Circulatory System is
responsible for transporting materials
throughout the entire body. It
transports nutrients, water, and
oxygen to your billions of body cells
and carries away wastes such as
carbon dioxide that body cells
produce. It is an amazing highway
that travels through your entire body
connecting all your body cells.
heart pumps blood by contracting
and relaxing. It is a hollow muscular
organ. It is about the size of your fist
and located in the middle of the chest
cavity. It is composed of cardiac
muscles that contract involuntarily. It is
located between the lungs and
protected by the rib cage.
Right Atrium - It receives
deoxygenated blood from the body
Right Ventricle - Receives
blood from the right
atrium and pumps
the blood to the
lungs for oxidation
Left Atrium - It receives oxygenated
blood from the right and left lungs
through the pulmonary veins.
Left Ventricle - It receives oxygenated
blood from the left atrium, and pumps
blood to all parts of the body.
Ventricular septum - the wall between the
right and left ventricles of the heart.
Atrial septum - is the wall of tissue
separates the right and left atria of the
Pulmonary vein - is a large blood vessels
that carries blood from the
lungs to the
left atrium of the heart.
Pulmonary arteries - carry deoxygenated
blood from the heart
to the lungs.
Superior Vena Cava(precava or SVC) is truly superior, a large diameter,
short, vein that carries deoxygenated blood
from the upper
half of the body to the
heart's right atrium.
Inferior Vena Cava(posterior vena cava or
IVC) - is the large vein that carries
deoxygenated blood from the lower half
of the body to the heart’s right
Aorta - is the largest artery in the body and
pumps blood throughout
Tricuspid Valve - is located between
right atrium and right ventricle
ensures the flow of blood from
atrium into the right
Mitral valve(bicuspid valve or left
atrioventricular valve) - is a dual-flap
valve in the heart that lies between the
left atrium and the left ventricle.
Mitral Valve + Tricuspid Valve =
Aortic valve - It is normally tricuspid
(with three leaflets), although in 1% of
the population it is found to be
congenitally bicuspid (two leaflets). It
lies between the left ventricle and the aorta.
is a specialized bodily fluid in
animals that delivers necessary
substances such as nutrients and
oxygen to the cells and transports
metabolic waste products away
from those same cells.
Blood is also known as the “Red
River Of Life”
oxygen from lungs to body
Transports carbon dioxide from the
tissue back to the lungs
Transports nutrients from the
tract to the tissue
Transports wastes and excess water the
tissue to the kidneys
Transports antibodies to the tissues
Helps regulate body temperature
Solid Parts: Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells, and Platelets
Liquid Part: Plasma
blood cells (also referred to as
erythrocytes) are the most common type
of blood cell. It contains an iron
compound called hemoglobin which give
them their red color. The RBC transports
oxygen from the lungs to different cells of
the body and carbon dioxide as waste
product which they carry back to the lungs
where it is expelled.
blood cells(also referred to as
erythrocytes) act as soldiers of the body.
They travel in the blood stream but do
most of their work in the tissue. The
approximate white blood cells in the blood
should a person have is 5 000 to 10 000
per cubic millimeter of blood. It is
produced in the lymph nodes, spleen and
– ingest and kill bacteria
Lymphocytes – produce
antibodies to fight foreign cells
Monocytes- are large scavenger
cells that clear tissue spaces of
dead and foreign matter
Platelets, or thrombocytes are small,
irregularly shaped clear cell fragments, 2–
3 µm in diameter, which are derived from
fragmentation of precursor
megakaryocytes. The average lifespan of a
platelet is normally just 5 to 9 days. Platelets
are a natural source of growth factors.
It the agent of blood clotting
is the liquid part which
comprises 55% of blood. Plasma
caries antibodies to the tissue,
transports waste material from the
body cells to the lungs, liver, kidneys;
it contains fibrinogen which helps the
blood clot when the blood gets
7% - Proteins
1% - Albumins, Globulins,
Fibrinogen; and some Inorganic
Salt and some Organic substances
A & AB
B & AB
A, B, AB & O
A, B, AB & O
blood vessels are
the part of the circulatory
system that transports
blood throughout the
artery is an elastic blood vessel that
transports blood away from the heart.
Arterioles is the smallest arteries and
they play a vital role in
deals with the circulation of blood from
arterioles to capillaries to venules (the
arteries - carry blood
from the heart to the lungs where the
blood picks up oxygen. The
rich blood is then returned to the heart
via the pulmonary
Systemic arteries - deliver blood to the
rest of the body. The aorta is
systemic artery and the
of the body
is an elastic blood
vessel that transports blood
from various regions of the
body to the heart. Venules is
the smallest veins in the body.
Pulmonary veins - carry oxygenated blood from
the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Systemic veins - return deoxygenated blood from
the rest of the body to the right
atrium of the
Superficial veins - are located close to the
surface of the skin and are not located
a corresponding artery.
Deep veins - are located deep within muscle
tissue and are typically located near a
corresponding artery with the same name (for
example coronary arteries and veins).
is an extremely small blood
vessel located within the tissues of the
body, that transports blood from arteries
to veins. Capillaries are most abundant in
tissues and organs that are metabolically
active. For example, muscle tissues and
the kidneys have a greater amount of
capillary networks than do connective
is a decrease in number
of red blood cells (RBCs) or
less than the normal
quantity of hemoglobin in
of red blood cells. Too many red
blood cells will make the blood
too thick so the blood movement
through the cells is to slow or
overproduction of white
deficiency of white blood cells.
This lowers the resistance to
disease and secondary
infection may develop.
thrombocytopenia is a disease in
which the are to few blood platelets. The
blood tends to seep out of the circulatory
system, making black and blue bruise
spot and tiny pinprick-sized blood spots.
This happens because there are not
enough platelets to plug up small breaks
in the capillaries in which if not covered
fatal bleeding may occur.
is failure of blood
to clot properly. This is
hereditary disease occurring
exclusively in males and
transmitted directly only by
heart disease is a
general term for a range of birth
defects that affect the normal
workings of the heart. Congenital
means that a condition is present
heart disease is a condition
in which permanent damage to heart
valves is caused from rheumatic fever.
The heart valve is damaged by a disease
process that begins with a strep throat
caused by streptococcus A bacteria, that
may eventually cause rheumatic fever.
blood pressure (also called
hypertension) occurs when your
blood moves through your
arteries at a higher pressure than
Coronary artery disease, is a condition in
which plaque builds up inside the coronary
arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich
blood to your heart muscle.
Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol,
calcium, and other substances found in the
blood. When plaque builds up in the arteries,
the condition is called atherosclerosis. The
buildup of plaque occurs over many years.
Systemic circulation is the part of the
cardiovascular system which carries
oxygenated blood away from the heart to the
body, and returns deoxygenated blood back
to the heart. This physiologic theory of
circulation was first described by William
Harvey. This term is opposed and
contrasted to the term pulmonary circulation
first proposed by Ibn al-Nafis.
circulation is the
portion of the cardiovascular
system which carries oxygendepleted blood away from the
heart, to the lungs, and returns
oxygenated blood back to the
Dead blood platelets release a certain
enzyme from which the blood protein called
thromboplastin is formed
In the presence of thromboplastin, calcium
ions, and Vitamin K, the blood protein
prothrombin becomes thrombin.
The union of thombin and blood protein
fibrogenis changed into fibrin in which the
fibrin fibers from the thread like network and
traps more platelets and blood cells
eventually becoming clot that plugs the cut.
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