Theory of Knowledge: What is knowledge? How is it different from belief? What is a mistake? A lie?A major theme in Bruner’s theoretical framework is that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge. The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure (connecting thoughts and organizing information) to do so
Theory of Human Nature: What is a human being? How does it differ from other species? What are the limits of human potential?Bruner states that, “the divide in human evolution was crossed when culture became the major factor in giving form to the minds of those living under its swayTheory of Learning: What is learning? How are skills and knowledge acquired?According to Bruner, learning is an active social process in which students construct new ideas or concepts based on current knowledge. The student selects information, originates hypotheses, and makes decisions in the process of integrating experiences into their existing mental constructsTheory of Transmission: Who is to teach? By what methods? What will the curriculum be?In The Culture of Education, Bruner describes his view on the transmission of knowledge, “Passing on knowledge and skill, like any human exchange, involves a sub-community in interaction. At the minimum, it involves a ‘teacher’ and a ‘learner’ – or if not a teacher in flesh and blood, then a vicarious one like a book, or film, or display, or a ‘responsive’ computer. It is principally through interacting with others that children find out what culture is about and how it conceives of the world. Unlike any other species, human beings deliberately teach each other in settings outside the ones in which the knowledge being taught will be used.”
Theory of Consensus: Why do people disagree? How is consensus achieved? Whose opinion takes precedence?In studying Bruner’s theory, disagreement between people is due to cultural differences. Individuals, therefore, construct knowledge on the basis of their culture and from their own experiences, as in discovery learning. Consequently, varying cultural beliefs and different life experiences are the causes of disagreement between people
Carroll defined time spent as a function of (i.e., resulting from or composed of) opportunity and perseverance. The measure he proposed for opportunity was allocated time or the amount of time the classroom teacher made available for school learning. The measure Carroll proposed for perseverance was engagement rate or the percentage of the allocated time that students were actually on task. Allocated time was multiplied by engagement rate to produce engaged time or time on task which is defined as the number of minutes per school day that students were actually engaged in school work.Carroll defined time needed as a function of aptitude, ability to understand instruction, and quality of instruction. By aptitude Carroll meant the ability to learn academic material. One measure of this variable would be IQ. By ability to understand instruction, Carroll meant the preparedness of the student for understanding the specific material to be learned. Bloom, a colleague of Carroll's at the University of Chicago, later proposed a measure of prerequisite knowledge as the best measure of ability to understand instruction. Carroll proposed a wide variety of instruction methods and techniques that he believed should be present in quality instruction. Later research identified a system of instruction labeled "direct instruction" as the best definition of quality instruction when the desired outcome is scores on standardized tests of basic skills.
Carroll defined time spent as a function of (i.e., resulting from or composed of) opportunity and perseverance. The measure he proposed for opportunity was allocated time or the amount of time the classroom teacher made available for school learning. The measure Carroll proposed for perseverance was engagement rate or the percentage of the allocated time that students were actually on task. Allocated time was multiplied by engagement rate to produce engaged time or time on task which is defined as the number of minutes per school day that students were actually engaged in school work.Carroll defined time needed as a function of aptitude, ability to understand instruction, and quality of instruction. By aptitude Carroll meant the ability to learn academic material. One measure of this variable would be IQ. By ability to understand instruction, Carroll meant the preparedness of the student for understanding the specific material to be learned. Bloom, a colleague of Carroll's at the University of Chicago, later proposed a measure of prerequisite knowledge as the best measure of ability to understand instruction. Carroll proposed a wide variety of instruction methods and techniques that he believed should be present in quality instruction. Later research identified a system of instruction labeled "direct instruction" as the best definition of quality instruction when the desired outcome is scores on standardized tests of basic skills.Carroll defined time spent as a function of (i.e., resulting from or composed of) opportunity and perseverance. The measure he proposed for opportunity was allocated time or the amount of time the classroom teacher made available for school learning. The measure Carroll proposed for perseverance was engagement rate or the percentage of the allocated time that students were actually on task. Allocated time was multiplied by engagement rate to produce engaged time or time on task which is defined as the number of minutes per school day that students were actually engaged in school work.
Commercials suggest that drinking a certain beverage or using a particular hair shampoo will make us popular and win the admiration of attractive people.Depending upon the component processes involved (such as attention or motivation), we may model the behavior shown in the commercial and buy the product being advertised
Example: The following example illustrates a teaching sequence corresponding to the nine instructional events for the objective, Recognize an equilateral triangle: 1. Gain attention - show variety of computer generated triangles 2. Identify objective - pose question: "What is an equilateral triangle?" 3. Recall prior learning - review definitions of triangles 4. Present stimulus - give definition of equilateral triangle 5. Guide learning- show example of how to create equilateral 6. Elicit performance - ask students to create 5 different examples 7. Provide feedback - check all examples as correct/incorrect 8. Assess performance- provide scores and remediation 9. Enhance retention/transfer - show pictures of objects and ask students to identify equilaterals
Scope/Application: This is a general theory of cognitive development. Most of the original work was done in the context of language learning in children (Vygotsky, 1962), although later applications of the framework have been broader (see Wertsch, 1985). Example: Vygotsky (1978, p56) provides the example of pointing a finger. Initially, this behavior begins as a meaningless grasping motion; however, as people react to the gesture, it becomes a movement that has meaning. In particular, the pointing gesture represents an interpersonal connection between individuals.
E.g., when teaching a procedural task, the simplest version of the task is presented first; subsequent lessons present additional versions until the full range of tasks are taught. In each lesson, the learner should be reminded of all versions taught so far (summary/synthesis).
Example: Reigeluth (1983) provides the following summary of a theoretical epitome for an introductory course in economics: 1. Organizing content (principles)- the law of supply and demand a) An increase in price causes an incease in the quantity supplied and a decrease in the quantity demanded. b) A decrease in price causes a decrease in the quantity supplied and an increase in the quantity demanded. 2. Supporting content - concepts of price, supply, demand, increase, decrease Practically all principles of economics can be viewed as elaborations of the law of suppy and demand including monopoly, regulation, price fixing, planned economies.
In the cognitive stage, learners develop declarative understanding of the skill. In the associative stage, mistakes and misinterpretations learned in the cognitive stage are detected and eliminated while associations between the critical elements involved in the skill are strengthened. Finally, in the autonomous stage, the learner’s skill becomes honed and perfected until it is executed at an expert level (Anderson, 2000).
The information processing theory • Evolved from the American experimental tradition in psychology. • Comes from the study of cognitive development. • The theory proposes that like the computer, the human mind is a system that processes information through the application of logical rules and strategies. • The components of the I.P. Theory are: ▫ The Store Model which comprises of: Sensory register – receives information and stores it quickly Short term memory – the mental processing unit which information is stored temporarily, where the decision is made if to discard or move to long term. E.g. Name of street to drop off a package for a friend. Long term memory – the area where information is stored permanently and can be retrieved when needed. E.g. Multiplication tables
Dale’s Cone of Learning• its theory is viewed the earliest development of the Instructional Technology field.• Dale classified the different types of learning experiences, from the bottom (active experiences) to the top (passive experiences).
Dale’s Cone of Learning• Active experiences represent concrete ideas, while passive experiences represent abstract ideas. This cone shows the connection between them, which is an important principle of teaching and learning.
Multiple Intelligences• The theory of multiple intelligences suggests that there are a number of distinct forms of intelligence that each individual possesses in varying degrees.• Gardner proposes seven primary forms: linguistic, musical, logical- mathematical, spatial, body- kinesthetic, intrapersonal (e.g., insight, metacognition) and interpersonal (e.g., social skills).
Multiple Intelligences• Principles: ▫ Individuals should be encouraged to use their preferred intelligences in learning. ▫ Instructional activities should appeal to different forms of intelligence. ▫ Assessment of learning should measure multiple forms of intelligence.
The Educational Theory ofJerome Bruner• Theory of Value: What knowledge and skills are worthwhile learning? What are the goals of education?• Theory of Knowledge: What is knowledge? How is it different from belief? What is a mistake? A lie?
The Educational Theory ofJerome Bruner• Theory of Human Nature: What is a human being? How does it differ from other species? What are the limits of human potential?• Theory of Learning: What is learning? How are skills and knowledge acquired?• Theory of Transmission: Who is to teach? By what methods? What will the curriculum be?
The Educational Theory ofJerome Bruner• Theory of Consensus: Why do people disagree? How is consensus achieved? Whose opinion takes precedence?
MODEL OF SCHOOL LEARNING• According to Reeves (1997) Carrolls model include six elements with one output variable, one input variable and 4 intermediate variables.• Academic Achievement is the output (as measured by various sorts standard achievement tests)
MODEL OF SCHOOL LEARNING• Aptitude is the main explanatory variable defined as the "the amount of time a student needs to learn a given task, unit of instruction, or curriculum to an acceptable criterion of mastery under optimal conditions of instruction and student motivation" (Carroll, 1989: 26). This definition of aptitude very much reminds the principle behind mastery learning. "High aptitude is indicated when a student needs a relatively small amount of time to learn, low aptitude is indicated when a student needs much more than average time to learn" (Carrol: 1989: 26).
MODEL OF SCHOOL LEARNING• Opportunity to learn: Amount of time available for learning both in class and within homework. Carroll (1998:26) notes that "frequently, opportunity to learn is less than required in view of the students aptitude
MODEL OF SCHOOL LEARNING• Ability to understand instruction: relates to learning skills, information needed to understand, and language comprehension.• Quality of instruction: good instructional design, e.g. like it is usually defined in behaviorist frameworks like nine events of instruction. If quality of instruction is bad, time needed will increase.• Perseverance: Amount of time a student is willing to spend on a given task or unit of instruction. This is an operational and measurable definition for motivation for learning.
Social Learning Theory• The social learning theory of Bandura emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others.• The most common (and pervasive) examples of social learning situations are television commercials.
• Principles:• The highest level of observational learning is achieved by first organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then enacting it overtly. Coding modeled behavior into words, labels or images results in better retention than simply observing.• Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in outcomes they value.• Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if the model is similar to the observer and has admired status and the behavior has functional value.
Conditions of Learning• This theory stipulates that there are several different types or levels of learning.• The significance of these classifications is that each different type requires different types of instruction.• Gagne identifies five major categories of learning: verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes.
Conditions of Learning • the theory outlines nine instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes: (1) gaining attention (reception) (2) informing learners of the objective (expectancy) (3) stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval) (4) presenting the stimulus (selective perception) (5) providing learning guidance (semantic encoding) (6) eliciting performance (responding) (7) providing feedback (reinforcement) (8) assessing performance (retrieval) (9) enhancing retention and transfer (generalization).
Conditions of Learning • Principles: ▫ Different instruction is required for different learning outcomes. ▫ Events of learning operate on the learner in ways that constitute the conditions of learning. ▫ The specific operations that constitute instructional events are different for each different type of learning outcome. ▫ Learning hierarchies define what intellectual skills are to be learned and a sequence of instruction.
Social Development Theory• The major theme of Vygotskys theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition• A second aspect of Vygotskys theory is the idea that the potential for cognitive development depends upon the "zone of proximal development" (ZPD): a level of development attained when children engage in social behavior.
Social Development TheoryPrinciples:• Cognitive development is limited to a certain range at any given age.• Full cognitive development requires social interaction.
Advanced Organizers• It is a method of bridging and linking old information with something new.• An advance organizer is information that is presented prior to learning and that can be used by the learner to organize and interpret new incoming information (Mayer, 2003).
Advanced Organizers • Examples and Types of advance organizers ▫ Advance & Graphical Organizers ▫ Expository - describe the new content. ▫ Narrative - presents the new information in the form of a story to students. ▫ Skimming - used to look over the new material and gain a basic overview. ▫ Graphic organizer - visuals to set up or outline the new information. ▫ Concept mapping
Elaboration Theory• According to elaboration theory, instruction should be organized in increasing order of complexity for optimal learning• A key idea of elaboration theory is that the learner needs to develop a meaningful context into which subsequent ideas and skills can be assimilated.
Elaboration Theory • Elaboration theory applies to the design of instruction for the cognitive domain. • Principles: ▫ Instruction will be more effective if it follows an elaboration strategy, i.e., the use of epitomes containing motivators, analogies, summaries, and syntheses. ▫ There are four types of relationships important in the design of instruction: conceptual, procedural, theoretical and learning pre-requisites.
Gagnes Nine Events of Instruction • Gagne created a nine-step process called the events of instruction, which correlate to and address the conditions of learning.
Gagnes Nine Events of Instruction Instructional Event Internal Mental Process1. Gain attention Stimuli activates receptors2. Inform learners of Creates level of expectation forobjectives learning3. Stimulate recall of Retrieval and activation of short-prior learning term memory4. Present the content Selective perception of content
Gagnes Nine Events of Instruction5. Provide "learning Semantic encoding for storage long-termguidance" memory6. Elicit performance Responds to questions to enhance encoding and verification(practice) Reinforcement and assessment of correct7. Provide feedback performance Retrieval and reinforcement of content as8. Assess performance final evaluation9. Enhance retention and Retrieval and generalization of learned skilltransfer to the job to new situation
Cognitive apprenticeship • Cognitive apprenticeship is a theory of the process where a master of a skill teaches that skill to an apprentice. • By using processes such as modeling and coaching, cognitive apprenticeships also support the three stages of skill acquisition described in the expertise literature: the cognitive stage, the associative stage, and the autonomous stage (Anderson, 1983; Fitts & Posner, 1967).
Bloom’s Taxonomy • Blooms Taxonomy refers to a classification of the different objectives that educators set for students (learning objectives). • Blooms Taxonomy divides educational objectives into three "domains:" Affective, Psychomotor, and Cognitive. • Within the taxonomy learning at the higher levels is dependent on having attained prerequisite knowledge and skills at lower levels (Orlich, et al. 2004). A goal of Blooms Taxonomy is to motivate educators to focus on all three domains, creating a more holistic form of education.
Adult Learning (K. P. Cross)• Cross (1981) presents the Characteristics of Adults as Learners (CAL) model in the context of her analysis of lifelong learning programs. The model attempts to integrate other theoretical frameworks for adult learning such as andragogy ( Knowles ), experiential learning ( Rogers ), and lifespan psychology.• The CAL model consists of two classes of variables: personal characteristics and situational characteristics. Personal characteristics include: aging, life phases, and developmental stages.• The CAL model is intended to provide guidelines for adult education programs. There is no known research to support the model.
Adult Learning (K. P. Cross)Principles:• 1. Adult learning programs should capitalize on the experience of participants.• 2. Adult learning programs should adapt to the aging limitations of the participants.• 3. Adults should be challenged to move to increasingly advanced stages of personal development.• 4. Adults should have as much choice as possible in the availability and organization of learning programs.
MASTERY LEARNING (BLOOM)• Six levels of learning according to Bloom et al• The levels are thought to build on one another. The six levels in the figure pertain to thinking, the so-called cognitive domain.
Situated Learning (J. Lave)• Lave argues that learning as it normally occurs is a function of the activity, context and culture in which it occurs (i.e., it is situated). This contrasts with most classroom learning activities which involve knowledge which is abstract and out of context.
Situated Learning (J. Lave)• Social interaction is a critical component of situated learning -- learners become involved in a "community of practice" which embodies certain beliefs and behaviors to be acquired.
