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University Prep Cultural Competency Skills


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3 hour session delivered to University Prep faculty and staff. Identity, identity development, cross cultural communication, and understanding of power, privilege, and difference feed into greater …

3 hour session delivered to University Prep faculty and staff. Identity, identity development, cross cultural communication, and understanding of power, privilege, and difference feed into greater empathy and acceptance of others and increases cultural competency skills.

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  • 1. Stretching the Inclusive Boundaries: Cultural Competency Skills University Prep Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee Seattle Girls’ School Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 2. About Seattle Girls’ School Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 3. Goals Gain a basic understanding of culture Understand how various dimensions of identity feed into cultural competencies Examine how cross cultural communication, power, and privilege affect success in schools Identify positive steps toward inclusive communities - individually, interpersonally, and institutionally Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 4. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 5. Dimensions of Identity and CultureThis model of identifiers and culture was created by Karen Bradberry and Johnnie Foreman for NAIS Summer DiversityInstitute, adapted from Loden and Rosener’s Workforce America! (1991) and from Diverse Teams at Work, Gardenswartz & Rowe(SHRM 2003). Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 6. Exercise: Up-Downs • Stand proudly for your group • Stand for as many groups within one category as applies to you• If you are not standing, cheer and applaud the people who areNational Coalition Building Institute, Seattle Chapter, “Building Bridges Workshop,” Adapted by Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 7. Debrief: Up-Downs How did it feel to stand and claim your identities and experiences? To be applauded for them? To applaud others for their identities and their experiences?Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 8. Identity Development and Schools  Identity Frames  Intractability  Co-Authorship of Identity Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 9. R.T. Carter’s Model: Racial Identity and Social Interactions  Parallel  Regressive  Crossed  Progressive  Symbiotic* *Not a part of Carter’s model; added as an adaptation.Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 10. Effect of Varying Identifications Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 11. Orientations Toward Ethnic Identity Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 12. Case Study: Identity and SchoolsRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 13. Case Study: Sibling Role ModelA 5th grade class is studying the Little Rock Eight story and theexperiences of the first African American students in integratedschools. The curriculum is a well-vetted and successful one. Itincludes many readings, first person accounts, and an in-depthanalysis of the n word (its history, impact, etc.). One day afterschool, Kevin, a 2nd grader at the same school, overhears his 5thgrader brother reading aloud one of the readings with hisclassmate, a first person account that uses the n word in full form.Kevin mulls over the term and wonders what it means. At school,he looks up the n word in the dictionary. He gathers a few of hisfriends, and they talk about what the word means with someconfusion, some amusement, and some discomfort. Two girls,one African American and one multiracial (part African heritage),see the boys engrossed in the dictionary. One of the boys looksat one of the girls, points to her, and giggles. The girls decide togo over and investigate, and they find out what the boys are up to.Angry and upset, they report the incident to a teacher.Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 14. Case Study: Sibling Role ModelWhat’s going on?How is the conflict based on identitydevelopment?What would you do to increaseawareness, understanding, and esteemfor your community?What issues from this case resonatewith you and UPrep?Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 15. Case Study: Inclusion “Versus” Rigor?After years of hearing complaints from students of color, theirfamilies, and their allies that the curriculum only represents white(and mostly white male) authors, your English department hasrevamped the literature curriculum such that all students wouldread works by authors from various racial and ethnic groups. Afew parents begin expressing concern that their white children aretalking at home about how “class is always about people of color”and “we never read white authors.” Some parents and eventeachers are also concerned that the students “will not beadequately exposed to the classics” and therefore “will not havethe same academic advantage” as students from other schoolswhich have a “more robust classic literature curriculum.” They areespecially concerned about performance in standardized testsand college courses. These parents and teachers say that theysupport diversity and have nothing against the authors beingpresented, but they are pushing the school to have the changes tothe literature curriculum to be implemented in optional orenrichment courses instead of the required courses.Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 16. Case Study: Inclusion “Versus” RigorWhat’s going on?How is the conflict based on identitydevelopment?What would you do to increaseawareness, understanding, and esteemfor your community?What issues from this case resonatewith you and UPrep?Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 17. Case Study: Between Two WorldsJulio, a Latino student, has told the school counselor that he isnegotiating a very confusing life. On one hand, he loves school. Heis doing well in classes and has high academic ability andperformance. On the other hand, he is enrolled in mostly honorsclasses, where he is one of the few (and often the only) Latinostudents. Enrique, his best friend from childhood years, started todiverge from Julio’s academic path starting freshman year when Juliowas placed on an accelerated track and Enrique was not. Enriquestruggles academically, and he has gotten into more disciplinarytrouble the more his academic performance has slipped. These twofriends have no classes together and are having difficulty maintainingtheir closeness. Julio’s friends in his honors classes have nicknamedhim “Leo” recently, and Julio has tolerated it and sometimes evenliked it. Enrique, hearing this, pushes Julio that he is no longer“connected to his roots” and “becoming whiter every day.” To provehimself to Enrique that he is “still one of the guys,” Julio agrees tograffiti the boys’ bathroom walls with their neighborhood gang’ssymbol. They are caught in this act by a staff member.Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 18. Case Study: Between Two WorldsWhat’s going on?How is the conflict based on identitydevelopment?What would you do to increaseawareness, understanding, and esteemfor your community?What issues from this case resonatewith you and UPrep?Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 19. Case Study: On My Own TimeMonique is an African American student who is very proud ofher Black heritage. She mode and code switches to meetacademic and social expectations of the classroom, and sheis a successful student. In unstructured spaces (lunch,hallways, etc.), Monique expresses herself and herunderstanding of her ethnic heritage by speaking Ebonics orAfrican American Vernacular English with her Black friends;she does many of her school reports on African Americanleaders and role models; and she wears her hair proudly inan Afro daily. One day, she approaches the DiversityDirector, frustrated by interactions with Ms. Johnson, anAfrican American teacher. This teacher has repeatedlyadmonished the student over the use of Ebonics, saying “It’snot a real language, so you shouldn’t use it at school.” Shefeels that Ms. Johnson is being unfair and that she is going toinfluence other teachers to “keep her down.”Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 20. Case Study: On My Own TimeWhat’s going on?How is the conflict based on identitydevelopment?What would you do to increaseawareness, understanding, and esteemfor your community?What issues from this case resonatewith you and Uprep?Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 21. BreakRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 22. Cross Cultural Communication What is it? How is it Different from Intercultural Communication? CCC Theories – Face-Negotiation Theory – Conversational Constraints Theory – Expectancy Violation Theory – Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory – Communication Accommodation Theory Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 23. Dimensions of Variability Individual - Collectivistic Low Context - High Context Masculinity - FemininityHigh Uncertainty - Low Uncertainty Avoidance Avoidance Vertical - Horizontal Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 24. Factors that Influence  Personality Orientation  Individual Values  Self Construal - Independent - Interdependent  Individual Socialization  Cultural Norms and Rules Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 25. Cultural Values Norms, and Rules  Values  Value Priorities  Norms of Behavior  Non-Verbal CommunicationRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 26. RELATIONALCultural Value Differences Individualism self-reliance, independence Collectivism group interdependence (selfis h ) (mindless follower) Informality Formality directness, give and take discussion indirectness, protect "face" (rude and abrupt) (stiff and impersonal) Competition Cooperation individual achievement group achievement (egotistical, show-off) (avoiding doing work or taking responsibility) AUTHORITY Egalitarianism Hierarchy fairness, belief in equal opportunity privilege of status or rank (being picky, on a soapbox) (power hungry or avoiding accountability) TEMPORAL Use of Time Passage of Time "Time is money" "Time is for life" (doesn’t get the important things in life) (lazy and irresponsible) Change/Future Tradition/Past Adaptability ensures survival Stability ensures survival (muckraker, stirs up trouble) (old-school, afraid of change) ACTIVITY Action orientation "Being" orientation "Make things happen" "Let things happen" (rushes without thinkin g ) (indecisive and slow) Practicality Idealism Efficiency is always best Always maintain principles (impersonal and unscrupulous) (naïve and impractical) Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 27. Exercise: Non-Verbal Violations1: Please pick a partner and stand.2: Separate the stapled pair of slips, giving each partner one slip.3: Scan your piece of paper describing nonverbal behaviors. Do not share the information with your partner.2: Converse with your partner about your out of school hobbies, interests, and passions.5: INCREMENTALLY dramatize the nonverbal behavior.6: Make note of thoughts or feelings you experience. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 28. Debrief: Nonverbal Violations Did the INTENT of your described behaviors allow you to display them more enthusiastically? What was the IMPACT of the behaviors of your partner? Did knowing that “odd” behaviors may be part of the exercise help you accept your partner’s behavior? In working with people from various communities, what do you take away from this exercise? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 29. BreakRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 30. Identifiers, Power, and CommunicationInternalized Oppression/Dominance Stereotype Threat Accumulated Impact Code/Mode Switching Fish Seeing the Water “Norm” “Normal” “Good” “Intent” versus “Impact” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 31. Discussion: Cross Cultural ConflictThink about a recent conflict which you now know to be true to be at heart a n identity and power difference. Using some of the terminology introduced,discuss with a partner or group of threewhat was going on to cause the conflict. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 32. So What? Now What?Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 33. Assumptions and Interpretations• Mental Models• Ladder of Inference Belief Conclusions Selective Data Observable Data• Tools of Action Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 34. Checking Assumptions andInterpretations: Steps to Analyze1. What did you see/hear (raw data)?2. What are your personal filters (cultural values, norms, and identifiers)?3. What was your interpretation of what you saw/heard (inference)?4. How did you feel as a result?5. What do you want? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 35. Next StepsRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 36. Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) Schematic Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 37. TOOL: The Four Ps of Change• Policy – A diversity mission statement that enumerates identities that are protected, celebrated, and welcome.• Programming - Training for teachers and staff on cultural competency skillsets. Support for teachers and staff in implementing classroom and practice changes. Identity development support for students. Curriculum that teaches young people about and utilizing diversity.• Practice - Consistent and meaningful revisit of policy and programs. Climate assessments, proactive changes, and meaningful responses to incidents.• PEOPLE - Critical mass of people who are supportive AND active on all levels.Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 38. Discussion: How Will I Apply All This?1. How do you see materials from this workshop applying to your roles?2. What questions do you still have?3. What are your personal action steps? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 39. Cultural Effectiveness “To be culturally effective doesn’t mean you are an authority in the values and beliefs of every culture. What it means is that you hold adeep respect for cultural differencesand are eager to learn, and willing toaccept, that there are many ways of viewing the world” Okokon O. Udo Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 40. Final Questions or Comments? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 41. Presenter Information Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee 6th Faculty and Professional Outreach Seattle Girls’ School 2706 S Jackson Street Seattle WA 98144 (206) 805-6562 Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 42. Identity Resources• Carlos H. Arce, “A Reconsideration of Chicano Culture and Identity”• Atkinson, Morten, & Sue, “Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model (R/CID)”• Mindy Bingham and Sandy Stryker, “Socioemotional Development for Girls”• Vivienne Cass, “Homosexual identity formation: Testing a theoretical model”• William Cross, Shades of Black: Diversity in African American Identity”• Anthony D’Augelli, “ Identity development and sexual orientation: Toward a model of lesbian, gay, and bisexual development” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 43. Identity Resources• Erik Erikson, “Eight Stages of Man”• J. E. Helms, Various Publications on Racial and Ethnic Identity Development• Jean Kim, “Processes of Asian American Identity Development”• James Maricia, “Four Ego and Identity Statuses”• Suzanne Kobasa Ouellette, “The Three C’s of Hardiness”• Jean S. Phinney, “Ethnic Identity in Adolescents and Adults: Review of the Research”• Ponterotto & Pederso, Preventing Prejudice• Maria P. P. Root, Various Works on Multiracial Identity Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 44. Identity Resources• Patricia Romney, Karlene Ferron, and Jennifer Hill, “Measuring the Success of Diversity Directors in Independent Schools”• Pedro Ruiz, “Latino/a Identity Development Model”• Chalmer E. Thompson and Robert T. Carter, Racial Identity Theory• Alex Wilson, “How We Find Ourselves: Identity Development and Two Spirit People”• Christine J. Yeh, “The Collectivistic Nature of Identity Development Among Asian-American College Students” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 45. Communication Resources• “Stereotype Threat” by Joshua Aronson• Brenda J. Allen, Difference Matters: Communicating Social Identity• William Gudykunst, Cross-Cultural and Intercultural Comunication• Milton Bennett, PhD, Intercultural Communication Institute• “Non-Verbal Communication Across Cultures” by Erica Hagen, Intercultural Communication Resources•• Thrive! Team Dynamics• history.htm Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  • 46. Miscellaneous Resources• Karen Bradberry and Johnnie Foreman, “Privilege and Power,” Summer Diversity Institute, National Association of Independent Schools, 2009• Po Bronson and Ashley Merryman, Nurture Shock• Kevin Jennings, GLSEN (Gay Lesbian and Straight Education Network)• Allan G. Johnson, Privilege, Power, and Difference• Johnnie McKinley, “Leveling the Playing Field and Raising African American Students’ Achievement in Twenty-nine Urban Classrooms,” New Horizons for Learning, mckinley.htmMichael J Nakkula and Eric Toshalis, Understanding Youth. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (