Brooklyn Friends School Cross Cultural Communication


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90 minute session delivered to Administrative Team. Humans communicate on many levels: spoken language, tone, body language, style and personality. The fact that we have complex cultural identities and a host of differing past experiences increases the probability of cross-cultural miscommunications. This workshop presents major cross-cultural communication theories, ways that cultural values, power, privilege and differences affect the way we communicate, tools for questioning assumptions, and ways to improve cross-cultural communications skills.

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Brooklyn Friends School Cross Cultural Communication

  1. 1. What I Said and What I Meant:Cross Cultural Communication Brooklyn Friends School Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee Seattle Girls’ School Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  2. 2. About Seattle Girls’ School Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  3. 3. Agenda Cross Cultural Communication Cultural Values, Norms of Behavior, and Communication Exercise: Non Verbal Violations Cultural Identifiers, Power, and Communication So What? Now What? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  4. 4. Cross Cultural Communication What is it? How is it Different from Intercultural Communication? CCC Theories – Face-Negotiation Theory – Conversational Constraints Theory – Expectancy Violation Theory – Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory – Communication Accommodation Theory Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  5. 5. Dimensions of Variability Individual - Collectivistic Low Context - High Context Masculinity - FemininityHigh Uncertainty - Low Uncertainty Avoidance Avoidance Vertical - Horizontal Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  6. 6. Factors that Influence Personality Orientation Individual Values Self Construal - Independent - Interdependent Individual Socialization Cultural Norms and Rules Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  7. 7. Cultural Values Norms, and Rules  Values  Value Priorities  Norms of Behavior  Non-Verbal CommunicationRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  8. 8. RELATIONALCultural Value Differences Individualism self-reliance, independence Collectivism group interdependence (selfis h ) (mindless follower) Informality Formality directness, give and take discussion indirectness, protect "face" (rude and abrupt) (stiff and impersonal) Competition Cooperation individual achievement group achievement (egotistical, show-off) (avoiding doing work or taking responsibility) AUTHORITY Egalitarianism Hierarchy fairness, belief in equal opportunity privilege of status or rank (being picky, on a soapbox) (power hungry or avoiding accountability) TEMPORAL Use of Time Passage of Time "Time is money" "Time is for life" (doesn’t get the important things in life) (lazy and irresponsible) Change/Future Tradition/Past Adaptability ensures survival Stability ensures survival (muckraker, stirs up trouble) (old-school, afraid of change) ACTIVITY Action orientation "Being" orientation "Make things happen" "Let things happen" (rushes without thinkin g ) (indecisive and slow) Practicality Idealism Efficiency is always best Always maintain principles (impersonal and unscrupulous) (naïve and impractical) Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  9. 9. Exercise: Non-Verbal Violations1: Please pick a partner and stand.2: Begin to converse about your out of school hobbies, interests, and passions.3: You will receive a piece of paper describing nonverbal behaviors.4: Scan the piece of paper. Do not share the information.5: INCREMENTALLY dramatize the nonverbal behavior.6: Make note of thoughts or feelings you experience. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  10. 10. Debrief: Nonverbal Violations Did the INTENT of your described behaviors allow you to display them more enthusiastically? What was the IMPACT of the behaviors of your partner? Did knowing that “odd” behaviors may be part of the exercise help you accept your partner’s behavior? In working with people from various communities, what do you take away from this exercise? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  11. 11. Identifiers, Power, and CommunicationInternalized Oppression/Dominance Stereotype Threat Accumulated Impact Code/Mode Switching Fish Seeing the Water “Norm” “Normal” “Good” “Intent” versus “Impact” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  12. 12. Discussion: Cross Cultural Conflict Think about a recent conflict which younow know to be true to be at heart a crosscultural communication difference. Using some of the terminology introduced, discuss with a partner or group of three what was going on to cause the conflict. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  13. 13. So What? Now What?Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  14. 14. Cross Cultural Communication Skills • Know Dimensions of Variability • Learn Cultural Values and Norms • Examine Cultural Identities, Power, and Privilege • Know Your Own Place in these Elements • Practice Effective Communication Models • Be able to Adjust and Accommodate for Others Based on Knowledge Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  15. 15. Effective Communication Models Common Threads SUPPORTIVE DEFENSIVE Description Evaluation Problem-Orientation Control Spontaneity Strategy Empathy Neutrality Equality Superiority Provisionalism CertaintyBrenda J. Allen, Difference Matters: Communicating Social Identity Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  16. 16. Berlo’s Communication Model
  17. 17. Assumptions and Interpretations• Mental Models• Ladder of Inference Belief Conclusions Selective Data Observable Data• Tools of Action Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  18. 18. Checking Assumptions andInterpretations: Steps to Analyze1. What did you see/hear (raw data)?2. What are your personal filters (cultural values, norms, and identifiers)?3. What was your interpretation of what you saw/heard (inference)?4. How did you feel as a result?5. What do you want? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  19. 19. Continuum of Cross-Cultural Fluency and Competence Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) Schematic Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  20. 20. Discussion: How Will I Apply All This?1. How do you see materials from this workshop applying to your roles?2. What questions do you still have?3. What are your personal action steps? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  21. 21. Cultural Effectiveness “To be culturally effective doesn’t mean you are an authority in the values and beliefs of every culture. What it means is that you hold adeep respect for cultural differencesand are eager to learn, and willing toaccept, that there are many ways of viewing the world” Okokon O. Udo Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  22. 22. Final Questions or Comments? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  23. 23. Presenter Information Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee 6th Faculty and Professional Outreach Seattle Girls’ School 2706 S Jackson Street Seattle WA 98144 (206) 805-6562 Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  24. 24. Resources• “Stereotype Threat” by Joshua Aronson• David K. Berlo, The Process of Communication (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1960)• Brenda J. Allen, Difference Matters: Communicating Social Identity• William Gudykunst, Cross-Cultural and Intercultural Comunication• Milton Bennett, PhD, Intercultural Communication Institute• National Coalition Building Institute• “Non-Verbal Communication Across Cultures” by Erica Hagen, Intercultural Communication Resources•• Thrive! Team Dynamics• Nonverbal Violations 
by Stella Ting-Toomey• history.htm Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (