Writing instructional objectives[2013]


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updated version of writing objectives. Included local examples.

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Writing instructional objectives[2013]

  1. 1. Prepared by: Leesha Roberts, Instructor II, Valsayn Campus, Center for Education Programmes, UTT
  2. 2. QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER (Morrison, Gary R. Designing Effective Instruction, 6th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, 022010. p. 107)  ‘‘What is the purpose of this instruction?’’  ‘‘How can learners demonstrate their understanding of the material?’’  ‘‘How can you assess whether the learners have mastered the content?’’  ‘‘If you have good test items, do you really need objectives?’’  ‘‘Don’t instructors know what needs to be taught in a course?’’  ‘‘What types of content and performance are specified in the objectives?’’
  3. 3. The functions of Objectives  Objectives offer a means for the Teacher (who is the instructional designer) to design appropriate instruction.  Objectives guides the teacher when selecting and organizing instructional activities and resources.  Objectives allow teachers to prepare focused units of instruction.  Objectives provides a framework for devising ways to evaluate student learning.
  4. 4. The Role of Objectives in Teaching Provide for evaluation of instruction Convey instructional intent to others Provide targets for formative and summative assessments Provide guidelines for learning Provide a focus for instruction Instructional Objectives
  5. 5. Categories of Objectives  Objectives are typically grouped into three major categories (or domains, as they are generally called):  Cognitive  Psychomotor  Affective
  6. 6. Cognitive Domain  The cognitive domain is considered one of the most important domains when designing instructional experiences.  This domain includes objectives related to information or knowledge, naming, solving, predicting, and other intellectual aspects of learning.  Bloom, Englehart, Furst, Hill, and Krathwohl (1956) developed a widely used taxonomy for the cognitive domain.  (A taxonomy is a method of sequential classification on different levels.)
  7. 7.  The taxonomy is organized within two major groups: (a) simple recall of information and (b) intellectual activities.
  8. 8. Psychomotor Domain  the psychomotor domain, encompasses the skills requiring the use and coordination of skeletal muscles, as in the physical activities of performing, manipulating, and constructing.
  9. 9. Affective Domain  the affective domain, involves objectives concerning attitudes, appreciations, values, and emotions such as enjoying, conserving, and respecting.  This area is typically believed to be very important in education and training, but it is the one area in which we have been able to do the least, particularly in writing useful instructional objectives.  Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia (1964) organized the affective domain into five levels.
  10. 10. Writing instructional objectives  This is a design activity that requires changes and additions as the instruction is developed.  Sometimes it is not until the instructional strategies are selected or evaluation methods stated that the ‘‘real’’ objectives for a topic are evident.
  11. 11. The Basis for Objectives  Objectives are based on the results of the task analysis and provide a refinement and implementation of the needs of and/or goals for a project.  If you use only a needs assessment to define your problem, the objectives will relate directly to those needs.  If you use a goal analysis, the objectives will reflect a refinement of the goals.
  12. 12. Steps for writing objectives  Instructional objectives identify information necessary to solve the performance problem.  Deriving the objectives is a four-step process to be completed after the task analysis.  These steps are as follows:  Review the task analysis and identify the essential knowledge, tasks(i.e., procedures), and attitudes the learner must master to solve the performance problem.  Write an objective for each of ranked step.  Write objectives for any additional information that is essential and that is not addressed by an objective.
  13. 13. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A LEARNING OBJECTIVE:  Reflects what learners must do in an educational setting to achieve a specific related competency.  Begin with an action verb.  May come from simplest levels of instruction  Are observable and measurable  Are clear, concise and precise descriptions of skills, knowledge or attitudes  Specify single performance/outcomes, not combination performances  Describe the learner’s performance, not the instructor’s activities, learning activities, instructional strategies etc.
  14. 14.  Smaldino, Lowther & Russell (2008) describe ABCDs of well-stated objectives.  ABCD stands for:  Audience: Identify and describe learners  Behaviour: Describe what is expected of the learner after receiving the instruction  Conditions: Describe the setting and circumstances in which the learners’ performance will occur  Degree: Explain the standard for acceptable performance  Example: Given a standard sentence, the student should be able to identify the noun and verb without error.
  15. 15. Writing objectives in the Cognitive Domain  There are two generally recognized approaches to writing objectives:  Behavioural and Cognitive  The Behavioural orientation is applied to writing objectives in all the domains  The Cognitive approach is best suited for the cognitive domain
  16. 16. WRITING OBJECTIVES IN THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN- Behavioral Objectives (Mager, 1984)  A behavioral objective is a precise statement that answers the question.  ‘‘What behavior can the learner demonstrate to indicate that he or she has mastered the knowledge or skills specified in the instruction?’’  Ask yourself this question each time you start to formulate an objective;  To answer this question satisfactorily, you need to recognize that behavioral objectives consist of at least two essential parts and two optional parts.
  17. 17. Essential Parts of a Behavioural Objective  Step 1:  Start with an verb that describes the learning required by the learner or trainee: for example  To:  name  operate  arrange  compare  Step 2:  Next Follow the action verb with the subject-content reference that describes the content addressed by the objective:  Examples:  To name the parts of speech used in a sentence;  To operate a video recorder;  To arrange parts in order for assembly;  To compare an isosceles triangle and a right angled triangle.
  18. 18. Optional Parts of an objective  Step 3:  Levels of Achievement: State the performance standard or criterion or the minimum acceptable performance  Example: In proper order; At least 8 out of 10 correct  Step 4:  Conditions of Performance: State the conditions of performance under which evaluation takes place.  This part of the objective answers questions such as “is specific equipment required?” “is access to a certain book, chart or reference allowed”  Example: Given two types kitchen knives, identify the knife to be used for cutting bread.
  19. 19. The Morrison, Ross and Kemp (MRK) alternative approach to behavioral objectives  terminal and enabling objectives.  A major objective for a topic or task is called a terminal objective.  It describes, in behavioral terms, the overall learning outcomes expressed originally as the general purpose for a topic.  More than a single terminal objective may be necessary for accomplishing a general purpose.
  20. 20. Here are examples of terminal instructional objectives in the Cognitive Domain:  Infants I Social Studies Unit 5:Theme: What affects me?:  Topic: Developing a healthy lifestyle. Terminal Objective: Identify healthy foods  Infants II Social Studies Unit 1: Theme: My Family  Topic: Extending the concept of family Terminal Objective: Develop the students’ existing knowledge and understanding of the family.  Topic: The automobile distributor General purpose:  To clean and adjust the distributor for a smooth-running engine  Terminal objective: Service an automobile distributor  Std. 3 Language Arts: Recreational Reading/ Literature  Topic: POETRY:  Terminal Objective: Recognize the form of poetry in a stated poem
  21. 21.  For the terminal objectives cited previously, the following enabling objectives are created:  Terminal objective: Recognize the form of poetry (Knowledge)  Enabling objectives: 1. Define the term poem (Knowledge) 2. Identify different types of poems.(Comprehension) 3. Outline the attributes of poems. (Comprehension) 4. Compose poems (Application/Synthesis) 5. Compare different types of poems (Analysis) 6. Contrast different types of poems (Analysis) 7. Critique a poem (Evaluation)
  22. 22. Writing Cognitive Objectives  Gronlund (1985, 1995, 2004) suggested an alternative approach to Mager’s for writing instructional objectives in the cognitive domain.  Both behavioral objectives and cognitive objectives specify learning as outcomes.  Cognitive objectives, however, are stated in two parts.
  23. 23. Writing Cognitive Objectives  First is a statement of the general instructional objective  General objectives are stated in broad terms to encompass a domain of learning (e.g., comprehend, understand, apply, use, interpret, evaluate), for example:  Select information using ERIC  Understands the meaning of the terms used in the gas laws  Interprets a graph  Comprehends the meaning of a poem  These general statements indicate the overall outcome of the instruction
  24. 24. Writing Cognitive Objectives  Like a behavioral objective, they focus on the products or outcomes of the instruction, not the process.  Statements that include words such as gains, views, or acquires are indicators that the designer is focusing on the learning process instead of the outcomes.  As a result, an objective written as ‘‘The learner will gain . . .’’ is focusing on the process and should be rewritten as ‘‘The learner interprets . . .’’ to focus on the outcome.