Situated Learning (J. Lave)• Scope/Application:• Situated learning is a general theory of knowledge acquisition . It has been applied in the context of technology-based learning activities for schools that focus on problem- solving skills (Cognition & Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1993). McLellan (1995) provides a collection of articles that describe various perspectives on the theory.
Conversation Theory (G. Pask)• The Conversation Theory developed by G. Pask originated from a cybernetics framework and attempts to explain learning in both living organisms and machines. The fundamental idea of the theory was that learning occurs through conversations about a subject matter which serve to make knowledge explicit.Scope/Application:• Conversation theory applies to the learning of any subject matter. Pask (1975) provides an extensive discussion of the theory applied to the learning of statistics (probability).
Motivational Theories& Their Application to Teachingand Learning
MASLOWS HIERARCHY OF NEEDS• Abraham Maslow developed a theory of personality that has influenced a number of different fields, including education.• This theory accurately describes many realities of personal experiences. Many people find they can understand what Maslow says. They can recognize some features of their experience or behavior which is true and identifiable but which they have never put into words
ARCS - Motivation Theory• According to John Keller, there are four major categories of motivational strategies: ▫ Attention, ▫ Relevance, ▫ Confidence, and ▫ Satisfaction.
ARCS - Motivation Theory• Attention ▫ Perceptual Arousal Gain and maintain student attention by the use of novel, surprising, incongruous, or uncertain events in instruction. ▫ Inquiry Arousal Stimulate information-seeking behavior by posing, or having the learner generate, questions or a problem to solve. ▫ Variability Maintain student interest by varying the elements of instruction
ARCS - Motivation Theory• Relevance ▫ Familiarity -- Adapt instruction, use concrete language, use examples and concepts that are related to the learners experience and values to help them integrate new knowledge. ▫ Goal Orientation - Provide statements or examples that present the objectives and utility of the instruction, and either present goals for accomplishment or have the learner define them. ▫ Motive Matching -- Adapt by using teaching strategies that match the motive profiles of the students.
ARCS - Motivation Theory• Confidence ▫ Expectancy for Success - Make learners aware of performance requirements and evaluative criteria. ▫ Challenge Setting - Provide multiple achievement levels that allow learners to set personal goals or standards of accomplishment, and performance opportunities that allow them to experience success. ▫ Attribution Molding - Provide feedback that supports student ability and effort as the determinants of success.
ARCS - Motivation Theory• Satisfaction ▫ Natural Consequences - Provide opportunities to use newly acquired knowledge or skill in a real or simulated setting ▫ Positive Consequences - Provide feedback and reinforcements that will sustain the desired behavior ▫ Equity - Maintain consistent standards and consequences for task accomplishment
Expectancy theory• Expectancy theory is about the mental processes regarding choice, or choosing. It explains the processes that an individual undergoes to make choices
Expectancy theory• "This theory emphasizes the need for schools to relate rewards directly to performance and to ensure that the rewards provided are those rewards deserved and wanted by the recipients.“• Expectancy theory predicts that students in a school will be motivated when they believe that: ▫ putting in more effort will yield better academic performance ▫ better academic performance will lead to student rewards, such as an increase in academic qualifications or scholarships ▫ these predicted school rewards are valued by the students in question.
Equity theory• Equity Theory attempts to explain relational satisfaction in terms of perceptions of fair/unfair distributions of resources within interpersonal relationships.• Equity theory is considered as one of the justice theories.• Equity theory proposes that individuals who perceive themselves as either under-rewarded or over-rewarded will experience distress, and that this distress leads to efforts to restore equity within the relationship.
Equity theory• It focuses on determining whether the distribution of resources is fair to both relational partners.• Equity Theory consists of four propositions: ▫ Individuals seek to maximize their outcomes (where outcomes are defined as rewards minus costs) ▫ Groups can maximize collective rewards by developing accepted systems for equitably apportioning rewards and costs among members. ▫ When individuals find themselves participating in inequitable relationships, they become distressed. ▫ Individuals who perceive that they are in an inequitable relationship attempt to eliminate their distress by restoring equity.
