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09 impact of cold environment
 

09 impact of cold environment

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    09 impact of cold environment 09 impact of cold environment Presentation Transcript

    • BND Sports Science Impact of cold climates on athletes
    • This lesson:
      • This lesson we will look at:
      • The effects a cold environment has on a performer.
      • Hypothermia and its consequences
      • The effects different types of clothing has on losing and gaining heat.
    • Exercise in cold climates
      • Exposing performers to cold produces psychological and physiological effects.
      • The severity of the cold and the sport/activity the performer is involved in determines the effect on performance.
    • Cold climates
      • A reasonably cold/cool environment can actually have a good affect on performance.
      • The CV system does not need to divert blood to lose heat, as well as supplying the working muscles.
      • This means the heart does not have to work as hard as in the heat.
    • Cold climates
      • It is in cool climates that record times are recorded .
      • If the temperature drops drastically (causing core body temperature to drop), then performance is affected.
      • Then the performers VO 2 max will be reduced.
    • So how can an individual gain heat?
      • When the body is exposed to heat it uses mechanisms to try to lose this excess heat.
      • The body when cold, tries to gain or retain heat.
      • There are three ways it tries to do this:
      • Constriction of blood vessels at skin surface.
      • Thermogensis (non-shivering)
      • Shivering
    • Gaining or retaining heat
      • The vasoconstriction of blood vessels tries to prevent heat being lost through the skin.
      • Blood is directed away from the skin’s surface to stop it being cooled by the cold environment.
      • If a person has more body fat it can also help by insulating the body.
    • Gaining or retaining heat
      • Non-shivering thermogensis – an increase in a person’s metabolic rate – this generates body heat.
      • Shivering – skeletal muscle contracts and relaxes, without the individual’s conscious control. This can also increase metabolic rate.
    • What conditions/injuries could extremely cold conditions cause?
    • Cold climates
      • Cold climates can lead to frostbite or hypothermia .
      • Frostbite :
      • Frostbite usually affects the fingers and toes. When a part of a person’s body becomes very cold, the blood supply to that part is greatly reduced. When this happens the body tissue is frozen.
    • Frostbite :
    • Cold climates
      • Ice crystals form inside and rupture. This results in the body’s cells being destroyed.
      • The area affected usually goes purple/red, blisters and fills with blood.
      • When this happens, the body part generally has to be amputated to stop the infection from spreading.
    • Cold climates
      • Hypothermia: When the core body temperature drops below 35 °C or lower.
      • How bad an individual’s condition is depends on how low the body temperature drops.
      • If it drops below 30°C, both the cardiac and respiratory system can fail.
    • Hypothermia:
      • Mild – 32.2 - 35°C
      • Moderate – 26.6 – 32.2°C
      • Severe – less than 26.6°C
    • Effects of the cold on the CNS
      • Mild – Agitation and shivering
      • Moderate – Confused but able to speak; shivering stops.
      • Severe – pupils now also dilated; then individual slips into a coma.