  25. 25. Writing Cognitive Objectives  The second part of a cognitive objective is one or more samples of the specific types of performance that indicate mastery of the objective. Following are examples:  Selects information using ERIC 1. Finds an article on a given topic 2. Compiles a bibliography of related literature 3. Identifies narrower and broader terms for a search  Interprets a graph 1. Determines the group that sold the most 2. Determines the groups that were below average 3. Determines the year with the greatest number of sales  Conducts effective meetings 1. Prepares an agenda prior to the meeting 2. Arranges the room for effective communication 3. States the intended outcomes at the beginning of the meeting
  26. 26. Why use cognitive objectives instead of behavioral objectives?  When cognitive objectives is compared to Mager-style behavioral objectives, they both specify a student performance in specific, measurable terms.  However, behavioral objectives become the end rather than the means for instruction.  Cognitive-style objectives overcome this problem by first stating a general objective (similar in structure to the terminal objective) to communicate the intent (e.g., ‘‘To interpret the graph’’).  A behavioral objective might oversimplify the intent by stating the outcome as ‘‘Identify the tallest bar on the chart.’’ The resulting instruction from the behavioral objective, then, focuses on measuring the elements of the graph rather than interpreting it.  The sample performances of the cognitive objective simply indicate behaviors that help the teacher or instructor to determine when the learner has achieved the higher-level intent
  27. 27. When to use Behavioural Objectives?  Behavioural objectives are particularly well suited for mastery learning instruction for which the learner must demonstrate specific behaviors to advance to the next level.  For example, a course that stresses how to produce a specific report, such as sales by departments for a given month, might best be defined with behavioral objectives.  These objectives will accurately describe the outcome, in this case, ‘‘The learner will print a report indicating sales revenue by department,’’ which involves the repetitive task of entering the month and department name.
  28. 28. When to use Cognitive Objectives?  Cognitive objectives are well suited for describing higher levels of learning.  For example, in a course that emphasizes labor negotiation skills, the designer might develop a cognitive objective to describe the outcome related to evaluating a contract offer:  ‘‘The learner will comprehend the implications of an offer.’’  The examples of behaviors related to this outcome could focus on specifics such as ‘‘calculating the cost of the contract to the company,’’ ‘‘identifying possible counteroffers,’’ and ‘‘determining long-range implications.’’  Cognitive objectives can be written for all three domains of learning.
  29. 29. Writing Objectives in the Psychomotor Domain  Psychomotor skills are the most easily observed of the three domains.  Objectives in this domain rely on the same four objective parts; however, the emphasis is often different.  For example, the verb demonstrate is frequently used to describe the behavior.
  30. 30. Writing Objectives in the Psychomotor Domain  Explicitly stated conditions are often required for psychomotor objectives.  For example, is the learner to use an electric drill or a manually powered drill? Are the ground balls thrown or hit by a batter?  Similarly, psychomotor objectives are more likely to require specific criteria because 100% accuracy (e.g., all 10 shots in the bull’s-eye) often is not expected of a novice.
  31. 31. WRITING OBJECTIVES FOR THE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN  The affective domain encompasses more abstract behaviors (e.g., attitudes, feelings, and appreciations) that are relatively difficult to observe and measure.  One method of developing objectives in this domain is for the designer to specify behaviors indirectly by inferring from what he or she can observe.  What a learner does or says is assumed as evidence of behavior relating to an affective objective.
  32. 32. WRITING OBJECTIVES FOR THE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN  To measure an attitude about an activity, we must generalize from learner behaviors that indicate the student is developing or has developed the attitude.  The following examples illustrate behaviors indicating a positive attitude:  The learner says he or she likes the activity.  The learner selects the activity in place of other possible activities.  The learner participates in the activity with much enthusiasm.  The learner shares his or her interest in the activity by discussing it with others or by encouraging others to participate
  33. 33. CLASSIFYING OBJECTIVES  The cognitive and affective domains comprise sequential hierarchies starting from low levels of learning or behavior and progressing through more intellectual or sophisticated levels.
