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Subang parade b.service

  1. 1.         RESEARCH REPORT ON BUILDING SERVICES of SUBANG PARADE, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.         Tutor: MR SANJAY     0302966 0303127 0303646 0316922 0302970 0303128 LEE YIANG SIANG LING TECK ONG POH WEI KEAT ALEX CHUNG KA SENG LEE CHEE SIONG ZERROX TAN AIK KAH
  2. 2. Table of Contents   1.0 Introduction 1.1 Abstract 1.2 Acknowledgement 2.0 Air Conditioning System 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Literature Review 2.2.1 Central Plant System 2.2.2 Cooling System 2.2.3 Air-Handling Units (AHU) 2.2.4 Fan Coil Units (FCU) 2.3 Case Study 2.3.1 Introduction 2.3.2 Cooling Tower 2.3.3 Chilled Water System 2.3.4 Air-Handling Units (AHU Room) 2.3.5 Fan Coil Units (FCU) 2.3.6 Diffusers 2.3.7 Duct System 2.3.8 Pipe System 2.4 Analysis 2.5 Conclusion 3.0 Fire Safety System 3.1 Literature Review 3.2 Aim 3.2.1 Education 3.2.2 Passive Fire Protection 3.2.3 Active Fire Protection 3.3 Active Fire Protection 3.3.1 Smoke Detector 3.3.2 Fire Control Room 3.3.3 Manual Pull Station 3.3.4 Fireman Intercom Station 3.3.5 Fire Alarm 3.3.6 Manual Call Point 3.3.7 Non-Water Based System 3.3.8 Classification and Use 3.3.9 Automatic Sprinkler System 3.3.10 Typical Deluge System 3.3.11 Water Based System 3.3.12 Fire Pump Room 3.4 Passive Fire Protection System 3.4.1 Emergency Exit Signage 3.4.2 Fire Escape Door 3.4.3 Door Closer- 3.4.4 Fire Escape Staircase 3.4.5 Railings 3.5 Conclusion 4.0 Electrical System 4.1 Intoduction 4.2 Literature Review 4.2.1 Power Transmission   4.2.2 Devices 4.3 Case Study   4.3.1 Electrical Distribution System   4.3.2 High Voltage, Transformer Room & Low Voltage Room   4.3.3 High Tension Switch Gear   4.3.4 Raceway, Conductor Electrical Riser   4.3.5 Back Up System 4.4 Analysis 4.5 Conclusion 5.0 Water Supply System 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Literature Review 5.3 Case Study   5.3.1 Water Storage   5.3.2 Water Supply   5.3.3 Fire-Flow Requirements   5.3.4 Pump Systems   5.3.5 Cold Water Systems   5.3.6 Piping-   5.3.7 Maintenance 5.4 Analysis 5.5 Conclusion 6.0 Wastewater Disposal System 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Literature Review 6.3.1 Sanitary Appliances 6.3.2 Traps 6.3.3 Sump 6.3.4 Stack 6.3.5 Septic Tank 6.3.6 Manholes 6.3.7 Drainage
  3. 3. 6.3.8 Insulation 6.4 Analysis 6.5 Conclusion 7.0 Mechanical Transportation System 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Literature Review 7.3 Elevators   7.3.1 Case Study   7.3.2 Geared Traction Elevator   7.3.3 Plunger Hydraulic Elevator   7.3.4 Elevator Car Control   7.3.5 Requirements of Elevators   7.3.6 Special Considerations 7.4Escalators 7.4.1 Case Study   7.4.2 Escalator Arrangement   7.4.3 Location   7.4.4 Size, Speed, Capacity and Rise   7.4.5 Components   7.4.6 Safety Features   7.4.7 Fire Protection   7.5 Conclusion 8.0 References   
  4. 4. Subang Parade was the first ‘regional’ shopping centre in Selangor when it was opened in 1988. The centre is located in the heart of Subang Jaya’s commercial district, a township 25 minutes drive from Kuala Lumpur. Subang Parade's positioning strategy is neighbourhood focused, with an emphasis on its primary trade area. This market focus provides the centre with a captive customer base, whose needs are met by a tenant mix offering value and convenience. In 2011, the introduction of a cinema has further enhanced the tenant mix of the centre, bringing us closer to our purpose in meeting customers' needs. Subang Parade's refurbishment was recognised by the International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC) with a Silver Award for Development & Design at the 2008 ICSC Asia Awards. Subang Parade remains the largest shopping centre in Subang Jaya. 1.0 INTRODUCTION
  5. 5. 1.1 ABSTRACT The research report will be looking into the workings of the services system in the Subang Parade such as the Air conditioning and ventilation systems, Fire safety systems, Electricity supply system, Water supply system and the Sewerage system. The report will aim at introducing the fundamentals of all the mentioned systems as well as an analysis of the system and the advantages and disadvantages that have been analyzed and synthesized to our own understanding and also based on the regulations of buildings and its services such as Uniform Building By Law and also Malaysian Standards. Requirements and adherence will also be analyzed based on each services respected controlling arm. 1.2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to extend our gratitude to each individual that has helped and assisted us to complete this research report which without your involvement, this report would be insufficient and unsatisfactory. A special thanks we would like to give to Mr. Sanjay for guiding us through each tutorial and providing us with an aim to accomplish. We would also like to thank the staffs at Subang Parade, especially Mr. Rahman for welcoming and giving us an insight into the services system incorporated into the building and also for being patient and understanding of us during our visit there.
  6. 6. 2.0 AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM 2.1 INTRODUCTION This research paper discuss about the Thermal Control of our chosen case study building, Subang Parade Mall through this research, we can learn about the air-conditioning system of the building chosen and have a well and deep-understanding to it. The thermal comfort can be easily achieved once this system had been introduced. Besides, it helps to redraw in the natural air from outside and expel the state air to create better ventilation as well as the air circulation within the building. It is also able to control the temperature and the air purity within the building. In Subang Parade Mall, there is only a mechanical system in a building that provides fresh air. It removes unwanted air from the building. Air- conditioning system in this mall where all the components within the system will be explained in detail. The components of the air-conditioning will be studied based on the following sequence: •  Cooling tower •  Chilled water system •  Air-handling unit (AHU) •  Fan coil unit (FCU) •  Supply air diffusers •  Return air grilles •  Ductwork •  Piping system In accordance with rules and standards are also being investigate. Rules and standards have been set by various bodies to ensure that quality air is provided via the air-conditioning system. The standards used to examine here is MS1525.
  7. 7. 2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW Air-conditioning system is important to improve indoor air quality of a building. air-condition accomplishes four functions at the same time; they are to control air- temperature, control air humidity, air-circulation and air quality. There are many different types of air-conditioning found in the industry and they are usually classified according to how the condenser is being cooled. They are the air-cooled condenser, which uses air to cool the condenser; the water-cooled condenser, which uses water to cool the condenser; the direct expansion, which uses evaporator to cool the air directly.   2.2.1 Central Plant System Central plant system has one central source of conditioned air that is distributed in a network of ductwork. Thus, it is usually used in large buildings as the equipment is bulky. The room air-conditioning units are self-contained package, which are usually positioned in every room to provide cool air. Most air-conditioning system these days in Malaysia uses water-cooled system, which uses cooling tower.   2.2.2 Cooling System All air-systems transfer cool-air from a central plant through the duct system as mentioned above, which then distributes the air specific diffusers and into the individual rooms of the building. Water-cooled system uses chiller plant to produce water that is pumped into fan coil units found in AHU rooms. Heat rejected from room to water is then pumped back into chiller unit where it is rejected by a condenser (water directed from cooling tower). Water is then chilled again and pumped back to the rooms. Diagram 01 Schematic Diagram of Subang Parade Mall Air-conditioning System  
  8. 8. There is another type of cooling system called the direct expansion system (DX system) that generally operates split or multi-split systems. This system is usually used in smaller buildings or residential areas. The refrigerant carries rejected room heats though a dry coil and fan. Then, the refrigerant is compressed into liquid again by the compressor and the cycle repeats. A DX system is a system in which the refrigerant expands directly inside a coil to effect the cooling of the air. ALL-AIR SYSTEM All air-systems transfer cool-air from a central plant through the duct system which then distributes the air specific diffusers and into the individual rooms of the building. It normally comprises the cheapest equipment cost, but is not necessarily easy or cheap. ALL-WATER SYSTEM Water-cooled system uses chiller plant to produce water that is pumped into fan coil units found in AHU rooms. Heat rejected from room to water is then pumped back into chiller unit where it is rejected by a condenser (water directed from cooling tower). Water is then chilled again and pumped back to the rooms. Diagram 01 Flow of all-water air conditioning system  
  9. 9. DIRECT EXPANSION SYSTEM (DX SYSTEM) The DX system generally operates split or multi-split systems. This system is usually used in smaller buildings or residential areas. The refrigerant carries rejected room heats though a dry coil and fan. Then, the refrigerant is compressed into liquid again by the compressor and the cycle repeats. A DX system is a system in which the refrigerant expands directly inside a coil to effect the cooling of the air.   2.2.3 AIR-HANDLING UNITS (AHU) All basic air-handling units have an AHU. The AHU functions to supply constant airflow, draw air in from outside, filter any pollutants, control temperature, and deliver fresh air into the distribution system. AHU is made up of a number of components. There is an electrically driven fan to push the air through the distribution system; another fan is used to extract air from the return ductwork. Then, a filter is used to remove solid pollutant. A cooling coil, found in the AHU, uses cool water that circulates from the chiller plant, cools the air before distributing it to the diffusers. 2.2.4 FAN COIL UNITS (FCU) Fan coil units are also found in the air-conditioning system, it acts similar to an induction system. The difference is that the fan coil unit replaces the induction unit. The fan coil consists of finned-tube coil and a fan section. The fan section circulates air continuously though the coils. The coils are constantly supplied with cool water.
  10. 10. 2.3 CASE STUDY 2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The Subang Parade Mall is a huge shopping mall located at Subang area; due to the building size, it utilizes a general central air- conditioning system. This system is very appropriate for big buildings as it is efficient in providing high cooling loads, which needs to be cooled at all times (Eg. Shopping malls, hospitals). This system works by distributing cool air to all areas via a duct system, then to a complex plan of diffusers form specific AHU rooms found in a building. The desired temperature of building can be controlled in the AHU rooms. If one specific AHU unit fails to work, the whole designated area for that particular AHU would fail as well. The quantity of AHU in each floors are suggested by the built up area and the users as well. In this case of the Subang Parade Mall, 6 AHU are found in each floors. Instead of an air-cooled system or direct expansion system explained under literature review, the Subang Parade Mall uses the Central Air-conditioning system. The main components of Central Air-conditioning system are cooling tower, chiller units, AHU, duct system and diffusers. Chiller unit is a device used to remove heat from liquid through the absorption refrigerant cycle. The condenser used in this particular case of Subang Parade Mall is called the Water Cooled Condenser. Cooling tower located at the rooftop functions to cool the water pumped by the condenser. Condenser transfers the heat inside chiller plant to water. The water will then be cooled and the cycle will be repeated.
  11. 11. CENTRAL AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM 2.3.2 COOLING TOWER Cooling towers are devices that extract heat out to the atmosphere from the hot water and the cooled water will send back to chiller. In Subang Parade Mall, there are 6 cooling towers that located on the roof top level of the building (see Diagram 03) to enhance pressure of water flow and was not covered by roof to maximize its efficiency. But there is one cooling tower break down and have not repair yet during our visit. The type of cooling towers used in Subang Parade Mallis the packaged cooling towers which are pre-assembled in factory by Nihon Spindle. Packaged cooling tower are compact units but the capacity of it is limited. Due to the limited capacity of the packaged cooling tower, it is only used for buildings with low heat rejection requirements such as hospitals, hotels and office buildings like Subang Parade Mall . Diagram 03 Cooling Tower Location  
  12. 12. Besides that, the cooling towers used in Subang Parade Mallare the mechanical draft cross flow cooling tower. Cooling rates of mechanical draft towers depend upon their fan diameter and speed of operation and can be adjusted based on the needs of the building. In this type of cooling towers, the condensed water is pumped from chiller room at level LG 2 to the top of the cooling tower and falls downward over the fill. The air, however, is introduced at the side either on one side (single-flow tower) or opposite sides (double-flow tower) and the latter is used in Subang Parade Mallto maximize heat transfer between water and air in order to cool down the air. An induced draft fan draws the atmosphere air across the wetted fill and expels the hot air through the top of the structure. The basin at the bottom of the cooling tower collects all the cooled water and transfer back to the chiller room (see Diagram 03). Diagram 04 Cooling Tower Diagram   According  to  MS  1525  code  8.8:     “The  system  design  should  provide  means  for  balancing  the  air  and  water  system  such  as  but   not  limited  to  dampers,  temperature  and  pressure  test  connecCons  and  balancing  valves.”    
  13. 13. 2.3.3 Chilled Water System Subang Parade Mall utilizes water cooled chillers, whereby heat is transferred via cool water from chiller plant, AHU, as well as the cooling tower. Chilled water system is usually found in big buildings because of its efficiency and size as water cooled chillers are compact and require very limited space. The chiller plant room is located at level basement Services room as the operation of chillers are noisy and may disturb the users in the building. There are 7 chillers in the plant room: 4 big chillers and 3 small chillers. The big chillers will function in pair and alternative on weekday while the small chillers will be operate on weekend or there is emergency break down on one of the big chillers. The chillers are connected to AHU of each floors to circulate the chilled water, as well as connected to the cooling towers which are located at the roof to circulate the condensed water. The circulation for both chilled water and condensed water are supported by respective pumps to maximize efficiency and thus can run simultaneously. Chilled-water system uses chilled water to transport heat energy between the refrigerants and the AHU room. The warm refrigerant that has been sent back from the AHU rooms is cooled by the chilled water from the Cooling Tower. Then, the chilled water is transfer back to the Cooling Tower as it has now gain heat energy. Besides, the condensing water acts just like the Cooling Tower to cool the mechanical equipment in Chiller room. Diagram 04 Chiller  
  14. 14. According to MS 1525 code 8.11.1: “Chiller water pumps circulating chilled water through the piping system external to the package, and cooling tower pumps and fans circulating water or air through the condenser and cooling tower are not to be included in the consideration of the COP for the component” EVAPORATOR The evaporator is the heat exchanger where the heat is removed from the system by the boiling of the refrigerant in the evaporator .Refrigerant flows over evaporator tube bundle and evaporates, removing heat energy from the water, thus the water is being chilled and circulates back to the AHU. However, this process causes the refrigerant to evaporate into vapour as it gains heat from the air. The refrigerant vapour is drawn out of the evaporator by a compressor that “pumps” the vapor to the condenser. Diagram 05 Evaporator  
  15. 15. COMPRESSOR The refrigerant vapour will then be drawn into the compressor. The compressor is needed to converse this low pressure and low temperature gaseous refrigearant into high pressure, high-temperature gas. Then the vapour will be compressed by increasing the pressure and the temperature of the vapour to a level that is required which is typically 98°F and then flows into the condenser. CONDENSER The condenser is also the heat exchanger where the refrigerant gas condenses, giving up its heat to the atmosphere(refer to Diagram 2.3.4). The cold water that cooled in cooling towers is transferred to condenser to absorb heat from the hot refrigerant gas. This caused the hot gas in the condenser to be condensed and turned back into liquid form and being transferred to the evaporator. Meanwhile, the heat transferred the cold water becomes hot water and is circulated back to the cooling tower to be cooled. Diagram 06 Condenser  
  16. 16. REFRIGERANT The type of refrigerant used in the chiller is known as R-22 or HCFC-22 or Chlorodifluoromethane as it is less damaging compared to other refrigerants such as CFC and R-11. R-22 is widely used in refrigerant systems either in residential or commercial. CONDENSER & CHILLED WATER PUMP There is two types of pump in the chilled water system: condenser pump and chilled water pump. The condenser pump channels the hot condensed water to the cooling tower and then returns back the cold condensed water into the condenser. The chilled water pump pumps the chilled water to every AHU room and it also returns the warm chilled water to the chiller so that it can be chilled. Diagram 07 Condenser Water Pump (CWP)   Diagram 08 Chilled Water Distribution Pump  
  17. 17. CONTROL PANELS The control panels controls all the processes and can adjust manually by the technicians in the chiller plant room. The control panels also indicate the temperatures and pressure of each of the chiller. Diagram 09 Control Panel  
  18. 18. 2.3.4 AIR-HANDLING UNIT (AHU ROOM) The AHU room (Air-Handling Unit) is a room that can be found in every floor of Subang Parade Mall and each floor has 6 AHU rooms. So many AHU are needed due to building’s size and complexity as well as the air flow requirements. As the name AHU (Air-Handling Unit) suggest, the main function of AHU is to handle the airflow within the entire building. The air is draw back from the office units, let it pass through the cooling coils, mix with fresh air and then channel back to the office units. The system for this is called the constant airflow system. This means the temperature of airflow will not vary and the AHU is able to provide cool air at the specific temperature. The temperature can be adjusted with a controlled panel found in the AHU (see Diagram 10). Since it is a central air-conditioning system, the temperature is constant throughout the entire building; hence different temperature for each room cannot be adjusted. The AHU are all enclosed in rooms specifically designed for AHU only. In order to protect AHU and other components in it from external forces or pressure, it is place inside a room, in a form of enclosure. This room of enclosure ensures compactness and it protects the components within it. Diagram 10 Air Handling-Unit   According  to  MS  1525  code  8.6,  Air  handling  duct  system  insulaCon:     “All  ducts,  plenums  and  enclosures  installed  in  or  on  buildings  should  be  adequately   insulated  to  prevent  excessive  energy  losses.  AddiConal  insulaCon  with  vapour  barriers   may  be  required  to  prevent  condensaCon  under  some  condiCons.”    
