 2003; Jiang, Sui, and Cao, 2008; Patterson, 2000) </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Round Two Mountain Bike Tourism <ul><li>shared collective responses with group </li></ul><ul><li>prioritization of collective CSF’s </li></ul><ul><li>responses linked to CSF’s using </li></ul><ul><li>summated rating Likert scale </li></ul><ul><li>analysis for this phase was quantitative only </li></ul>
    40. 40. Round Three <ul><li>Open commentary </li></ul><ul><li>again, responses linked to CSF’s </li></ul><ul><li>(key words / theme search / weighting of responses) </li></ul><ul><li>respondents stated that the list is comprehensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlier responses highlight unique approaches and individual perspectives (Davies, 2003; Jiang, Sui, and Cao, 2008; Patterson, 2000) </li></ul></ul>Mountain Bike Tourism
    41. 41. Summary of Methodological Findings <ul><li>Value of Expert Consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Framework provides a tangible application model </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive model supports sustainability of initiatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outliers identify unique approaches (Davies, 2003; Jiang, Sui, and Cao, 2008; Patterson, 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CSF’s may support universality across geography and sectors </li></ul>Mountain Bike Tourism
    42. 42. Mountain Bike Tourism Questions? Ray Freeman +001.250.744.5653 +001.250.893.3191 [email_address] [email_address] Twitter: @LeftCoastInsite http://ca.LinkedIn.com/in/rayfreeman www.Facebook.com/rayrfreeman Skype: ray.freeman.ism Graduate Paper: http://t.co/3ZZWPJ3

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