Factors affecting second language learning
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Factors affecting second language learning



A presentation about 'Factors affecting second language learning'.

A presentation about 'Factors affecting second language learning'.



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    Factors affecting second language learning Factors affecting second language learning Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction
      • We use our own experience and research findings when evaluating success in the acquisition of L2
      • All normal children are successful in the acquisition of L1, given a normal upbringing. However, rate of development varies widely among L1 learners
    • Introduction
      • In L2 learning, some learners never become native like, make slow progress but some learners progress rapidly through certain stages of learning
      • Characteristics contributing to successful language learning can be classified into five main categories: motivation, aptitude, personality, intelligence and learner preferences
    • Research on learner characteristics
      • Steps followed by researchers when trying to find out the effect of any personality factor on L2 learning:
      • Selecting a group of learners
      • 2. Giving a questionnaire to them to measure the degree of the personality factor
      • 3. Giving a test to them to measure their L2 proficiency
    • Steps followed by researchers when trying to find out the effect of any personality factor on L2 learning
      • 4. Scoring the test and the questionnaire
      • 5. Finding a correlation on two measures
      • Researchers want to see whether learners with high scores on the proficiency test are also more likely to have high scores on the personality factor questionnaire
    • Difficulties with the procedure
      • Observing and measuring qualities like motivation, extroversion or even intelligence is not possible
      • 2. Various researchers use the same labels to describe different sets of behavioral traits
    • Motivation and Success in L2 Learning
      • What is the problem in motivation questionnaires? (p.51)
      • What is the relationship between level of motivation and success in SLL?
      • Are learners with higher level of motivation more successful than those with lower motivation?
      • Do highly motivated students perform better on a proficiency test than those with much less motivation?
    • Motivation and Success in L2 Learning
      • Do language proficiency tests used in different studies measure the same kind of knowledge?
      • Do learners become successful because of their motivation?
      • Does early success increase learners’ motivation?
      • Are both success and motivation affected by special attitude for language learning or favorable learning context
    • Intelligence
      • Many studies using IQ tests and different methods of assessing LL have found that IQ scores are a good means of predicting how successful a learner is
      • Measures of intelligence may be more strongly related to certain kinds of L2 abilities than to others
    • Intelligence
      • What happened in a study with French immersion students in Canada?
      • (Intelligence is related to the development of L2 reading, grammar, vocabulary but unrelated to oral productive skills
    • Intelligence
      • Intelligence may be a strong factor when it comes to learning in terms of linguistic analysis and grammatical rules. However, intelligence plays a minor role in classrooms with more focus on communication and interaction
    • Aptitude
      • Who is CJ? Does he have a special aptitude for LL? (p.53)
      • Is learning quickly an important feature of aptitude?
      • What are the most widely used aptitude tests?
      • What view are MLAT and PLAB based on?
    • Aptitude
      • What is the effect of communicative approach to teaching in terms of aptitude?
      • What happened in a Canadian language program?
      • What is the advantage of knowing the aptitude profile of learners?
    • Personality
      • Is success in LL correlated with extroversion?
      • Do successful learners get high scores on measures of extroversion?
      • Does inhibition affect progress in LL?
      • What did Alexander Guiora and his colleagues do?
    • Personality
      • What other personality characteristics have been studied?
      • What is the main difficulty in researching personality characteristics?
    • Motivation and attitudes
      • Are positive attitudes and motivation related to success in L2 learning?
      • Can the research indicate truely how motivation is related to learning?
      • Are learners more highly motivated because they are successful or are they successful because they are highly motivated?
    • Motivation and attitudes
      • Motivation can be defined in terms of two factors:
      • Learners’ communicative needs
      • 2. Learners’ attitudes towards the second language community
    • Types of Motivation
      • Integrative motivation
      • (language learning for personal growth and cultural enrichment)
      • 2. Instrumental motivation
      • (language learning for more immediate or practical goals)
    • Motivation and attitudes
      • Are integrative and instrumental motivation related to success in L2 learning?
      • How can learning L2 be a source of enrichment or a source of resentment?
      • Is motivation affected by the social dynamic or power relationship between the languages?
    • Motivation in the classroom setting
      • Ways of increasing students’ motivation in the classroom:
      • Varying the activities, tasks and materials
      • Using cooperative rather than competitive goals
    • Learners preferences
      • Visual Learners
      • 2. Aural Learners
      • 3. Kinaesthetic Learners
      • 4. Field independent and field dependent learners
    • Learners beliefs
      • All learners have strong beliefs and opinions about how instruction should be delivered
      • Learners’ preferences for learning influence the kinds of strategies they choose to learn new material.
    • Learner beliefs
      • Teachers can use this information to help learners expand their repertoire of learning strategies and thus develop greater flexibility in their ways of approaching language learning.