  19. 19. AIR FILTER Air returning from the rooms enters the air grilles and then transfers to air ionizer before to the air filter. Ionizer  use charged electrical surfaces to generate electrically charged air and removes the dirt, impurities and unwanted contaminations in the air. This helps to improve the air quality. After air passes the air ionizer, it then moves to air filter before the cooling coil as to ensure the cleanliness of air as well as a protection for the downstream components. FAN There are two fans in an AHU room: fan that blow air to go through cooling coil and supply fan that blow air into the supply duct. COOLING COIL Cooling coil is made with copper pipes; it is coiled up to increase its surface area to maximize the heat transfer within the air. Heat is taken away from the mixed air upon contact with cooling coil. The cooling coil is attached to chilled water pipe transferred from the chiller plant via a blue pipe as to cool down the mixed air. Diagram 11 Air Filter  
  20. 20. Mixing Box This is where the cool air is mixed with the fresh air. The damper controls by manipulate the ratio of fresh air and recycled air while exhausting part of the recycled air. When the air sensor detects more than 500pm carbon dioxide in the return air from office unit, the system will be activate automatic and intake the fresh air from the roof and surroundings of the building so that the air in the building can be refresh. 2.3.5 Fan Coil Units (FCU) Fan coil units (FCU) are small units, which are usually piped with chilled water for cooling. FCU uses chilled water instead of refrigerant and it is ceiling mounted. FCU is similar to inducting system, with the inducting unit replaced by the fan-coil. The basic components found in a FCU are a finner-tube and a fan section. The fan functions to recalculates air continuously, from the coil that is supplied with cool water. Fan coil units system is similar to AHU but in a smaller scale and the fan speed can be controlled. FCU are normally used for small spaces. As for the Subang Parade Mall , the computer server room is the only room within the building that uses FCU. This is because the server of the room needs continuous cooling for 24 hours. Diagram 12 Fan Coil Units (FCU)  
  21. 21. 2.3.6 DIFFUSERS SUPPLY AIR DIFFUSERS Diffusers are designed to distribute equal amount of air into the rooms of Subang Parade Mall . Diffusers do not require any generation of power and it improves the efficiency of the entire air-conditioning system by dividing the distribution of air form AHU rooms. Diffusers give the users a comfortable environment constantly by removing any areas with heat and providing uniform distribution of heat. At the Subang Parade Mall , there are 2 main types of diffusers being applied which are directional square diffuser and linear slot diffuser. Most of the diffusers are found on the floor of offices and some are mounted on ceiling in public-use spaces like corridor, cafeteria and etc. The size of both type diffusers for this case is same throughout, however the number of diffusers on each floor depends on the area that needs to be covered with air-conditions. The air diffusers work by capturing the air from fan at the AHU and splitting air into smaller streams forcefully. Tiny streams will allow air to flow smoothly and evenly throughout the room. RETURN AIR GRILLES Return Air Grille functions to carry the air back to the specific area in AHU room. The return air grille is covered with grillwork to cover up the duct behind it. It is also to avoid big objects from entering the duct and damaging the AHU. A filter can also be found behind the grille to trap pollutant, which can reduce the maintenance level. Unlike the diffusers, the return air grilles are placed at the ceilings of Subang Parade Mall. It works just like a pump; a fan behind the grille sucks out warm air from the space as well. The return air grilles are larger than the diffusers, but lesser in numbers. As one can see in Diagram 13, the number of return air grilles are much more lesser than the supply air diffusers.
  22. 22. Diagram 13 Return Air Grill  
  23. 23. 2.3.7 DUCT SYSTEM Duct system functions to carry cooled air from AHU into the rooms of the building via a diffuser. The duct used for this building is made of galvanized steel because this material has good insulation qualities. This is to make sure the air remains cool while it is being transferred into the diffuser. A blower or fan is also installed within the duct to help circulate movement of air. 2.3.8 PIPE SYSTEM There are pipes in the AHU room, which are connected to the chiller plant room. This pipe brings in cool water for the cooling coil to cool the air, which will later on be distributed to the users via the diffuser. ‘MS 1525:8.5 Piping insulation: All piping installed to serve buildings and within building should be adequately insulated to prevent excessive energy looses. Additional insulation with vapour barriers may be required to prevent condensation under some conditions.’ Diagram 15 Pipe in AHU line   Diagram 14 Pipe in AHU line  
  24. 24. 2.4 ANALYSIS Indoor Air Quality According to MS1525: 2007 Indoor Design Conditions Section 13a “At normal comfort room temperature (23 to 26°c), the acceptable air velocity would be in the region of 0.15 to 0.5 m/s. The indoor design conditions of an air-conditioned space for comfort cooling is recommended to have dry bulb of 23 to 26°c. The recommended design relative humidity is 55-70%. The recommended air movement is 0.15 to 0.5 m/s. According to Department of Malaysian Standards, the maximum air movement is 0.7m/s. “ From the analysis of our case study, Subang Parade Mall , it is true that the building complies with thermal control requirements stated in MS1525. Dry bulb temperature is constantly set at 25°c to fulfill the requirement, as well as for the comfort of mall user and workers..   Air Distribution System According to MS1525: 2007 Separate air distribution system “Zones which are expected to operate non-simultaneously for more than 750 hours per year shall be served by independent air conditioning systems.” According to the Department of Malaysian Standards, zones, which are expected to operate, should be served by separate air distribution system. To comply with this requirement, the Subang Parade Mall , the offices operate non-simultaneously for more than 750 hours per year by using the air distribution system.    
  25. 25. ACCORDING TO MS1525: 2007 Off-hour Control “ACMV system should be equipped with automatic controls capable of  accomplishing a reduction of energy use for example through equipment shutdown during periods of non-use or alternative use of the spaces served by the system.” The Subang Parade Mall only schedules to open during office hours. The ACMV system turn off automatically shut down after office hours to prevent waste of energy.   Temperature control. “Each system should be provided with at least one thermostat for the regulation of temperature. Each thermostat should be capable of being set by adjustment or selection of sensors over a minimum range of between 22°C to 27°C.” The Subang Parade Mall has a thermostat at the top floor to measure temperature of building. Hence the temperature is always at a average of 23°C.
  26. 26. 2.5 CONCLUSION In conclusion, using a centralized air-conditioning system is best appropriate for the Subang Parade Mall, because of this large scale of commercial shopping space. The components of the air-conditioning system such as AHU, Chiller plant and cooling tower were placed at appropriate levels. This helps the system to run smoothly and save great amount of energy at the same time.  The building complies with the by-law in terms of air- distribution, off-hour control and temperature-control. This has contributed to the comfort and efficiency the air conditioning system within the building.  Subang Parade Mall with this centralized air- conditioning system can maintain by certain thermal comfort temperature and generate with energy efficiency achieve the best ventilation solution for this large scale mall.
  27. 27. 3.0 ACTIVE AND PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION. 3.1 LITERATURE REVIEW Fire is defined as the results of the chemical reaction called combustion. In which substances combine chemically with oxygen from the air and typically give out bright light, heat, and smoke. The basic factors of a fire triangle are fuel, heat and oxygen, together with the chemical reaction between one another. Fire is a visible, tangible side effect of matter changing form. It starts in three main ways, by accidents due to the misuse of appliances, dropping a cigarette or match on a sofa or mattress, the deliberate ignition or arson by certain people within the space and lastly, the failure of equipment including electrical malfunctions and overheating in certain rooms. The temperatures achieved in fires are usually beyond the ability of building cooling systems t o control. Thus, special water system is fixed in the form of sprinklers to deprive fire of high temperatures. Another design responses are to install fire suppression system to cover the fuel, or displace oxygen, O2 with carbon dioxide, CO2 that inhibits the chemical action to flame itself.     3.2 AIM   The rudiment aim of passive and active fire protection systems is to prevent the spread of fire and smoke from one space to another space of building, allowed dweller to escape safely without the any fire menace. It enable to reduce and control the building damage as well from fire hazard even neighbor building and reduce the risk of emergency system collapse.   -Education -Passive fire protection -Active fire protection  
  28. 28. 3.2.1 EDUCATION   Education is important for operator in mastering skills in term of emergency precautions of that building. The function of active and passive fire protection system in fire hazard, the blind angle of this system and also the weak point and strong point of the covered area are those important study has to include in teaching objective. The dweller and owner have right to understand all the safety security system code on plan works when fire hazard and fire escape plan should be provide.   3.2.2 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION Passive Fire protection (PFP) is one of the components of structural fire protection, which provide existing fire safety to the building and do not rely on the operation of any form of mechanical device. It is to maintain the rudiment requirements of building fire separation, structural stability, building compartmentation and safety escape. For instance, passive systems in the form of fire rated doors, barrier, ceilings and structural fire protection. Passive fire protection system provided an alternative way to slow down the fire spread when incident happen by make use of fire protection tools on site. Passive design are always designed with the building which included the fire water, fire walls, escape route, emergency access and opening protection. Passive fire protection is only effective for short duration exposure about 1-2 hours.
  29. 29. 3.2.3 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION   Active fire protection system widely used in the process industries for protection in the form of suppression, extinguishers, sprinkler, alarm and extract ventilation. There are always on alert and first to act in case of fire. The overall aim of active system is to extinguish the fire by:   •  Detecting the fire early and evacuate the building. •  Alerting emergency services at an early stage of the fire. •  Control the movement of smoke and fire. •  Suppress and/or starve the fire of oxygen and fuel. (NAFFCO, 2004)   This system includes automatic, or manual operation systems such as, water- based system, non-water based system, fire alarm systems, fireman intercom system and smoke control system. These systems are crucial in protecting properties and the lives of the occupants. Active fire protection system includes the action of retarding the progress of fire spread, putting out the fire, or being notified of fire happenings and smoke conditions. The most popular type of automatic sprinkler system under water-based system is by using water to put out or slow down the progress of a fire. Some other examples of the water-based system are hydrant system, hose reel system and wet riser system. Some examples of non-water based active fire protection systems that can help to extinguish a fire are CO2 automatic sprinkler system, foam and chemical system. These systems are most likely being used in places where water is not advisable against firefighting, such as transformer room in certain shopping malls where it contained such high voltage of electrical devices. Alternatively, manual active fire protection that requires human operation such as the use of fire extinguishers, this is only advisable during an occurrence of a small fire. Besides that, active fire protection also includes the fire alarm system and smoke control system. These are vitally important to protect life and to ensure a quick fire department response. Generally, smoke control systems consist of smoke
  30. 30. detecting devices being placed throughout a building that detect the smoke and heat from a fire. These detectors are extremely sensitive and can notify the occupants of a building of danger with plenty of time to get out of the building and call for help, meanwhile notify the fire department automatically, which is very useful especially during night times when the buildings are not under guarded.   ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION Active fire protection system is a system widely used in the process industries for protection. There are always on alert and first to act in case of fire. The overall aim of active system is to extinguish the fire by: •  Detecting the fire early and evacuate the building. •  Alerting emergency services at an early stage of the fire. •  Control the movement of smoke and fire. •  Suppress and/or starve the fire of oxygen and fuel. (NAFFCO, 2004)   3.3 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION 3.3.1 SMOKE DETECTOR Smoke detector is a typically as an indicator of fire and is one of the important safety tools to detect smoke and heat while fire in the building. Smoke detectors usually powered by a central fire alarm system, which is powered with a battery backup. When heat sensation reaches the fixed temperature it will send a signal to master plan while the surroundings temperature reaches 47°C. For the installation of smoke detector, it has a laser sensor inside, while the smokes flew in and lower down the detection of laser. It will be activated and sent signal to master panel.  
  31. 31. Analysis Under UBBL 1984 section153: Smoke detectors for lift lobbies. • All lift lobbies shall be provided with smoke detectors. • Lift not opening into a smoke lobby shall not use door. • Reopening devices controlled by light beam or photo detectors unless incorporated with a force close features which after thirty second of any unless incorporated with a force close feature which are thirty seconds of any interruption of the beam causes the door to close within a preset-time. There are two types of smoke detector commonly found in the market that are photoelectric smoke detector and ionization smoke detector. Figure above shown the photoelectric smoke detector used in Subang Parade. Figure 2. : Sensing chamber in a photoelectric smoke detector that smoke reflected light to activate the detector. Source:
  32. 32. Photoelectric smoke detector is generally more responsive to fires that begin with a long period of combustion with smoke but without flame. The detector works when smoke reflecting the straight light from light source on to the sensing chamber to trigger the alarm shown in Figure 2. Photoelectric Smoke Detector 1.  Optical chamber 2.  Cover 3.  Case molding 4.  Photodiode (detector) 5.  Infrared LED 3.3.2 FIRE CONTROL ROOM Fire Control Room at ground floor
  33. 33. According to the guidelines, the fire control room have to meet the requirement of the building that has an effective height of more than 50m and shall be separated from the rest of the building by two hour fire rated elements of structure.   Analysis UBBL 1984 section 238:- Command and Control Centre Every large premises or building exceeding 30.5 meters in height shall be provided with a command and control center located on the designated floor and shall contain a panel to monitor the public address, fire bridge communication, sprinkler, water flow detectors, fire detection and alarm systems and with a direct telephone connection to the appropriate fire station by passing the switchboard. Therefore, the Subang Parade meets the requirement that the fire control room is located at ground floor near the lift lobby and staircase as it has 4 stories including the car parks located at basement and one lower ground floor above. There are 2 guard observing the control room continuously and begin to manage an appropriate action when there are any signal form the detectors come directly to the control unit.
  34. 34. Figure above shown the example of fire control room in Subang Parade (as we are not allowed to take photo inside.) Source: http:// suite-control-room.480.321.s.jpg T h e s i t e h a s a d i r e c t communication system to the nearest firefighting station to allow for immediate warnings to take place shown in figure 5. Figure 5: Digital Alarm Communicator link directly to the Nearest Jambatan Bomba. The general requirements for fire control room are as follows. It should: • Have a minimum floor area of 10m². Can be larger depending on the equipment required. • Location near the main entrance or exit to the building’s main lobby in a designated room. • Preferably be adjacent to a fire lift lobby or any other location as designated by the relevant authority. • Be accessible via two path of travel. One from the front entrance and the other form a public place or fire-isolated passageway, which leads to a public place has a two hour fire rated door. • Have an independent air handing system if mechanical ventilation is provided throughout the building. • Be adequately illuminated to not less than 400 lux. • Provide the ability to communicate (e.g. via telephones and loudspeakers) with all parts of the building, and with fire and other emergency services. • Be provided with insulation form ambient building noise. • Be under the control of the Chief Fire Warden (or similar appointed person).
  35. 35. 3.3.3 MANUAL PULL STATION Manual pull and key switch box normally located near HT sub station and gen set room. While the room is on fire, ones can straight activate the key switch or pull box. Figure 3.3.3 a: Key Switch Box Found in the fire Control Room   3.3.4 FIREMAN INTERCOM SYSTEM Fire intercom system provides a communication between the Master Console, or commonly known as Fire Command Centre and the remote Handset Stations. The system consists of a remote handset station and Master control panel which is normally installed at the Fire Control Room. The Intercom handset stations are located at staircases of each floor in Subang Parade. At the Master control panel, a call alert lamp shall flash with audible signal when there is incoming call. Upon lifting the handset, the audible signal will be silenced. The master control panel is also equipped with a fault indicator unit to indicate the type of fault, see Figure Figure.3.3.4b: Emergency and EWIS is equipped in Subang Parade fire control room.
  36. 36. Figure above shown a telephone connected directly to the external exchange. 3.3.5 FIRE ALARM There are two types of fire alarm mechanisms that need to be installed in the building to notify people in the building that there may be a fire and need to be evacuated. The two types of mechanisms for fire alarm are the fire emergency light and fire alarm bell. According to UBBL 1984, Section 237: 1)  Fire alarms shall be provided in accordance with the Tenth Schedule to these by-laws. 2)  All premises and building with gross floor area excluding car park and storage area exceeding 9290 square meters or exceeding 30.5m in height shall be 3)  provided with a two-stage alarm system with evacuation (continuous signal) to be given immediately in the affected section of the premises while an alert 4)  (intermittent signal) be given adjoining section. 5)  Provision shall be made for the general evacuation of the premises by action of a master control. According to UBBL 1984, Section 155: 1. The fire mode of operation shall be initiated by a signal from the fire alarm panel which may be activated automatically by one of the alarm devices in the building or manually.
  37. 37. 2. If mains power is available all lifts shall return in sequence directly to the designated floor, commencing with the fire lifts, without answering any car or landing calls, overriding the emergency stop button inside the car, but not any other emergency or safety devices, and park with doors open. 3. The fire lifts shall then be available for use by the fire brigade on operation of the fireman’s switch. 4. Under this mode of operation, the fire lift shall only operate in response to car calls but not to landing calls in a mode of operation in accordance with by-law154. 5. In the event of mains power failure, all lift shall return in sequence directly to the designated floor and operate under emergency power as described under paragraphs 2 and 4. According to UBBL 1984, Section 255: 1. Every building shall be provided with means of detecting and extinguishing fire and with fire alarms together with illuminated exit signs in accordance with the requirements as specified in the Tenth Schedule to these by-laws.
  38. 38. The fire alarm mechanisms also apply to the Subang Parade that has 982,000 square feet. In order to make the Subang Parade to be more effective way of fire safety, a fire alarm system is set up to alert the occupants thought noise, light or both at the same time. As mentioned, there are two types od fire alarm mechanisms sued to install that are fire emergency light and fire alarm bell. The figure above shown the fire emergency light, control panel box, alarm box and emergency break glass had been installed in front of transformer room. Emergency light is to alert people in building through light and sound. This mechanism is effective for people whom are deaf or poor hearing that could not be able to hear the fire alarm bell instead they might notice the fire emergency light in order for them to evacuate. The light in green showed normal situation as for the red light showed fire in order for people to evacuate. The emergency light usually installed in a common area for immediate and effective way for people to evacuate or to escape.
  39. 39. 3.3.6 ALARM BELL Alarm bell also named as alarm sounder shown in figure below. Functionally in manual or automatic as well as by breaking down the glass of manual call point. If a smoker detector detects smoke or heat or someone operates a manual call point, then alarm bell will operate to alert other in the building that there may be a fire and to evacuate. It may also incorporate remote signaling equipment, which would alert the fire brigade via Subang Parade. Diagram: Fire Alarm Bell Found in Lift Lobby Diagram: Fire Alarm Bell Found in Lift Lobby
  40. 40. 3.3.6 MANUAL CALL POINT A manual call point also called as an emergency break glass is a device that enables the occupants to raise the alarm by breaking the frangible element on the fascia. Most of the manual call points mounted 1.4m from the floor and installed where they can be easily seen especially on the floor and installed where they can be easily seen especially on floor landings of stairways and at exists to open air. Most importantly, the manual call points should be installed on the floor side of an access door to a staircase so the floor of origins indicated at the control panel. Extra call points should be installed, where necessary, so that the greatest travel distance from any point in the building to the nearest call point does not exceed 30m. A greater number of call point maybe needed in high risk areas or if the occupant are likely to be slow in movement.                    Diagram:  Fire  Alarm  with  Break  Glass     Automated processes triggered by fire alarms a. When the Fire alarm goes off in any zone, all fire shutters and fire curtains will fall within 5 minutes. b. When the smoke detector is activated, it will trigger the fire alarm in the zone, which will then trigger the fire shutters and fire curtains. c. When the sprinklers in any zone are activated, the fire alarms in that zone will be automatically triggered, and the rest of the automated process subsequently triggered.
  41. 41. 3.3.7  Non-­‐Water  Based  System   Carbon  Dioxide  System    Carbon  dioxide  system  is  widely  used  in  every  household,  commercial  buildings  because  of   its   effecAveness   to   hold   down   igniAon   of   potenAally   flammable   mixtures   and   exAnguish   fires   involving   flammable   liquids   or   gases.   Although   CO2,   inert   gases   certainly   help   exAnguish   fire   by   displacing  oxygen,  they  are  even  more  effecAve  by  acAng  as  a  heat  sink,  absorbing  combusAon   energy.  CO2  is  stored  in  cylinders  as  a  liquid  under  great  pressure.  It  does  not  conduct  electricity   and  will  not  normally  damage  sensiAve  electronic  equipment.  In  Subang  Parade,  such  system  is   used  in  the  transformer  room  instead  of  water-­‐based  sprinkler  system.                         Diagram:  CO2  cylindrical  tanks  located     in  the  transformer  room                      Diagram:  Gas  ExAnguisher  Diagram     d. There a 2 stage Alarm System with evacuation (continuous signal) given immediately in the affected section of the premises while an alert (intermittent signal) is given in the adjoining section. e. When there is a fire alarm all lifts return to the designated floors, without answering any car or landing calls f. When there is a fire alarm, the fire lift only responds to car calls.