Two-factor theory (also known asHerzbergs motivation-hygiene theory)• Two-factor theory (also known as Herzbergs motivation-hygiene theory) was developed by Frederick Herzberg, a psychologist who found that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction acted independently of each other. Two Factor Theory states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction.
Two-factor theory (also known asHerzbergs motivation-hygiene theory)• According to Herzberg, individuals are not content with the satisfaction of lower-order needs at work, for example, those associated with minimum salary levels or safe and pleasant working conditions.• Rather, individuals look for the gratification of higher-level psychological needs having to do with achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and the nature of the work itself
Two-factor theory (also known asHerzbergs motivation-hygiene theory)• satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on a continuum with one increasing as the other diminishes, but are independent phenomena.• This theory suggests that to improve job attitudes and productivity, administrators must recognize and attend to both sets of characteristics and not assume that an increase in satisfaction leads to an decrease in un- pleasurable dissatisfaction
Attribution theory• The theory is concerned with the ways in which people explain (or attribute) the behavior of others or themselves (self-attribution) with something else. It explores how individuals "attribute" causes to events and how this cognitive perception effects their usefulness in an organization.
Attribution theory• The theory divides the way people attribute causes into two types. ▫ “External" or "situational" attribution assigns causality to an outside factor, such as the weather. ▫ "Internal" or "dispositional" attribution assigns causality to factors within the person, such as their own level of intelligence or other variables that make the individual responsible for the event.
Cognitive Dissonance (L. Festinger)• According to cognitive dissonance theory, there is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognitions (i.e., beliefs, opinions). When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors (dissonance), something must change to eliminate the dissonance. In the case of a discrepancy between attitudes and behavior, it is most likely that the attitude will change to accommodate the behavior.
Cognitive Dissonance (L. Festinger)• Dissonance theory applies to all situations involving attitude formation and change. It is especially relevant to decision-making and problem-solving.• Principles: ▫ Dissonance results when an individual must choose between attitudes and behaviors that are contradictory. ▫ Dissonance can be eliminated by reducing the importance of the conflicting beliefs, acquiring new beliefs that change the balance, or removing the conflicting attitude or behavior.
Social identity Theory• It is composed of four elements: ▫ Categorization: We often put others (and ourselves) into categories. Labeling someone a Muslim, a Turk, a Gimp, a noob or a soccer player are ways of saying other things about these people. ▫ Identification: We also associate with certain groups (our ingroups), which serves to bolster our self-esteem. ▫ Comparison: We compare our groups with other groups, seeing a favorable bias toward the group to which we belong. ▫ Psychological Distinctiveness: We desire our identity to be both distinct from and positively compared with other groups
Uncertainty Reduction Theory• reduction uncertainty in behaviour.• URT was developed to describe the interrelationships between seven important factors in any dyadic exchange: verbal communication, nonverbal expressiveness, information-seeking behavior, intimacy, reciprocity, similarity, and liking.
ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL• There are two ways we make decisions and hence get persuaded: ▫ When we are motivated and able to pay attention, we take a logical, conscious thinking, central route to decision-making. This can lead to permanent change in our attitude as we adopt and elaborate upon the speaker’s arguments. ▫ In other cases, we take the peripheral route. Here we do not pay attention to persuasive arguments but are swayed instead by surface characteristics such as whether we like the speaker. In this case although we do change, it is only temporary (although it is to a state where we may be susceptible to further change).
Systems Theory (Thinking)• systems thinking is a mode of thinking, a process in which one not only analyzes the entire organization and breaks it down into its constituent parts, but also considers carefully the relationships between all of the parts.• With systems thinking one must focus on all or almost all of the interactions and interrelationships that occur within the organization being studied.
Systems Theory (Thinking)• It allows one to look more carefully at the overall corporate situation and make informed decisions that are based upon an understanding of how the entire organization operates within a social context.