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Ingraham High School Teen Brain
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Ingraham High School Teen Brain

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Adolescence is a turbulent time of changes, searching for identity. Learn what brain science, gender research, and educational psychology has to say about raising connected and resilient kids......

Adolescence is a turbulent time of changes, searching for identity. Learn what brain science, gender research, and educational psychology has to say about raising connected and resilient kids primed to learn and be successful in school. What are some practical tips to help kids maintain healthy developing brains? How do you maintain connections with your kids, even as they draw away from adults? This session will help you empathize with your teens and with yourself, as well as inform how you approach your teens in healthy and productive ways.

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  • Creating Inclusive Classrooms 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee Introduction - name, school, job, why
  • Adolescence 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Adolescence 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee Keep in Mind - material speaks in generalities and norms. Teens, their social development, etc. can fall outside of the information given, and they are completely normal. Making blanket assumptions are dangerous, and norms do not define normal or good. Gender norms can easily become Sexism. Adolescent norms can easily become adultism.
  • Adolescence 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Adolescence 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee Mary Pipher Period of overgeneralization. Overgeneralization. One affront = I have no friends. One good grade = academic diva. Uncle says I would make a good nurse = I should become a nurse. One friend gets a ride to school = everyone gets a ride to school. A quirky habit of a parent = everyone thinks you ’ re a dork. A few household chores = I do all the work around here. Kids deal with painful thoughts, discrepant information, and cognitive confusion in ways that are true or false to the self. The temptation is to shut down, to oversimplify, and to avoid the hard work of examining and integrating experiences. Kids who operate from a false sense of self often reduce the world to a more manageable place by distorting reality. Cults or restrictive cliques = someone does thinking for you. Anorexia = everything comes down to weight.
  • Adolescence 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee Mary Pipher - Academic, Physical, Emotional, Thinking, Social, Spiritual Selves all in flux and all developing at different paces! Joanne Deak - Peers become really important. Starting to pull away from parent(s). Seeking personal power. Wide range of behaviors fit under the “normal for this age” category.
  • Adolescence 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee Girls do not lie less than boys. Older kids lie more than younger kids. Introverts lie less than extroverts. (Teachers score 60%, Parents own kids slightly better than chance). Bad act + lie. Bad act gets punished but lie does not cost extra. Children think lying is worse than adults. As they get older, they excuse lies more. Kids who can tell lies from truth better lie more. Teen Rebellion. Lie = preserving relationship. When kids realize how much they lie, they are not proud. Permissive parents don ’t hear more about the truth of their teens. Kids view permissive parent as not caring as much. Most lies = withhold information (independence). Going to parents (forced or voluntary) shows weakness. 14-15, slightly stronger in 11 than 18 Most consistent in enforcing rules few rules, clear, why. Other spheres did not control. Most conversation, least lies. Boredom starts in 7 th grade and goes throughout high school. Time wise study = 6 weeks, upkeep for 3 years, booster classes. Busy kids sometimes bored because 1) activities are parent ’s demand, not self passion or 2) so used to time being filled by others, don’t know what to do. Results dissipated for the most part (no longevity) about 6 months on. Reward/pleasure principle children always got pleasure, regardless of size. Adults small pleasure, small reward, etc. Teens, no or lower response for smaller or medium. Large reward = super large response. Interestingly, pleasure spike suppresses prefrontal cortex. Some teens wired to take big risks. Low dopamine receptors (need more stimulus), high oxytocin (sensitivity to others ’ opinion). Test of good idea, bad idea. Bad idea (biting down on light bulb, swallowing cockroach, etc.) adults have automatic emotional response. Teens weigh it in the logic part of the brain. Opinion survey results displayed anonymously to other teens triggered fear. Arguing = opposite of lying. Philipino teens arguing with parents. Not about parents ’ authority, about rules. Moderate conflict = good social adjustment. Dual narrative of the teen. How many of them are pretending? (apathy because caring is not cool, lie because telling truth is not norm, dislike parents because liking parents is not cool) Cognitive abilities  performance Analysis  primary mode of decision-making Competence  use of that competence
  • Adolescence 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Borrowing heavily from John Medina ’s 12 Brain Rules. Meta studies, peer reviewed and replicated, more and more consultations with businesses and educational institutions. Also borrowing some from Nurture Shock (Po Bronson & Ashley Merryman). Similar book looking at research trends in child and developmental sciences
  • Exercise boosts academic brain power, including all executive functions: concentration, impulse control, foresight, problem solving. Also positively affects spatial tasks, reaction times, memory, and quantitative skills. Feel stuck on a problem? Go for a walk! Aerobic exercise especially helpful because of the increased oxygenation and circulation. Also, exercise directly increases neurons ’ creation, survival , and resistance to stress and damage.
  • Loss of sleep for adults can result in negative effects, but in children can have profound long lasting effects that sometimes cannot be undone. Learning is consolidated in sleep phase. Tasks/learning from earlier replayed in mind over and over again. Interrupt it, and learning disappears. 10-20% people are naturally early chronotypes (morning people). 10-20% people are naturally late chronotypes (night people). Everyone else somewhere in between. Sleep loss hurts attention, executive function, working memory, mood, quantitative skills, logical reasoning, motor dexterity. Sleep deprivation = remember negatively charged memories, less activity Good sleep = retention of factual minutia, less depression, higher quality of life, less obesity The more you learn, the more you need to sleep
  • Glucose level needs to be consistent, but too much will make cells think the sugars are a pathogen. Immune response can cause cognitive deficits that of Alzheimers. Elevated cortisol = impaired memory. Graze rather than 3 solid meals best. Eat foods low on glycemic index (raw veggies, high fiber). Add a little healthy proteins (meats, tofu) and fats (olive oil, seeds, nuts) and sugar levels rise in a nice curve. Avoid trans or saturated fats whenever possible BUT avoid zero fat. Try to get these from original source foods rather than supplements. High levels of bad fat = poor memory.
  • A little stress or emotional significance is great for memory. Longer than 30 seconds or so, not so much. High cortisol levels = poor memory, executive function, motor skills, immune response, sleep, mood. Emotional stability in the home tends to be the greatest predictor of academic success. BUT beware of the pretense of no conflict. Kids experience stress when they see parents argue, but that stress goes away when they see adults resolve the conflict with loving compromise and communication. When we say “not in front of the kids” or “take it upstairs”, we deprive kids of seeing the resolution and thus leave them in the stressed state.
  • Gender, Bias, and Aggression 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Gender, Bias, and Aggression 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Gender, Bias, and Aggression 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Gender, Bias, and Aggression 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Gender, Bias, and Aggression 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Gender, Bias, and Aggression 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Gender, Bias, and Aggression 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Creating Inclusive Classrooms 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee Groups of 3 1 minute per person Take the full minute, even if you can ’t fill that minute Stop after 1 minute, even if you are not done --- All-Group Discussion Afterwards
  • Adolescence 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Adolescence 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Gender, Bias, and Aggression 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Adolescence 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Creating Inclusive Classrooms 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Adolescence 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Adolescence 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Adolescence 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Adolescence 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee
  • Adolescence 02/09/13 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee


  • 1. Parenting withAdolescent Brains in Mind Ingraham High School Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee Seattle Girls’ School Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 2. Tonight’s Goals• Meet other parents and guardians• Examine challenges of adolescence• Learn brain science behind adolescence• How do I apply this at home…?• Get questions answered Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 3. Disclaimers andOther Food for Thought Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 4. Introductions Warm-Up QuestionsPlease think about your adolescent years. What do you remember? What were you like? What was your relationship like with yourparent(s) or guardian(s)? What were your greatest hopes or fears? What would you like to get out of our session today? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 5. Adolescence “Teenagers [are like] people constantly on LSD. People on acid are intense, changeable, internal, often cryptic anduncommunicative, and, of course, dealing with a different reality.” Mary Pipher, Reviving Ophelia Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 6. ChangesRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 7. Developmental Characteristics of Adolescence• Identity Formation• Tenuous Sense of Self• Self-Regulation• Imaginary Audience• Development of Self-Esteem• Adolescent Egocentricism• Importance of Peer Relationships• Formation of Groups, Crowds and Cliques Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 8. Teen Behaviors: Through the Lens of Autonomy• Risk Taking• Lies• Boredom• Influence of Peers• Adolescent Decision Making• Arguing with Authority Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 9. At My House… How do you see your children’s adolescence manifest itself in their interactions and behavior? How do you support them?Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 10. Brain Science Crash Course Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 11. Stuff We Kinda Knew Already… With a Twist • Exercise • Sleep • Nutrition • Stress Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 12. Exercise• 30 minutes of aerobic activity• 2-3 times a week Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 13. Sleep• Effects of sleep much more pronounced in children and adolescents • Chronotypes (morning/night people) • The Nap Zone • Dangers of Sleep Deprivation Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 14. Nutrition• Goldilocks Food Habits• Good Food = Well Fueled Brains• Bad Food = Poor Learning Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 15. Stress • 30 Second Stress • Chronic Stress = Bad Learning • Happy Home = Academic SuccessRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 16. Adolescent Brain Research• Brain keeps growing and developing to age 25!• Teen brain is a “late childhood brain” – Capacity to learn things quickly – Connections between different sections of the brain aren’t fully developed yet. – Brain is pruning and re-wiring neurons during this time – Amygdala is getting hyper triggered by hormones – Prefrontal Cortex (frontal lobe) is last place for connections to develop. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 17. The Two Brains • Rational Brain and Emotional Brain • Both Valuable, Both Able to Mislead • Emotional System’s Evolutionary OriginEpstein. Stanford Social Innovation Review. Spring 2006.Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 18. The Emotional Brain• Pattern Recognition Without Conscious Awareness• Motivates Behavior Change Through Feelings, autonomic Responses• First Impression• Thin Slice of Information Gladwell. Blink. NY: Little, Brown & Co. 2005. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 19. Pre-Frontal Cortex: PFC• High level reasoning• Decision-making• Impulse control• Assessment of consequences• Planning, strategizing, organizing• Inhibiting inappropriate behavior• Adjusting behavior when the situation changes• Setting priorities• Estimating and understanding probabilities Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 20. The Problem• Cognitive abilities ≠ performance• Analysis ≠ primary mode of decision- making• Competence ≠ use of that competenceKluczynski. Child Development 2001; 72:844 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 21. PFC vs Amygdala PFC: Situation → Assess → Plan Amygdala: Situation → Emotion/Feeling → ReactRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 22. Peer Pressure• Computerized risk-taking tests done alone and while watched by friends: – Adults: peers have no effect – Adolescents: peers doubles the number of risks taken• Brain scans at the same time suggest presence of friends activates a different part of the brain Laurence Steinberg Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 23. Implications • They ARE capable • Circumstances matter • Social + Emotional + Intellectual = Decision • Amygdala first, PFC last • Gut response first, reason secondRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 24. Taking it All In What information was new, interesting, surprising, informative, etc.? Are you seeing some adolescent behaviors in your children in a new light?Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 25. Supporting Our Kids Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 26. Living Out Loud • Talk about your day and show interest in theirs • Talk positively and realistically about yourself • Make mistakes out loud • Tell your stories • Emote out loud • Reason out loud • Make your values clear • Walk your talk • Listen, listen, listenRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 27. Respecting Them• Involve them in decision-making• Explain the “why”• Recognize their developing capacity• Recognize that, even at 17, their decision-making may be different than “mature” decision-making• Recognize situations that influence rational decision-making• Limits are necessary• Some autonomy is necessary• Help them reason through decisions Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 28. Questions and Answers Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 29. Presenter Information Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee 6th Faculty and Professional Outreach Seattle Girls’ School 2706 S Jackson Street Seattle WA 98144 (206) 805-6562 rlee@seattlegirlsschool.org http://tiny.cc/rosettaleeRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 30. Resources• Carlos H. Arce, “A Reconsideration of Chicano Culture and Identity”• Atkinson, Morten, & Sue, “Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model (R/CID)”• Mindy Bingham and Sandy Stryker, “Socioemotional Development for Girls”• Po Bronson and Ashley Merryman, Nurture Shock.• Vivienne Cass, “Homosexual identity formation: Testing a theoretical model”• William Cross, Shades of Black: Diversity in African American Identity”• Anthony D’Augelli, “ Identity development and sexual orientation: Toward a model of lesbian, gay, and bisexual development” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 31. Resources• Erik Erikson, “Eight Stages of Man”• J. E. Helms, Various Publications on Racial and Ethnic Identity Development• Allan G. Johnson, Privilege, Power, and Difference• Jean Kim, “Processes of Asian American Identity Development”• James Maricia, “Four Ego and Identity Statuses”• John Medina, Brain Rules for Baby• Suzanne Kobasa Ouellette, “The Three C’s of Hardiness”• Michael J Nakkula and Eric Toshalis, Understanding Youth.• Jean S. Phinney, “Ethnic Identity in Adolescents and Adults: Review of the Research” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 32. Resources• Ponterotto & Pederso, Preventing Prejudice• Maria P. P. Root, Various Works on Multiracial Identity• Patricia Romney, Karlene Ferron, and Jennifer Hill, “Measuring the Success of Diversity Directors in Independent Schools”• Pedro Ruiz, “Latino/a Identity Development Model”• Chalmer E. Thompson and Robert T. Carter, Racial Identity Theory• Alex Wilson, “How We Find Ourselves: Identity Development and Two Spirit People”• Christine J. Yeh, “The Collectivistic Nature of Identity Development Among Asian-American College Students” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 33. Gender Specific Resources• American Association of University Women. (1991). Shortchanging girls, shortchanging America. Washington, DC: AAUW.• Borysenko, J. (1997). A womans book of life : The biology, psychology, and spirituality of the feminine life cycle. New York: Putnam Publishing Group.• Covey, S., Merrill, A. R., & Merrill, R. (1994). First Things First: To live, to love, to learn, to leave a legacy. New York: Simon & Schuster.• Dale, M. (1995). Body and self : An exploration of early female development. New York: Jason Aronson.• Huitt, W. (1997). Recommended books related to the growth, development, and socialization of girls and women. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 34. Gender Specific Resources• JoAnn Deak, Ph.D., Girls Will Be Girls: Raising Confident and Courageous Daughters• Pooja Makhijani, Under Her Skin: How Girls Experience Race in America.• Mary Pipher, Ph.D., Reviving Ophelia: Saving the Selves of Adolescent Girls• Rachel Simmons, Odd Girl Out, Odd Girl Speaks Out, and Curse of the Good Girl• Rosalind Wiseman, Queen Bees and Wannabes: Helping Your Daughter Survive Cliques, Gossip, Boyfriends & Other Realities of Adolescence• Naomi Wolf, The Beauty Myth.• Naomi Wolf, Promiscuities. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  • 35. Brain and Learning Resources• Joshua M. Aronson, Ph.D. “Improving Achievement & Narrowing the Gap.” Learning and the Brain Conference. Cambridge, MA. November 2003.• Roy Baumeister and John Tierney, Willpower• Carol Dweck. Various Works on Praise and Fixed/Malleable Intelligence.• Lise Eliot. Pink Brain, Blue Brain: How Small Differences Grow Into Troublesome Gaps - And What We Can Do About It.• Alfie Kohn. Various Works on Achievement, Effort, Homework, and Grades.• John Medina. Brain Rules, Brain Rules for Babies• Robin Nixon. “Brain Food: How to Eat Smart.” Live Science. http://www.livescience.com/health/090107-brain-food.html• Harriet R. Tenenbaum, “Gender Achievement Motivation,” Learning and the Brain Conference, Cambridge, MA, November 2003. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)