Markup Languages: HTML<br />HTML – Hypertext Markup Language<br />The set of markup symbols or codes placed in a file inte...
Markup Languages: XML<br />XML – eXtensible Markup Language<br />A text-based language designed to describe, deliver, and ...
Markup Languages: XHTML<br />XHTML – eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language<br />Developed by the W3C as the reformulation o...
Markup Language Relations<br /><ul><li>The relationship between XHTML, HTML, and XML</li></li></ul><li>DocumentType Defini...
XHTML 1.0 Transitional DTD<br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"<br />   http://www.w3.org/T...
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"<br />   "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitiona...
Head & Body Sections<br /><ul><li>HeadSectionContains information that describes the Web page document </li></ul><head><br...
XHTML<title> and <meta /> tags<br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"<br />   "http://www.w3....
The Heading Element<br /><h1>Heading Level 1</h1><br /><h2>Heading Level 2</h2><br /><h3>Heading Level 3</h3><br /><h4>Hea...
XHTML<p> tag<br /><ul><li>Paragraph element</li></ul><p>…paragraph goes here…</p><br /><ul><li>Groups sentences and sectio...
Configures a blank line above and below the paragraph</li></li></ul><li>XHTML<br /> tag<br />Line Break element<br />Stand...
XHTML<blockquote> tag<br />Blockquote element<br />Indents a block of text for special emphasis<br /><blockquote><br />   ...
XHTML List Basics<br />Definition List<br />Ordered List<br />Unordered List<br />
XHTMLOrdered List<br />Conveys information in an ordered fashion<br /><ol>Contains the ordered list<br />type attribute de...
XHTMLOrdered List Example<br /><ol><br />   <li>Apply to school</li><br />   <li>Register for course</li><br />   <li>Pay ...
XHTMLUnordered List<br />Displays information with bullet points<br /><ul>Contains the unordered list<br />type attribute ...
XHTMLUnordered List Example<br /><ul><br />   <li>Apple</li><br />   <li>Orange</li><br />   <li>Pear</li><br />   <li>Gra...
  Orange
  Pear
  Grape</li></li></ul><li>XHTMLLogical Style Elements<br />Indicate the logical style of the text display<br />Common Logi...
XHTMLPhysical Style Elements<br />Provide browser font configuration info<br />Useful for browsers – but not always applic...
Display special characters such as quotes, copyright symbol, etc. <br />Character     	Code<br />		      © 		&copy;<br />	...
Checkpoint <br />Provide a reason for using logical style tags rather than physical style tags.<br />Describe the purpose ...
XHTML<a> tag<br />The anchor element<br />Specifies a hyperlink reference (href) to a file<br />Text between the <a> and <...
XHTML<a> tag<br />Absolute link<br />Link to other Web sites<br />	<a href="http://yahoo.com">Yahoo</a><br />Relative link...
Hyperlinks<br />25<br />Hands-On Practice<br />
XHTML Email Links using the <a> tag<br />Automatically launch the default mail program configured for the browser<br />If ...
Checkpoint<br />Describe when to use an absolute link. Is the http protocol used in the href value?<br />Describe when to ...
Writing Valid XHTML<br />Check your code for syntax errors<br />Benefit:<br />Valid code  more consistent browser display...
Summary<br />This chapter provided an introduction to XHTML.<br />It began with an introduction to the HTML, discussed the...
Anatomy of a Website<br />http://www.csszengarden.com/<br />
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Class2

  1. 1. Markup Languages: HTML<br />HTML – Hypertext Markup Language<br />The set of markup symbols or codes placed in a file intended for display on a web browser. <br />
  2. 2. Markup Languages: XML<br />XML – eXtensible Markup Language<br />A text-based language designed to describe, deliver, and exchange structured information. <br />It is not intended to replace HTML – it is intended to extend the power of HTML by separating data from presentation. <br />
  3. 3. Markup Languages: XHTML<br />XHTML – eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language<br />Developed by the W3C as the reformulation of HTML 4.0 as an application of XML. <br />It combines the formatting strengths of HTML 4.0 and the data structure and extensibility strengths of XML.<br />
  4. 4. Markup Language Relations<br /><ul><li>The relationship between XHTML, HTML, and XML</li></li></ul><li>DocumentType Definition (DTD)<br /><ul><li>W3C Recommendation: Use a Document Type Definition to identify the type of markup language used in a web page. </li></ul>XHTML 1.0 Transitional<br />This is the least strict specification for XHTML 1.0. It allows the use of both Cascading Style Sheets and traditional formatting instructions such as fonts. We will use this DTD in this text<br />XHTML 1.0 Strict<br />Requires exclusive use of Cascading Style Sheets. We will not use this.<br />XHTML 1.0 Frameset<br />Required for pages using XHTML frames. We will use not use this.<br />
  5. 5. XHTML 1.0 Transitional DTD<br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"<br /> http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd> <br />
  6. 6. <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"<br /> "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><br /><html > an opening tag<br />.... page info goes here<br /></html> a closing tag<br />First Web Page<br />
  7. 7. Head & Body Sections<br /><ul><li>HeadSectionContains information that describes the Web page document </li></ul><head><br />…head section info goes here<br /></head><br /><ul><li>BodySectionContains text and elements that display in the Web page document<body></li></ul>…body section info goes here<br /></body><br />
  8. 8. XHTML<title> and <meta /> tags<br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"<br /> "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><br /><html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><br /> <head> <title>My First Web Page</title><br /> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" /><br /> </head><br /> <body><br /> .... Body info goes here</body><br /></html><br />
  9. 9. The Heading Element<br /><h1>Heading Level 1</h1><br /><h2>Heading Level 2</h2><br /><h3>Heading Level 3</h3><br /><h4>Heading Level 4</h4><br /><h5>Heading Level 5</h5><br /><h6>Heading Level 6</h6><br />
  10. 10. XHTML<p> tag<br /><ul><li>Paragraph element</li></ul><p>…paragraph goes here…</p><br /><ul><li>Groups sentences and sections of text together.