  42. 42. Portable Fire Extinguisher A fire extinguisher, flame extinguisher, or simply an extinguisher, is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations. Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel containing an agent, which can be discharged to extinguish a fire. Basically, the fire extinguisher can be found at all the floors, to be specific besides every fire escape doors and hose reel rooms and almost every corner that easy to reach in Subang Parade. Diagram: Portable Fire Extinguisher Used in Subang Parade                    Diagram:  Compartment  of  Portable  Fire  ExAnguisher    
  43. 43. PLACEMENT Most of the Fire Extinguishers are located in the Hose Reel Closets and the Wet and Dry Risers. For aesthetic reasons the Fire Extinguishers are not immediately visible, though they are located near enough to Fire exits, in ‘concealed’ Fire Hose Reel closets, which are located in close proximity to the Fire Exit Doors, and along the Fire Escape paths.                        LocaCon  of  Portable  Fire  ExAnguisher    
  44. 44.                        LocaCon  of  Portable  Fire  ExAnguisher    
  45. 45. According to UBBL Law 1984, Section 227: Portable Fire Extinguisher shall be provided in accordance with relevant codes of practice and shall be sited in prominent position on exit routes to be visible from all direction and similar extinguishers in a building shall be of the same method of operation. The type of fire extinguisher that Subang Parade uses throughout the building is dry powder extinguisher. Portable Fire extinguishers installed are primarily of Dry Powder variety, which can extinguish majority of classes of fire: Diagram: Table of Classes of Fire and Travel Distance Fire  Class     ProperAes   Travel  Distance   Class  A   Solid  material  of  organic  nature  with   formaAon  of  glowing  ambers  (e.g.  paper,   wood)   75  S.  (22.9m)   Class  B   Liquid  or  liquefiable  solids  (e.g.  petrol,   kerosene,  diesel)   50  S.  (15.2m)   Class  C   Gases  (e.g.  Oxygen,  Carbon  Monoxide)   Based  on  A  or  B  Hazard   Class  D   Metals  (e.g.  Sodium,  Potassium,   Magnesium)   75  S.     Class  E   Electrical  equipment   -­‐   Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that employers select and distribute fire extinguishers based on the classes of anticipated workplace fires and also on the size and degree of the hazards, which would affect their use. The above chart contains OSHA requirements for classes of fires and travel distance to an extinguisher. There is no distance requirement for Class K extinguishers. They are typically placed at the point of possible cooking fire ignition.
  46. 46. A  Class  B  fire  exAnguisher  is  used  for  flammable  liquid  and  gas  fires   such  as  oil,  gasoline,  etc.  ExAnguishers  that  are  suitable  for    Class  B   fires  should  be  idenAfied  by  a  square  containing  the  le[er  “B”  in  red.   A  Class  C  fire  exAnguisher  is  used  on  fires  that  involve  live  electrical   equipment   which   require   the   use   of   electrically   nonconducAve   exAnguishing  agents.  ExAnguishers  that  are  suitable  for  Class  C  fires   should  be  idenAfied  by  a  circle  containing  the  le[er  “C”  in  blue.   A   Class   D   fire   exAnguisher   is   used   on   combusAble   metals   such   as   magnesium,  Atanium,  sodium,  etc.  Class  D  fires  should  be  idenAfied   by  a  five  point  painted  star.  ExAnguishers  that  are  suitable  for  Class  C   should  be  idenAfied  by  a  star  containing  the  le[er  “D”  in  yellow.   A   Class   K   fire   exAnguisher   is   used   on   fires   involving   cooking   media   (fats,   grease   and   oils)   in   commercial   cooking   such   as   restaurants.   These  exAnguishers  are  idenAfied  by  a  polygon  containing  the  le[er   “K”  in  black.   3.3.8 CLASSIFICATION AND USE The  type  of  fire  that  they  will  exAnguish  classifies  fire  exAnguishers.       A  Class  A  fire  exAnguisher  is  used  for  ordinary  combusAbles,  such  as   wood,   paper,   some   plasAcs   and   texAles.   ExAnguisher   should   be   idenAfied  by  a  triangle  containing  the  le[er  “A”  and  triangle  should   be  in  green.  
  47. 47. 3.3.9 AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM Automatic sprinkler system is found in our case study. The sprinkler system was found covered every floor of the building. The dimension between two sprinkler head is 4.2m wide and 3m high, as shown in the diagram below. Sprinkler Tank and Sprinkler Pumps The water for the sprinkler piping system is supplied from a reinforced concrete tank located in basement. The Sprinkler Pump draws water from the sprinkler tank, to distribute the water to the sprinklers. The sprinkler pump comprises an Alarm Cont. Valve, which serves as the jockey pump. It is sensitive to changes in water pressure in the sprinkler piping system. When any sprinkler(s) is activated and water is discharged through the sprinklers in that zone, the pressure in the valve is reduced, triggering the duty pumps to pump water from the Sprinkler Tank. There are a total of 3 pumps to supply water to the sprinkler systems of all zones and levels of each with holding pressure of 120 psi. There is only one jockey pump for all Duty pumps. As long as the sprinklers in any one of the zones have been activated to discharge water, all the Duty pumps will be triggered to pump water from the RC sprinkler tank. Since only the sprinklers in the affected zone have been activated, the rest of the sprinklers will not discharge water, even though the duty pumps connected to the zone have been activated to pump water.                    Diagram:  Sprinkle  Box  Containing  the  Switches    
  48. 48. Pendent Sprinkle Pendant type hangs from the pipeline, its water deflector is placed at the bottom, but water spreads in the same circular pattern as that of an upright sprinkler. When concealed, pendant sprinklers hide under the ceiling under a special cap that falls away when the surrounding temperature rises to a prescribed level. If the temperature continues to rise, the concealed pendant head automatically drops and begins to spray water. Diagram: Rows of Pendent Sprinkles in Subang Parade                    Diagram:  Compartment  of  Pendent  Sprinkle                        Diagram:  Closer  Up  of  Sprinkle    
  49. 49. Upright Sprinkle An upright sprinkler, as its name implies, stands atop the pipeline, whereas a pendant type hangs from the pipe. An upright sprinkler, however, comes with a water deflector at the top so that water coming out of the orifice shoots upward and then spreads in a circular pattern. Upright sprinklers are used mostly in places where obstructions may block water spray during a fire, and their height allows them to aim water around possible obstacles. Diagram: Upright Sprinkle in Subang Parade Disc-­‐supporAng     metal  Cap   Deflector   Metallic  Framed  Body     Water  Discharged  Orifice                      Diagram:  Compartment  of  Upright  Sprinkle                        Diagram:  Closer  Up  of  Upright  Sprinkle    
  50. 50.                    Diagram:  DistribuAon  of  Sprinkle  System     1.  Water  Storage  Tank   2.  Sprinkle  Pump   3.  Pump  Controller  Panel   4.  Pump  Switch   5.  Bu[erfly  Switch   6.  Sprinkle  Head   7.  Sprinkle  Drain                      Diagram:  OperaAon  of  Sprinkle  System    
  51. 51. 3.3.10 TYPICAL DELUGE SYSTEM Diagram: Compartments of Deluge System In deluge system, the arrangement of deluge fire sprinkler system piping is similar to a wet or dry stem with two major differences: A. Standard sprinklers are used, but they are all open. The activating elements have been removed so that when the control valve is opened water will flow from all of the sprinklers simultaneously and deluge the area with water B. The deluge valve is normally closed. The valve is opened by the activation of a separate fire detection system Deluge systems are used where large quantities of water are needed quickly to control a fast-developing fire. Deluge valves can be electrically, pneumatically or hydraulically operated.
  52. 52. Wet Riser Wet Riser also plays important role in putting down fire. In Subang Parade, wet riser is located near the lift lobby and at the emergency staircase in each and every floor. It supplies water from the water tank through wet risers pipes and is distributed to canvas hoses and hose reel at each floor. The pipes supplying water from the tank to the hoses are pressurized at all the time. As mentioned earlier there are three pumps are jockey pump, duty pump and standby pump, located at the pump room which is needed for water to travel from the water tank to the hoses.                        LocaCon  of  Fire  Hose  Reel  
  53. 53.                        LocaCon  of  Fire  Hose  Reel  
  54. 54. Water Tank The firewater storage tank is located at the basement level 1 in the fire pump room. The wet riser system and water sprinkler system uses the same water. The volume of water contained into the tank in sufficient to supply water to the whole building. According to UBBL 1984, Section 247: 1)  Water storage capacity and water flow rate for fire fighting system and installation shall be provided in accordance with the scale as set out in the tenth schedule to these By-laws. 2)  Main water storage tanks within the building, other than for the hose reel system, shall be located at ground, first or second basement levels, with fire brigade pumping inlet connection accessible to fire appliances. 3)  Storage tanks for automatic sprinkle installation where full capacity is provided without the need for replenishment shall be exempted from the restrictions in their location. Diagram: Hose Reel Pump connected to Water Storage Tank
  55. 55. Wet riser, canvas hose and hose reel are found in the two wet riser section of every floor. The canvas hose has a standard size of 65mm diameter with a length of 30m. The canvas hose are pressure at each floor that is control by a landing valve that allows the return of excess pressurized water back to the wet riser tank through a drain pipe. The hose reel in the building uses 30mm diameter with a length of 40m. Unlike the canvas hoses that need a high pressure, the hose reel pipe have a pressure reducer at the end of the wet riser pipe so that the water that send to hose reel will be a lower pressure pipe. But when the valve at the start of the hose reel s open, water comes out at high pressure.                                          Diagram:  Wet  Riser  Pipe  and  Hose  Reel                                                Diagram:  Wet  Riser  Outlet     According to UBBL 1984, Law 248: Marking on wet riser 1) Wet riser, dry riser, sprinkle and other fire installation pipes and fittings shall be painted red. 2) All cabinet and areas recessed in walls for location of fire installations and extinguisher shall be clearly identified to the satisfaction of Fire Authority or otherwise clearly identified. According to UBBL 1984, Law 23: Installation and testing of wet rising system 1)  Wet rising system shall be provided in every building which topmost floor is more 30.5m above the fire appliance access level 2)  A hose connection shall be provided in each fire fighting access lobby 3)  Each wet riser outlet shall comprise standard 63.5mm coupling fitted with a hose of not less than 38.1mm diameter equipped with an approved types cradle and variable fog nozzle.
  56. 56. 3.3.11 WATER BASED SYSTEM External Fire Hydrant Water Hydrant fire-fighting system consists of hydrants connected to same pipeline; the other end of the pipeline is attached to the pumps and water supply tank of the fire fighting room. The fire fighting hydrant line is close loop pipe system to maintain the pressure in the water hydrant fire fighting system. The networks of pipes are located underground. The hydrants are used in case of emergency when there is need for more water. Firemen will connect their equipment to the outlets of the hydrant, forcing water into the system. There are approximately 10 external fire hydrants found around Subang Parade. The distance between the fire hydrant and the building is between 4m to 8m. Fire hydrant is place beside the road so that fire brigade could get easy access to input their hose.                    Diagram:  External  Fire  Hydrant  Diagram                        Diagram:  External  Fire  Hydrant  in  Subang  Parade    
  57. 57.                                                                                              Diagram:  LocaAon  of  Fire  Hydrant  in  Red                                                                                                Diagram:  Hydrant  System  Detail  Drawing   Fire hydrant is located at the boundary of our case study. The type of fire hydrant used is two-way fire hydrant. It is made up of cast iron that could withstand high water pressure. The following diagram shows the location of fire hydrant in Subang Parade.
  58. 58. 3) Standby Pump The standby pump acts as the same function of duty pump. It replaces the function of duty pump when the duty pump does not function as required or is under repair. Standby pump can be manually from the control panel switch off. Pressure Switch The type of pressure switch used in Subang Parade is the alarm pressure switch. In a wet pipe sprinkler system, an alarm pressure switch is typically installed on top of the retard chamber into a one half inch tapped outlet. A time delay is not needed when using a pressure switch because the retard chamber will divert water flowing through the alarm line during pressure surges from the city water supply. A drip valve allows water to drain from the chamber. Alarm pressure switches are pre-set to alarm at 4 to 8 PSI on rising pressure. The pressure setting can be field adjusted to obtain a specific pressure alarm response between 4 and 20 PSI. Diagram:  CirculaAon  of  system  showing  how  the  standby  pump  automaAcally   start  when  the  main  pump  fail    
  59. 59. According to UBBL 1984 Section 226: Where hazardous processes, storage or occupancy are of such character as to require automatic system sprinkles or other automatic extinguishing system, it shall be of a type and standard appropriate to extinguish fire in the hazardous materials stored or handled or for the safety of the occupants. Water supplied to these pump is stored in a reinforced concrete tank found next to the pumping station. The tank is connected to a 4-way breeching inlet to enable the fire brigade to pump water into the system in case of disruption in water supply. Diagram: Stop Valve to Control Flow of Water from Tank Pump Diagram:  Compartments  of  Pressure  Switch  
  60. 60. 3.3.12 FIRE PUMP ROOM Diagram: Location of Fire Pump Room in Plan                    Diagram:  Close-­‐up  of  Fire  Pump  Room  in  Basement  Level     According to UBBL 1984 Section 247(2): Water Storage Main water storage tanks within the building, other than for hose reel systems, shall be located at ground, first or second basement levels, with fire brigade pumping inlet connections accessible to fire appliances.
  61. 61. 1) Jockey Pump Apparatus that works together with a fire-pump as a part of the fire protection system. It is designed to maintain the pressure in the system elevated to a specific level when the system is not in use, so that the fire pump doesn’t have to run all the time and the system doesn’t go off randomly. It can also help prevent the system from drainage when a fire happens and water rushes into the pipes. 2) Duty Pump When pressure in pipe goes down, duty pump takes the lead and supply enough pressure of water to maintain the system in running order. However, if this pump fails to run due to some defaults, standby pump is activated automatically by the system. Duty pump can be switch off manually from the control panel in case of necessity.                    Diagram:  Overlook  of  the  Fire  Pump  Room    
  62. 62. 3.4 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM Fire Escape Plans                    Diagram:  Basement  Fire  Escape  Plan                        Diagram:  Lower  Ground  Fire  Escape  Plan  
  63. 63.                    Diagram:  Ground  Floor  Fire  Escape  Plan                        Diagram:  First  Floor  Fire  Escape  Plan  
  64. 64. Fire escape provide a method of escape in the fire to allow the occupant to evacuate from the building to a safer area outside of the building, which also mean assembly area. There are routes and exits that were designed specifically in Subang Parade in case of fire. Escape route is a designed safe pathway to occupants, from an area of the building to a place such as fireproof staircase, where the occupants will be safe and capable of escaping from the fire or smoke as a fire protected area or a fire fighting access lobby. According to UBBL 1984: Enclosing Means of Escape in Certain Building. 1)  Every staircase provided under these By-laws in a building where the highest floor is more than 1200mm above the ground level, or in any place of assembly, or in any school when such staircase is to used as an alternative means of escape shall be enclosed throughout its length with fire resisting materials 2)  Any necessary openings, except openings in external walls which shall not for the purpose of this by-law include wall to air wells, in the length of such staircase shall be provided with self-closing doors constructed of fire resisting materials. 3.4.1 EMERGENCY EXIT SIGNAGE                    Diagram:  Keluar  Sign  found  in  front  of  each  fire  door   Exit Emergency signage indicate the way to safety outdoor area or assembly point. It is an effective guidance tool, helping to reduce panic an confusion by providing a clear directional system. These signs are always lit for cases of necessity. The letters are written in block letters sufficiently big to be seen and green on color to attract attention. In Malaysia, the exit signage is written in Malay word “KELUAR, which mean EXIT.
  65. 65. 3.4.2 FIRE ESCAPE DOOR Location: All escape door Material: Solid hardwood core with asbestos insulating board Dimension: Single leaf 900mm x 2100mm x 38mm Double leaf: 1800mm x 2100mm x 38mm Fire Rated: 1 hour                    Diagram:  Double  Leaf  Door                      Diagram:  Single  Leaf  Door   According to UBBL 1984 Section 172: 1)  Storey exits and access to such exits shall be marked by readily visible signs and shall not obscured by any decoration, furnishings or other equipment. 2)  A sign reading “KELUAR” with an arrow indicating the direction shall be placed in every location where the direction of the travel to reach the nearest exit is not immediately apparent. 3)  Every exit sign shall have the word “KELUAR in plainly legible letters not less than 150 meter high with the principal strokes of the letters not less than 18 mm wide. The lettering shall be in red against a black background. 4)  All exit signs shall be illuminated continuously during periods of occupancy.
  66. 66. According to UBBL 1984 Section 162: Fire doors including frames shall be constructed to a specification which can be shown to meet the requirements for the relevant FRP when tested in accordance with section 3 of BS 476: 1951. 3.4.3 DOOR CLOSER All the fire door closers of the building are made out of aluminum. Overhead door closers are typically surface mounted. Door closer ensure the doors are closed. Hence preventing escape of smoke if fire into the protected areas and staircase section and slow down the spread of fire    Diagram:  Surface  Mounted  Door  Closer   According to UBBL 1984 Section 164: 1)  All fire doors shall be fitted with automatic door closers of the hydraulically spring operated type in the case of swing doors and of wire rope and weight type in the case of sliding doors. 2)  Double doors with rabbeted meeting stiles shall be provided with coordinating device to ensure that leafs close in the proper sequence. 3.4.4 FIRE ESCAPE STAIRCASE Like any other firefighting facilities, Subang Parade has its own fire escape staircases with door boundaries at each floor of the shopping mall including the basement car park. The type of fire escape staircase used is half landing staircase and the material used is cement concrete. There is an opening to the outdoor at each stairway exit enabling smoke to escape during fire and also for ventilation. The landing area has a dimension of 1.2m x 2.4m. The stairway landing is wide enough to accommodate the users during a fire to escape.
  67. 67. Fire Escape staircase allow the occupants of the building to escape from the building to a safer area or assembly point when there is fire event or any emergency event happen. According to the law, the building should have two means of exits consists of separate exits or doors that leads to a corridor or other space giving access to separate exits in different directions.    Diagram:  Fire  Escape  Staircase  in  Subang  Parade   According to UBBL 1984 Section 166: 1)  Except as permitted by-law 167 not less than 2 separate exits shall be provided from each storey together with such additional exits as many as necessary. 2)  The exits shall be so sited and exit access shall be so arranged that the exit are within the limits of travel distance as specified in the seventh schedule to these by-law and are readily accessible at all time. According to UBBL 1984 Section 166: In buildings exceeding 30 metres in height all staircases intended to be used as means of egress shall be carried to the roof level to give access thereto.
