In an elementary school the principal may decide to adopt a problem-based learning approach, requiring staff development and changes in teaching methods. Or a school might receive money to purchase five programmable calculators for every math classroom. Teachers would then need training not only on how to operate the calculators but on how to integrate this technology into their curricula. (Morrison, Gary R. Designing Effective Instruction, 6th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, 022010. p. 30). <vbk:9780470574089#page(30)>
1. Instructional Design
(source: Morrison, Gary R. Designing Effective
Instruction, 6th Edition. John Wiley & Sons)
2. From a School Perspective
goals will refer to the
content to be taught.
3. Needs Analysis and
4. Questions to Consider
• What is the problem we are asked to solve?
• Will instruction solve the problem, or is there
• What is the purpose of the planned
• Is an instructional intervention the best
(Morrison, Gary R. Designing Effective Instruction, 6th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, p. 29).
5. Before Starting an Instructional Design
• Why is instruction (i.e., training) needed?
• Under what conditions is it advisable to
undertake a task that is often both costly and
• Let’s examine some situations that might
require an instructional intervention.
• (Morrison, Gary R. Designing Effective Instruction, 6th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, p. 30).
6. • First, suppose performance is not meeting
expectations. E.g. the mean score for a fifth standard
class on the fractions section of the SEA is below the
• In this situation the students are not performing to
• Second, the work environment can change as a result
of modifications in procedure or the installation of new
equipment. E.g. In an elementary school the principal
may decide to adopt a problem-based learning
approach, requiring staff development and changes in
7. • Third, a company or industry can expand so
rapidly that qualified personnel are in short
• In situations like the three just described, training
interventions might help improve productivity or
• instructional design would provide a means for
developing appropriate training or increasing the
cost-effectiveness of existing training.
8. Is Instruction The Answer?
• Do we know that more instruction will solve
these problems? Could something in the
environment account for the inaccuracies?
• A careful analysis of the situation might reveal
these inaccuracies may be based on
environmental factors or non instructional
• The purpose for identifying the problem is to
determine whether instruction should be part of
9. Reasons for Conducting the Needs
• The instructional design process begins with
the identification of a problem or need.
• Why is performance below expectations?
• Once we know the root cause of the problem,
we can determine whether an instructional
intervention will solve the problem.
10. Approaches to Identifying Instructional
• Instructional designers can use three different
approaches to identify instructional problems:
– needs assessment
– goal analysis
– performance assessment.
11. When does an Instructional Designer
Conduct a Needs Assessment
• Rossett (1999) identifies four opportunities for
identifying performance problems.
– First is the introduction or rollout of a new product.
– Second is responding to an existing performance
– Third, a company recognizes a need to develop its
people so they can continue to contribute to the
growth of the company.
– Fourth is strategy development, in which an analysis
provides useful information for making decisions for
12. The Needs Assessment/Analysis
• The terms needs assessment and needs analysis are
often used interchangeably.
• A needs assessment is used to
identify gaps in performance and
then determine whether the gaps are
worth addressing through an
• If a gap is worth addressing, then recommendations
are made to improve performance through some type
13. The Needs Assessment/Analysis
• In contrast, a needs analysis involves
examining the gap and identifying
potential causes of the gap (also
called cause analysis).
• The causes of the gap are used to determine
an appropriate intervention.
14. The Needs Assessment/Analysis
• Needs assessment is a tool designers use to
identify performance problems in many
• Needs assessment is described as a tool for
identifying the problem and then selecting an
appropriate intervention (Kaufman & English,
1979; Kaufman, Rojas & Mayer, 1993)
15. 4 Functions of the Needs Assessment
• It identifies the needs relevant to a particular job
or task, that is, what problems are affecting
• It identifies critical needs. Critical needs include
those that have a significant financial impact,
affect safety, or disrupt the work or educational
• It sets priorities for selecting an intervention.
• It provides baseline data to assess the
effectiveness of the instruction.
16. Please Note!
• Gathering baseline data is not
always possible or cost-effective.
17. Types of Needs and Data Sources
• Six identifiable categories of needs are used
for planning and conducting a needs
assessment (Burton & Merrill, 1991).
• These six categories provide a framework for
designers to determine the type of
information to gather and a means to classify
18. A normative need
• A normative need is identified by comparing
the target audience against a national
• Normative needs in education include
national achievement test norms such as
those of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), or
the Graduate Record Exam (GRE), or National
Test (NAT), Secondary Entrance Assessment
19. A normative need
• A normative need exists when the target population’s
performance is below the established norm. Thus, a
fifth class that scores 30% below the norm on the math
section of the SEA has a defined normative need.
• The first step in defining a normative need is to obtain
the normative data. The test administrator’s handbook
or test publisher typically provides test norms.
• Once the norm is defined, the instructional designer
must collect data from the target audience for
comparison with the norm. Again, summarized test
data are often available in schools.
