Circulatory system


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Circulatory system

  1. 1.  The Circulatory System is responsible for transporting materials throughout the entire body. It transports nutrients, water, and oxygen to your billions of body cells and carries away wastes such as carbon dioxide that body cells produce. It is an amazing highway that travels through your entire body connecting all your body cells.
  3. 3.  The heart pumps blood by contracting and relaxing. It is a hollow muscular organ. It is about the size of your fist and located in the middle of the chest cavity. It is composed of cardiac muscles that contract involuntarily. It is located between the lungs and protected by the rib cage.
  4. 4. Right Atrium - It receives deoxygenated blood from the body  Right Ventricle - Receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium and pumps the blood to the lungs for oxidation  Left Atrium - It receives oxygenated blood from the right and left lungs through the pulmonary veins.  Left Ventricle - It receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium, and pumps blood to all parts of the body. 
  5. 5. Ventricular septum - the wall between the right and left ventricles of the heart.  Atrial septum - is the wall of tissue that separates the right and left atria of the heart.  Pulmonary vein - is a large blood vessels that carries blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.  Pulmonary arteries - carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. 
  6. 6. Superior Vena Cava(precava or SVC) is truly superior, a large diameter, yet short, vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body to the heart's right atrium.  Inferior Vena Cava(posterior vena cava or IVC) - is the large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower half of the body to the heart’s right atrium.  Aorta - is the largest artery in the body and pumps blood throughout the body. 
  7. 7. Tricuspid Valve - is located between the right atrium and right ventricle and ensures the flow of blood from the right atrium into the right ventricle prevents the reverse.  Mitral valve(bicuspid valve or left atrioventricular valve) - is a dual-flap valve in the heart that lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle.  Mitral Valve + Tricuspid Valve = atrioventricular valves. 
  8. 8.  Aortic valve - It is normally tricuspid (with three leaflets), although in 1% of the population it is found to be congenitally bicuspid (two leaflets). It lies between the left ventricle and the aorta.
  9. 9.  Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.  Blood is also known as the “Red River Of Life”
  10. 10.  Transports oxygen from lungs to body  Transports carbon dioxide from the tissue back to the lungs  Transports nutrients from the digestive tract to the tissue  Transports wastes and excess water the tissue to the kidneys  Transports antibodies to the tissues  Helps regulate body temperature
  11. 11. Solid Parts: Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells, and Platelets Liquid Part: Plasma
  12. 12.  Red blood cells (also referred to as erythrocytes) are the most common type of blood cell. It contains an iron compound called hemoglobin which give them their red color. The RBC transports oxygen from the lungs to different cells of the body and carbon dioxide as waste product which they carry back to the lungs where it is expelled.
  13. 13.  White blood cells(also referred to as erythrocytes) act as soldiers of the body. They travel in the blood stream but do most of their work in the tissue. The approximate white blood cells in the blood should a person have is 5 000 to 10 000 per cubic millimeter of blood. It is produced in the lymph nodes, spleen and bone narrow.
  14. 14. – ingest and kill bacteria  Lymphocytes – produce antibodies to fight foreign cells  Monocytes- are large scavenger cells that clear tissue spaces of dead and foreign matter  Neutrophils
  15. 15. Platelets, or thrombocytes are small, irregularly shaped clear cell fragments, 2– 3 µm in diameter, which are derived from fragmentation of precursor megakaryocytes. The average lifespan of a platelet is normally just 5 to 9 days. Platelets are a natural source of growth factors.  It the agent of blood clotting 
  16. 16.  Plasma is the liquid part which comprises 55% of blood. Plasma caries antibodies to the tissue, transports waste material from the body cells to the lungs, liver, kidneys; it contains fibrinogen which helps the blood clot when the blood gets injured.