  68. 68. one floor discharging into it calculated in accordance with provisions in the Seventh schedule to these By-laws. 3. The required width of a staircase shall be the clear width between walls but handrails may be permitted to encroach on this width to a maximum of 75 mm. 4. The required width of a staircase shall be maintained throughout its length including at landings. 5. Doors giving access to staircases shall be so positioned that their swing shall at no point encroach on the required width of the staircase or landing. According to UBBL 1984 Section 229(4): A fire fighting staircase shall be provided to give direct access to each fire fighting access lobby and shall be directly accessible from outside the building at the fire appliances access level. The width of the staircase is 1350mm, allowing two people to be able to use it at the same time. The height of riser is 170mm and the tread is 290mm. Every flight of stairs has more than four riser and due to that. Handrail is required for safety purpose of the occupants in the building. The height of the handrail is 950mm, and no intermediate handrail are required in this building, as the width of the staircase does not exceed 2255mm    Diagram:  Fire  Escape  Staircase  Details   According to UBBL 1984 Section 168: 1. Except as provided for in by-law 194 every upper floor shall have means of egress via at least two separate staircases. 2. Staircases shall be of such width that in the event of any one staircase not being available for escape purposes the remaining staircases shall accommodate the highest occupancy load of any
  69. 69. 3.4.5 Railings Railings are usually seen in the dimension of 1.0m heights x 0.04m in diameter. It is painted in grey iron. The railings have minor parallel railing in distance of 0.2m each to accommodate different height of occupants when escaping. Whereas for areas that do not have a fire exit, the respective fire staircase will link them to the nearest fire exit, which the distance between one fire exit and another is within 45 meters. The entire stairway is constructed with non- flammable materials. A landing is provided to ensure the users to have enough circulation space in the stairs to avoid any injuries or accidents during an emergency. It is also realized that no piping are found within the stairway. Thus obeying the law number 157 as follow.    Diagram:  Staircase  Railing   According to UBBL 1984 Section 157: Protected Shafts consisting of Staircase A protected staircase containing a staircase shall not contain any pipe conveying gas or oil or any ventilating duct other than a duct serving only that staircase.
  70. 70. In Conclusion, both active and passive fire protection system plays an important role in protecting the building against an eventual fire breakdown. Along with its functional aspect, the passive systems also attribute in aesthetic features. As far as active fire protection system is concerned, it contribute to its fair share in the protection of the building. But nowadays, more technologically advanced system for the detectors are available. There are more responsive and more efficient. 3.5 CONCLUSION
  71. 71. 4.0 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Tenaga National Berhad (TNB) who is the largest company electricity utility company in Malaysia, and also Southeast Asia are in charge of generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity throughout Peninsula Malaysia and Sabah. They are also in charge of repairs, testing, maintenance of all equipment, construction of power plants and manufacturing of high voltage gears to ensure continuous transmission and distribution of electricity. According to Norayhunt (2008), Malaysia has a mix variety of energy resources such as oil, natural gas, coal and renewable energies such as hydro powered electricity, biomass and solar. However, about 75% of the energy used comes from natural gas which in our opinion is not sustainable. The reason for this is that Malaysia has the cheapest and most fossil fuel in the region. We as architects should encourage the construction of more renewable sources. Electricity is the most prevalent form of energy in a modern building. It not only supplies electric outlets and electric lighting, but also provides the motive power for HVAC equipment, traction power for elevators and material transport, and power for all signals and communications equipment. An electric power failure can paralyze a facility. A properly designed facility can quickly return to partial operation by virtue of emergency equipment that can furnish part of the facility’s electricity needs for a limited time. Electricity is form of energy that occurs naturally only in unusable forms such as lighting and other static discharges or in natural galvanic cells (which cause corrosion). The primary problem in the utilization of electricity energy is that, unlike fuels or even heat, it cannot be readily stored and therefore must be generated and utilized in the same instant. This requires an entirely different concept of utilization than, for example, a heating system with its fuel source, burner, piping, and associated equipment. 4.1 INTRODUCTION
  72. 72. 4.2 LITERATURE REVIEW 4.2.1 POWER TRANSMISSION Figure  4.1  :  Generally  explanaAon  on  how   power  is  transmi[ed  to  buildings     Subang Parade is the first shopping center in Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. It is located near Wisma Consplant (formerly Wisma Tractors until 1995) and Empire Subang in SS16. Its anchor tenant is the Parkson Department store. They require continuous flow of e l e c t r i c i t y w i t h o u t breakdowns to ensure that the department is forever running during the working hours. Without it, the entire financial and regulation of securities will go haywire. Electricity in this building is mostly used for air conditioning, lighting, elevators, escalators, appliances, etc. Electricity from the power station is stepped up from the power plant to keep loss of electricity to a minimum due to resistance of the material transmitting electricity, usually copper. As shown in the figure, before the distribution stations, it is further stepped down to either 275kv or 132kv and when it reaches the substation, it is stepped down to 33kv. The local substations would further reduce the electricity from 33kv to 11kv, which the Subang Parade uses. In the Subang Parade, the transformer further steps it down to the usable voltages.
  73. 73. 4.2.2 Devices Several devices used in the distribution of electricity throughout a building. A meter is used to receive electricity through a residual current device. A meter helps take measurements of usage and normally takes measurements in kilowatt per hour. In the case of the SCC, a commercial electric meter is used instead of a watt hour meter. Main switch, commonly known as the circuit breaker allows electricity to pass through, and will break the circuit if overloaded or short circuit. Distribution board allows for the division of cable to receive current and to distribute it through a branch circuit. A branch circuit is typically used instead of a feeder circuit because it is generally safer. It has a reserve capacity to ensure that the circuit does short circuit. There are 3 types of outlets used which are single, multiple and general multiple circuits. Single normally used for heavy usage appliances, multiple for small devices and general multiple for things like lighting. Safety devices such as circuit breakers and fuses are used to prevent incidents like fire or wreckage of devices from happening due to over usage. A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and interrupt current flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city.
  74. 74. 4.3 CASE STUDY The transmission voltage networks in Malaysia are 500kV, 275kV, 132kV and the distribution voltages are 33kV, 11kV and 400/230V. The latter is usually used for residential and the rest for industrial use. In the case of the Subang Parade, it gets its electricity directly by the TNB Substation. 4.3.1 ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Outdoor Distribution Figure  4.2  :  Diagram  shows  how  the  power  is  transmi[ed  to  the  Subang  Parade     The  following  diagram  shows  the  TNB  switching  room,  gen-­‐set  room,  and  the  rest   which  includes  the  high  and  low  voltage  area  and  transformers.     Indoor Distribution Figure  4.3  :  Diagram  shows  how  the  power  being  transformed  to  low  voltage    
  75. 75. Figure  4.4  :  Diagram  shows  the  locaAon  of  TNB  switching  room  in  yellow  (LG).     According to TNB, the function of a SSU / Main Switching Station is to supply a dedicated amount bulk consumer of 32kV, 22kV and 11kV. As for the Subang Parade’s case, we are getting 11kV. The SSU provides a bulk capacity injection from the Main Distribution substation to the load center for distribution. The SSU is normally divided into 3 parts which is the SSU Switchgear Room, the control room and the battery room. As for the Subang Parade’s case, there is only a switchgear room. Main Switching Station (SSU) Switchgear is the combination of electrical disconnects switches, fuses or circuit breakers used to control, protect and isolate electrical equipment. Switchgears are used both to de-energize equipment to allow work to be done and to clear faults downstream. This type of equipment is directly linked to the reliability of the electricity supply. As required by TNB, this room has medium voltage vacuum circuit breaker, vacuum circuit breakers have rated current up to 6,300 A, and higher for generator circuit breakers. These breakers interrupt the current by creating and extinguishing the arc in a vacuum container - aka "bottle". Long life SSU Switchgear Room
  76. 76. bellows are designed to travel the 6 to 10 mm the contacts must part. These are generally applied for voltages up to about 40,500 V, which corresponds roughly to the medium-voltage range of power systems. This room has no column and cross beam to avoid hindrance. It must have well ventilation within this room as well. Legend: 1.  High Voltage / Low Voltage Room 2.  Switch Gear 3.  3 Phase Transformer (11kV to 415V) 4.  Label indicating transformation of voltage 5.  Distribution Panel 6.  Sub Switch boards in various places of Subang Parade
  77. 77. Diagram  4.5  :  Diagram  illustraAng  transformaAon  of  high  voltage  to  low  voltage     The above diagram illustrates how electricity from the Power station reaches into the Subang Parade. Before the power station, it reaches the TNB metering kiosk. After the meter, it reaches the TNB Power Station (SSU). After that it goes to the Vacuum Circuit Breaker, known also as the main switch which helps to protect the three phase transformer when it is overloaded by disconnection the power which is at 11kV in the transformer room beside it. The transformer further steps down the voltage to 415kV before transferring it to the Low Voltage area located at another room. The transformer room is beside the Low Voltage Room. They are all located close to each other to further increase efficiency and to prevent energy loss. Air Circuits are installed to prevent leakage of current for transformer, which could zap a person to death if leaked. After the transformer, it reaches the distribution panel (switchboard) which it furthers distributes to the rest of the Subang Parade through the riser.