20. Comparative Needs
• Comparative needs are similar to normative
needs in that both are defined by comparing
the status of the target audience to an
external measure or status.
• A comparative need, however, is identified by
comparing the target group to a peer group,
that is, to another company or school as
opposed to a norm.
21. Comparative Needs
• In education, a comparative need is identified by
comparing one class to another, equivalent class
(e.g., two sixth-grade classes) or comparing two
equivalent schools to identify differences such as
available equipment or test scores.
• To identify comparative needs, the designer must
first determine areas for comparison (e.g., math
scores, manufacturing waste, management
22. Comparative Needs
• Data are then collected on the target audience
to determine the current status.
• Next, data are collected from the comparative
audience. In education, this process may be as
simple as calling the other school and
requesting the information.
23. Felt Needs
• A felt need is a desire or want that an
individual has to improve either his or her
performance or that of the target audience.
• Felt needs express a gap between current
performance or skill level and desired
performance or skill level.
24. Felt Needs
• When searching for felt needs, designers must
identify needs related to improving
performance and individual wants that are
motivated by a desire other than performance
• Felt needs are best identified through
interviews and questionnaires
25. Expressed Needs.
• An expressed need is a felt need turned into
action (Bradshaw, 1972). People are often willing
to pay to satisfy expressed needs (Burton &
• An individual who chooses one of two or more
options—for example, enrolling in a specific
course or workshop—is also demonstrating an
• Instructional designers are primarily interested in
expressed needs that improve the performance
of the target audience or person.
26. Anticipated or Future Needs.
• The instructional design process often focuses
on identifying needs related to existing
• Anticipated needs are a means of identifying
changes that will occur in the future.
• Identifying such needs should be part of any
planned change so that any needed training
can be designed prior to implementation of
27. Anticipated or Future Needs.
• For example, a school principal and supervisors
might decide to implement a new instructional
technique (e.g., argumentation skills) next year.
• An anticipated need is the knowledge teachers
need to use problem-based learning effectively in
• By anticipating the need, a principal can arrange
for the appropriate training before the teachers
start the year and difficulties develop with the
28. Critical Incident Needs.
• Critical incident needs are failures that are
rare but have significant consequences—for
instance, chemical spills, nuclear accidents,
medical treatment errors, and natural
disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, and
tornadoes (Mager, 1984b).
• Critical incident needs are identified by
analyzing potential problems.
29. Critical Incident Needs.
• For example, chemical plants, manufacturing
facilities, and petroleum refineries often
develop employee training programs for
handling emergencies such as fires,
explosions, or spills.
• Other critical incident needs are identified by
asking ‘‘what if’’ questions: for example,
‘‘What would happen if the main computer or
phone system failed?’’
30. In Summary
• When Conducting a Needs Analysis/Needs
Assessment an Instructional Designer Should
Consider the following questions:
– What is the need? Or What is the problem?
– What is the root cause of the problem or need?
– What are the goals of the instruction?
– What information is needed, and how it is gathered?
– How will instruction be structured and organized?
– How will the instruction be delivered?
31. Conducting A Needs Assessment
• Four phases constitute a needs assessment:
planning, collecting data, analyzing data, and
preparing the final report.
32. CONDUCTING A NEEDS
ANALYSIS/ASSESSMENT – IDENTIFYING
THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROBLEM
Students should be reading at the level of a Std 3
Gap (What’s the difference?)
Students of the std. 3 class are
not reading at their class level
Cause (Why does the problem exist?)
Symptoms (What are the effects of the problem?
33. CONDUCTING A NEEDS
ANALYSIS/ASSESSMENT – IDENTIFYING
THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROBLEM
Students of the std.
3 class are not
reading at their
Students should be
reading at the level of a
There is a difference in reading levels among students
Students have a lack of interest in
reading due to poor reading skills
The students are not able to move on
to the Std.4 reading level
34. PROBLEM STATEMENT:
• The students of Mt. XYZ std. 3 Primary School, are not reading
at their required class level. By now their reading should be
able to use and examine the writer‘s craft; choose and use
vivid words and details in their writing; Tell a story, using I, my,
me‘ or he/she said‖......(point of view); Use flashback‘ in plot
development; Appreciate the use of style, imagery and
language in general.
35. PROBLEM STATEMENT:
• There is a gap between them being able to repeat a story from
their text books and story books. This is because they did not
have much practice with reading story books and the exposure
of oral exchange of ideas in an interactive environment that
promoted vocabulary use. Therefore they have a lack of
interest in reading and if they do not acquire competent
reading skills they will not be able to effectively cope with the
Std. 4 reading content. This instruction is intended to develop
students reading abilities by ensuring they can recognize the
characteristics of non-fiction, Expository, Newspaper articles
Informational texts and Develop their sensitivity to Language.
As well as Develop their aesthetic and emotional responses to