  17. 17.  92% - Water  7% - Proteins  1% - Albumins, Globulins, Fibrinogen; and some Inorganic Salt and some Organic substances
  18. 18. Blood Type Can donate blood to Can receive blood from A A & AB A&O B B & AB B&O AB AB A, B, AB & O O A, B, AB & O O
  19. 19. The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the body.
  20. 20. Blue: Veins Red: Arteries Smaller Tubes: Capillaries
  21. 21.  An artery is an elastic blood vessel that transports blood away from the heart. Arterioles is the smallest arteries and they play a vital role in microcirculation. Microcirculation deals with the circulation of blood from arterioles to capillaries to venules (the smallest veins).
  22. 22.  Pulmonary arteries - carry blood from the heart to the lungs where the blood picks up oxygen. The oxygen rich blood is then returned to the heart via the pulmonary veins.  Systemic arteries - deliver blood to the rest of the body. The aorta is the main systemic artery and the largest artery of the body
  23. 23. A vein is an elastic blood vessel that transports blood from various regions of the body to the heart. Venules is the smallest veins in the body.
  24. 24.     Pulmonary veins - carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. Systemic veins - return deoxygenated blood from the rest of the body to the right atrium of the heart. Superficial veins - are located close to the surface of the skin and are not located near a corresponding artery. Deep veins - are located deep within muscle tissue and are typically located near a corresponding artery with the same name (for example coronary arteries and veins).
  25. 25.  A capillary is an extremely small blood vessel located within the tissues of the body, that transports blood from arteries to veins. Capillaries are most abundant in tissues and organs that are metabolically active. For example, muscle tissues and the kidneys have a greater amount of capillary networks than do connective tissues.
  26. 26.  Anemia  Polycythemia  Leukemia  Agranulocytosis  Thrombocytopenia  Hemophilia  Congenital Heart Disease  Rheumatic Heart Disease  High Blood Pressure  Coronary Artery Disease
  27. 27. It is a decrease in number of red blood cells (RBCs) or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood.
  28. 28.  Polycythemia is overpopulation of red blood cells. Too many red blood cells will make the blood too thick so the blood movement through the cells is to slow or sluggish
  29. 29. Leukemia is the overproduction of white blood cells
  30. 30. Agranulocytosis is the deficiency of white blood cells. This lowers the resistance to disease and secondary infection may develop.
  31. 31.  The thrombocytopenia is a disease in which the are to few blood platelets. The blood tends to seep out of the circulatory system, making black and blue bruise spot and tiny pinprick-sized blood spots. This happens because there are not enough platelets to plug up small breaks in the capillaries in which if not covered fatal bleeding may occur.
  32. 32. Hemophilia is failure of blood to clot properly. This is hereditary disease occurring exclusively in males and transmitted directly only by females.
  33. 33.  Congenital heart disease is a general term for a range of birth defects that affect the normal workings of the heart. Congenital means that a condition is present at birth.
  34. 34.  Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which permanent damage to heart valves is caused from rheumatic fever. The heart valve is damaged by a disease process that begins with a strep throat caused by streptococcus A bacteria, that may eventually cause rheumatic fever.
  35. 35.  High blood pressure (also called hypertension) occurs when your blood moves through your arteries at a higher pressure than normal.
  36. 36. Coronary artery disease, is a condition in which plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle.  Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. When plaque builds up in the arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis. The buildup of plaque occurs over many years. 
  37. 37.  Systemic circulation is the part of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. This physiologic theory of circulation was first described by William Harvey. This term is opposed and contrasted to the term pulmonary circulation first proposed by Ibn al-Nafis.
  38. 38.  Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygendepleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart.
  39. 39. Dead blood platelets release a certain enzyme from which the blood protein called thromboplastin is formed  In the presence of thromboplastin, calcium ions, and Vitamin K, the blood protein prothrombin becomes thrombin.  The union of thombin and blood protein fibrogenis changed into fibrin in which the fibrin fibers from the thread like network and traps more platelets and blood cells eventually becoming clot that plugs the cut. 
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