  78. 78. 4.3.2 HIGH VOLTAGE, TRANSFORMER ROOM & LOW VOLTAGE ROOM. Diagram  4.6  :  LocaAon  of  high  voltage  room  (BLUE),  transformer  room  (GREEN)  and   low  voltage  room  (RED)  (LG  Plan)   Diagram  4.7  :  Plan  view  of  the  High  voltage  room,  Transformer  Room    
  79. 79. 4.3.3 HIGH TENSION SWITCH GEAR Main metal-clad switchgear for commercial, industrial, and public buildings, as well as Subang Parade is almost invariably located in a Lower Ground and encapsulated in a separated well-ventilated electrical switchgear room. These switch gears regulate the flow of electricity within the electrical system. Switch gear provides protection against overload of current, short circuit current and insulation failure. It is an insulating barrier between open contacts which is clearly visible and also a fail-proof mechanical indicator. The many functions of the switch gear includes functional switching, emergency switching, emergency stopping and also stopping of entire mechanism for maintenance. Emergency switching is used when there is a failure in power, the switch gear would run on the backup generators providing the power needed. Smaller sub distribution switchboards require no special room. A wire screen enclosure to prevent tampering or vandalism plus a large “DANGER-HIGH VOLTAGE” sign are usually adequate. The diagram below showed the sign “DANGER’’ which outside the High Voltage Room. From the diagram below, sufficient of exits, hallways, or hatches for the installation and removal of all equipment had provided as well. Specification for switchgear should state the maximum overall dimensions of sections that will be transported and installed in a piece. Figure  4.1  :  ‘’DANGER’’  sign  placed  outside  the  room    
  80. 80. Figure  4.2  :  Sufficient  exits  and  hallways  is  provided  for  installaAon  and  removal  of  all   equipment     Step-Down Transformer The unique objective of the transformer is to step down high voltage current from 11kV to 415V through the machinery shown in the Figure below. There are total 5 transformers in the transformer room at Subang Parade. a) b)
  81. 81. c) e)d) Electricity flows from the TNB substation passing through the switchgear which is (a), and reaches the 5 transformers (b) to step down the voltage from 11kV to 415V. It later splits and goes through the ACMV and the switchboard for distribution to the users, lighting, AHU and etc. (c) helps to absorb water vapors or oil to reduce the humidity inside the transformer (d) is a system to check the temperatures of the transformers. In case of an emergency, the technician would be notified. (e) Transformer room is a CO² system room which will release carbon dioxide if there was a fire. A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. It changes or transforms alternating current (ac) of one voltage to alternating current of another voltage. Transformers used in building work consist essentially of an iron core on which are wound at least two coils: a primary winding and secondary winding. A voltage impressed on the primary winding induces (through the iron core) a voltage in the secondary winding in proportion to the ratio of turns in the two coils. Thus, a step-down transformer has a larger number of turns in its primary winding than in its secondary winding. In theory, transformers are reversible, although in practice they are rarely used that way. Transformers cannot be used on dc. Transformers are available in single-phase or three phase construction. In the case in Subang Parade, Three phase transformer have been used. Figure  4.3  :  Photos  of  devices  in  Transformer  Room  
  82. 82. Figure  4.4  :  Photos  of  Three  Phase  Transformer  USED  IN  Subang  Parade     Heat is generated by the passage of current through the transformer coils due to the winding cable resistance. The heat is transferred to the unit’s cooling medium, where it is radiated or otherwise disposed of. The unit’s cooling medium is a property of major importance. Transformers are either dry (air cooled) or liquid-filled. The choice depends upon the required electrical characteristics, the proposed physical location of the transformer, and costs. For the case in Subang Parade, Oil-insulated Transformer had been used. These present a fire hazard when installed indoors because flammable oil can spread from a tank leak or rupture. To prevent this, most oil-filled transformers must be installed in a fire-resistant vault, the construction of which involves substantial cost. Advantages offsetting this cost, low losses, long life, excellent electrical characteristics, low noise level, and high overload capacity. When an indoor transformer installation is indicated, special consideration must be given to the transformer’s heat-generating properties. The room must be well-ventilated. Besides that, indoor transformer installation is more suitable to install in fire-resistant room. In Subang Parade, the transformer room had a CO² fire protection system for safety. Carbon
  83. 83. dioxide is used as an extinguishing agent in this fire protection system. Every time before enter the transformer room, the technician have to see the sign on the door whether the condition inside the room is suitable for man to go in. If the sign is green that mean is safe and red sign mean danger. The figure below showed the sign on the door. Figure  4.5  :  Photos  of  CO²  Cylindrical  Tank  in  Transformer  Room     Figure  4.6  :  Photos  of  safety  sign  on  the  door  of  the  Transformer  Room    
  84. 84. Vacuum Circuit Breaker (VCB) and Air Circuit Breaker (ACB) A circuit breaker is an electromechanical device that performs the same protective function as a fuse and also acts as a switch. It is a device which is able to open and close a circuit in a quick time. Both these breakers have the same function which is to cut off power and to isolate if there is a fault to prevent outbreaks. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city. Vacuum breakers interrupt the current by creating and extinguishing the arc in a vacuum container while air circuit breakers use configurable trips thresholds and delays to trip the circuit when it overflows. Air circuit breakers usually come in draw-out enclosures for easy access and maintenance. Vacuum circuit breakers usually have a longer life than air circuit breakers. Photo below showed the vacuum circuit breaker used in Subang Parade. Figure  4.7  :  Photos  of  Vacuum  Circuit  Breaker    
  85. 85. Main Switch Board / Distribution Panel The main switchboard is a large assembly of panels which contains switches which allow electricity to be redirected. It is to divide the main current into smaller currents for further distribution control of current. With this board, one can control the electrical supply of the entire network from just one area. The role of a switchboard is to allow the division of the current supplied to the switchboard into smaller currents for further distribution and to provide switching, current protection and (possibly) metering for those various currents. In general, switchboards may distribute power to transformers, panel boards, control equipment, and, ultimately, to individual system loads. Distribution panel is a component of an electricity supply system which divides an electrical power feed into subsidiary circuits, while providing a protective fuse or circuit breaker for each circuit, in a common enclosure. Normally, a main switch, and in recent boards, one or more residual-current devices (RCD) or residual current breakers with overcurrent protection (RCBO), are also incorporated. Figure  4.8  :  Main  switchboard  in  low  voltage  area    
  86. 86. Sub-Switch Board The sub-switch board has the same functionality of the main switch board which is to connect and disconnect the electric supply from the main switchboard. There are many sub switch boards such as the AHU room, fire pump room, A/C Room and etc. Diagram  4.8  :Diagram  of  distribuAon  panel.   Diagram  4.9  :Plan  view  of  sub  switch  board,  (Red=AHU),  (Green=A/C),   (Blue=Elevator)    
  87. 87. Figure  4.9  :  Sub  Switchboard  in  AHU  Room   Figure  4.10  :  Sub  Switchboard  in  Fire  Pump  Room   4.3.4 RACEWAY, CONDUCTOR ELECTRICAL RISER Conductors could be round wires, rectangular cross section or stands that are usually made out of metals either copper or aluminum. Electrical conductors are means by which current is conducted through the electrical system, corresponding to the piping of a hydraulic system. Current is carried through these wires which are covered with the raceway. Conductors are wrapped with insulators to prevent them from causing electric shock. Insulators are called raceway.
  88. 88. Raceway is used for protection and routing of electrical wiring. Electrical conduit may be made of metal, plastic, fiber, or fired clay. Flexible conduit is available for special purposes. Conduit is generally installed by electricians at the site of installation of electrical equipment. Raceways are generally enclosure of wires and metallic raceways must be grounded. Rigid conduit and tubing are mostly used in this building as they have fire stopping elements and they protect the cables from being damaged. Electrical risers are used to carry electrical supply to upper floors and distribute them to each floor in the Subang Parade; we can find most these risers in AHU rooms, car parks and at the service areas. Figure below showed the raceways and riser. Figure  4.11  :  Electrical  race  way  and  riser  in  Subang  Parade  
  89. 89. 4.3.5 BACK-UP SYSTEM Generator Set Diagram  4.9  :LocaAon  of  Generator  Set  in  low  voltage  room  (LG)     Subang Parade uses a standby system which is needed due to the nature of the function of the building. They need a system that would protect and prevent them from having any sort of financial loss especially it being a commercial building. Two diesel generators had been used as a standby system in Subang Parade. This kind of generator is the combination of a diesel engine with an electric generator (often an alternator) to generate electrical energy. This is a specific case of engine-generator. The figure below showed both diesel generators in low voltage room, which is (1A) & (1B).
  90. 90. Figure  4.12  :  Diesel  Generator  (1A)  &  (1B)  in  low  voltage  room   Diagram  4.10  :Diesel  Generator  and  the  components   Diesel generating sets are used in places without connection to the power grid, as emergency power-supply if the grid fails, as well as for more complex applications such as peak-lopping, grid support and export to the power grid. Sizing of diesel generators is critical to avoid low-load or a shortage of power and is complicated by modern electronics, specifically non-linear loads. The generator will start running automatically when
  91. 91. there is a power failure or a power shortage. The system will automatically detect the power shortage and start the gen set based on the power needed to prevent any clash. The generator set consists of three components which are the fuel system, space housing the equipment and the set itself. Using a gen-set gives the building an unlimited kVA capacity and is only set back by the size of the fuel tank. It has to be properly maintained to ensure that it does not fail if there is a power failure. Gen- sets are usually placed at the lower ground levels to ensure noise levels are kept to a minimum and to prevent diesel emissions from reaching the users. Besides that, the fuel also closed to the gen-set to easy the job of refill the fuel and ensures the gen-set work continuously during power shortage. The figure below showed the fuel tank that placed near to the gen-set. Figure  4.13  :  Fuel  tank  in  the  low  voltage  room  
  92. 92. 4.4 ANALYSIS Transformer A transformer is device that changes or transformers alternating current (ac) of one voltage to alternating current of another voltage. A varying current in the transformer's primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the core and a varying magnetic field impinging on the secondary winding. Under MS1525; 7: Electric power and distribution   This clause applies to the energy efficiency requirements of electric motors, transformers and distribution systems of buildings except those required for emergency purposes. All electrical power distribution equipment should be selected for their energy efficiency and to minimize cost of ownership. Cost of ownership includes the capital cost and the cost of energy over the equipment life time. Supply system voltage has significant impact on losses. Hence, the supply voltage should be maintained as close as possible to the design/optimum voltage of the equipment installed.   Subang Parade has a gen set that has its own transformers to step down its current just for it. The figure below show the transformer own by gen- set. It is not necessary for a gen set to have its own transformer as they cost relatively expensive. The gen set system should be connected to the other two transformers that are still able to handle the load of the gen sets. One less transformer means one less equipment to maintain and handle.