  34. 34. CLASSIFYING OBJECTIVES  The psychomotor domain does not exhibit as consistent a sequencing pattern as do the other two domains.  These three domains are useful for determining the level of learning for each objective and for checking that the objectives are distributed across several levels rather than clumped as rote memory objectives.
  35. 35.  The next element of the design process is to use the objectives as a basis for developing the instructional strategies.  This accomplished by classifying the objectives into a matrix that is then used to prescribe the instructional strategy.
  36. 36. Models Used for Classifying Objectives  There are two different models for classifying objectives and then prescribing instructional strategies. 1. The Mager and Beach (1967) model is particularly suited for classroom instruction, 2. The performance-content matrix provides a structured instructional design approach
  37. 37. Mager and Beach Method for Classifying Objectives
  38. 38. Merrill’s performance-content matrix  In his component display theory, Merrill (1983) proposed another useful tool for classifying objectives.  The expanded model (see Table 5-8) builds on Merrill’s model to account for psychomotor, affective, and interpersonal tasks that are not included in Merrill’s component display theory.
  39. 39. Merrill’s performance-content matrix  Unlike Bloom’s taxonomy, this model classifies types of content and performance as opposed to levels of learning.  The content aspect of the matrix provides six categories for classifying objectives. Each objective is classified into one category. If the objective fits into two categories, it needs to be refined and stated as two separate objectives
  40. 40. Merrill’s Performance Content Matrix
  41. 41. Fact : A fact is a statement that associates one item with another.  EXAMPLES:  The statement ‘‘Columbus was an explorer’’ associates the words Columbus and explorer.  Learning that the symbol H represents hydrogen in a chemical equation is also a fact that associates H with hydrogen. Facts are memorized for later recall.
  42. 42. Concept: Concepts are categories we use for simplifying the world.  It is much easier to refer to two-wheeled, self-propelled vehicles as bicycles than to remember the brand name of every bike.  Examples of concepts are circle, car, box, woman, mirror , and tree.  We can identify several different models of automobiles, but we classify each as a car, just as we group maple, oak, and pine trees in the category of tree.
  43. 43. Principles and Rules Principles and rules express relationships between concepts.  For example, ‘‘Metal expands when its temperature is increased’’ expresses a causal relationship between the concepts of metal and temperature.  Similarly, ‘‘Providing reinforcement increases the chances the behavior will be repeated’’ expresses a relationship between learning (repeating a behavior) and reinforcement.
  44. 44. Procedure  A procedure is a sequence of steps one follows to achieve a goal.
  45. 45. Procedure  Procedures can describe primarily cognitive operations such as solving a quadratic equation, operations that involves both cognitive and psychomotor operations such as taking a voltmeter reading, and primarily psychomotor operations such as driving a nail.  Procedures can also vary in difficulty from repetitive tasks (e.g., driving a nail) to problem-solving tasks (e.g., debugging a computer program), e.g. preparing a balance sheet, e.g. how to straighten hair, e.g. how to boil a potato, e.g. how to log onto facebook.
  46. 46. Interpersonal Skills  This category describes spoken and nonverbal (i.e., body language) interaction between two or more people.  For example, an objective that describes the phone skills of a help-desk professional or the skills in making an effective presentation would be classified as interpersonal skills.  Similarly, a course designed to improve the skills of managers interviewed on television by improving their posture and sitting habits to project confidence would be grouped in this category.
  47. 47. Attitude  Objectives that seek to change or modify the learner’s attitude are classified in this category. Affective objectives can vary from simply developing an awareness of different options to changes in attitudes that result in action, such as stopping theft of company materials.
  48. 48. Recall or Application  The second part of the model is the performance specified in the objective.  The behavior or performance specified in the objective is considered and then classified as either recall or application.
  49. 49. Recall  Objectives that specify that the learner simply memorize information for later recall (e.g., ‘‘Name an explorer,’’ ‘‘Define reinforcement’’) are classified as recall performance.  Recall performance encompasses those behaviors at the lower levels of Bloom’s taxonomy.  Verbs such as list, define, and name are often cues of recall performance.
  50. 50. Application  When the performance requires the learner to use or apply the information, the objective is classified as application.
  51. 51. Application  For example, an objective that requires the learner to demonstrate the use of reinforcement in a microteaching lesson would be classified as application.  Verbs such as demonstrate, discriminate, and solve are cues that the performance requires an application of the content. Note that facts are always classified as recall because they cannot be applied.
  52. 52. In Class Activity  The objectives are derived from the task analysis. Create a Task Analysis for your instruction.  These tasks are supposed to represent the major tasks, knowledge, and attitudes defined by the analysis.  Based on your task analysis, you are required to create a list of instructional objectives using Blooms Taxonomy  Classify your written objectives in the expanded performance-content matrix  Placing your objectives in the performance-content matrix is the output for this step of the instructional design process.  These objectives are the starting point for the design of the instructional strategies.
  53. 53. Cognitive Domain Levels Knowledge Count, Define, Describe, Draw, Find, Identify, Label, List, Match, Name, Quote, Recall, Recite, Sequence, Tell, Write Comprehension Conclude, Demonstrate, Discuss, Explain, Generalize, Identify, Illustrate, Interpret, Paraphrase, Predict, Report, Restate, Review, Summarize, Tell Application Apply, Change, Choose, Compute, Dramatize, Interview, Prepare, Produce, Role-play, Select, Show, Transfer, Use Analysis Analyze, Characterize, Classify, Compare, Contrast, Debate, Deduce, Diagram, Differentiate, Discriminate, Distinguish, Examine, Outline, Relate, Research, Separate, Synthesis Compose, Construct, Create, Design, Develop, Integrate, Invent, Make, Organize, Perform, Plan, Produce, Propose, Rewrite Evaluation Appraise, Argue, Assess, Choose, Conclude, Critic, Decide, Evaluate, Judge, Justify, Predict, Prioritize, Prove, Rank, Rate, Select,
  54. 54. Psychomotor Domain Levels Level Description Action Verbs Describing Learning Outcomes Naturalizatio n High level of proficiency is necessary. The behavior is performed with the least expenditure of energy, becomes routine, automatic, and spontaneous. Automatically Spontaneously Effortlessly With ease Naturally With perfection Professionally With poise Routinely Articulation Requires the display of coordination of a series of related acts by establishing the appropriate sequence and performing the acts accurately, with control as well as with speed and timing. Confidence Smoothness Coordination Speed Harmony Stability Integration Timing Proportion Precision Requires performance of some action independent of either written instructions or a visual model. One is expected to reproduce an action with control and to reduce errors to a minimum. Accurately Proficiently Errorlessly With balance Independently With control Manipulation Performance of an action with written or verbal directions but without a visual model or direct observation. The action may be performed crudely or without neuromuscular coordination at this stage. Notice that the action verbs are the same as those for the imitation stage. The difference is that these actions are performed with the aid of written and verbal instruction, not visual demonstration. Align Place Balance Repeat Follow Rest (on) Grasp Step (here) Hold Imitation The learner observes and then imitates an action. These behaviors may be crude and imperfect. The expectation that the individual is able to watch and then repeat an action. Align Place Balance Repeat Follow Rest (on) Grasp Step (here) Hold
  55. 55. Affective Domain LevelsReception Response Value Organization Characterization by Value or Value Complex Acknowledge Ask Attend Be aware Choose Describe Follow Give Hold Identify Listen Locate Name Receive Reply Select Show alertness Tolerate Use View Watch Agree to Answer Ask Assist Communicate Comply Consent Conform Contribute Cooperate Discuss Follow-up Greet Help Indicate Inquire Label Obey Participate Pursue Question React Read Reply Report Request Respond Seek Select Visit Volunteer Write Accept Adopt Approve Complete Choose Commit Describe Desire Differentiate Display Endorse Exhibit Explain Express Form Initiate Invite Join Justify Prefer Propose Read Report Sanction Select Share Study Work Adapt Adhere Alter Arrange Categorize Classify Combine Compare Complete Defend Explain Establish Formulate Generalize Group Identify Integrate Modify Order Organize Prepare Rank Rate Relate Synthesize Systemize Act Advocate Behave Characterize Conform Continue Defend Devote Disclose Discriminate Display Encourage Endure Exemplify Function Incorporate Influence Justify Listen Maintain Modify Pattern Practice Preserve Perform Question Revise Retain Support Uphold Use