  11. 11. Configures a blank line above and below the paragraph</li></li></ul><li>XHTML<br /> tag<br />Line Break element<br />Stand-alone tag<br />…text goes here <br />This starts on a new line….<br />Causes the next element or text to display on a new line<br />
  12. 12. XHTML<blockquote> tag<br />Blockquote element<br />Indents a block of text for special emphasis<br /><blockquote><br /> …text goes here…<br /></blockquote><br />
  13. 13. XHTML List Basics<br />Definition List<br />Ordered List<br />Unordered List<br />
  14. 14. XHTMLOrdered List<br />Conveys information in an ordered fashion<br /><ol>Contains the ordered list<br />type attribute determinesnumbering scheme of list, default is numerals<br /><li>Contains an item in the list<br />
  15. 15. XHTMLOrdered List Example<br /><ol><br /> <li>Apply to school</li><br /> <li>Register for course</li><br /> <li>Pay tuition</li><br /> <li>Attend course</li><br /> </ol><br />
  16. 16. XHTMLUnordered List<br />Displays information with bullet points<br /><ul>Contains the unordered list<br />type attribute determines the type of bullet point<br />default type is disc (but depends on the browser used)<br /><li>Contains an item in the list<br />
  17. 17. XHTMLUnordered List Example<br /><ul><br /> <li>Apple</li><br /> <li>Orange</li><br /> <li>Pear</li><br /> <li>Grape</li><br /> </ul><br /><ul><li> Apple
  18. 18. Orange
  19. 19. Pear
  20. 20. Grape</li></li></ul><li>XHTMLLogical Style Elements<br />Indicate the logical style of the text display<br />Common Logical Style Tags <br /><strong></strong><br />To cause text to be emphasized or to "stand out" from surrounding text. <strong>This is important</strong><br /><em></em><br />To cause text to be emphasized in relation to other text on the page. Usually italics.<br /> <em>Please note</em><br />
  21. 21. XHTMLPhysical Style Elements<br />Provide browser font configuration info<br />Useful for browsers – but not always applicable for other devices or user agents such as screen readers<br />Common Physical Style Tags<br /><b></b><br />To display as bold text<b>This is important</b><br /><i></i><br />To display text in italics<br /> <i>Please note</i><br />
  22. 22. Display special characters such as quotes, copyright symbol, etc. <br />Character Code<br /> © &copy;<br /> < &lt;<br /> > &gt;<br /> & &amp;<br /> &nbsp;<br />XHTMLSpecial Characters<br />
  23. 23. Checkpoint <br />Provide a reason for using logical style tags rather than physical style tags.<br />Describe the purpose of special characters.<br />
  24. 24. XHTML<a> tag<br />The anchor element<br />Specifies a hyperlink reference (href) to a file<br />Text between the <a> and </a> is displayed on the web page.<br /><a href=“contact.html”>contact</a><br />href Attribute<br />Indicates the file name or URLWeb page document, photo, pdf, etc.<br />23<br />
  25. 25. XHTML<a> tag<br />Absolute link<br />Link to other Web sites<br /> <a href="http://yahoo.com">Yahoo</a><br />Relative link<br />Link to pages on your own site<br /> <a href="index.htm">Home</a><br />24<br />
  26. 26. Hyperlinks<br />25<br />Hands-On Practice<br />
  27. 27. XHTML Email Links using the <a> tag<br />Automatically launch the default mail program configured for the browser<br />If no browser default is configured, a message is displayed<br /> <a href=“mailto:me@hotmail.com”>me@hotmail.com</a><br />26<br />
  28. 28. Checkpoint<br />Describe when to use an absolute link. Is the http protocol used in the href value?<br />Describe when to use a relative link. Is the http protocol used in the href value?<br />What happens when a web site visitor clicks on an e-mail link?<br />27<br />
  29. 29. Writing Valid XHTML<br />Check your code for syntax errors<br />Benefit:<br />Valid code  more consistent browser display<br />W3C XHTML Validation Tool<br />http://validator.w3.org<br />
  30. 30. Summary<br />This chapter provided an introduction to XHTML.<br />It began with an introduction to the HTML, discussed the transition to XHTML, continued with the anatomy of a web page, introduced inline and block-level formatting, and demonstrated the XHTML techniques used to create hyperlinks. <br />You will use these skills over and over again as you create Web pages.<br />
  31. 31. Anatomy of a Website<br />http://www.csszengarden.com/<br />
  32. 32. Assignment: Due 9/20/2010<br />p.59 Hands-on Exercise #9, 10<br />9. Create a Web Page about your favorite musical group. Include the name of the group, the individuals in the group, a hyperlink to the group’s Website, your favorite three (or fewer if the group is new) CD releases, and a brief review of each CD.<br />Use an unordered list to organize the names of the individuals.<br />Use a ordered list for the names of the CDs in chronological order.<br />Ave the page as band.html. Attach your file to an email<br />10.<br />Create a Web page about your favorite recipe. Use an unordered list for the ingredients and an ordered list to describe the steps needed to prepare the food. Include a hyperlink to a Web site that offers free recipes. <br />Save the page as recipe.html. <br />

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