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  1. 1. Moral Development
  2. 2. Moral Development <ul><li>Process to which children develop proper attitude and behaviors toward other people in society, based on social and cultural norms, rules and laws </li></ul><ul><li>Morals - relatively understood from one society to another </li></ul><ul><li>Moral Development – development of moral reasoning </li></ul>
  3. 3. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development <ul><li>1. Autonomous Morality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(7-12 yrs. Old) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Childs moral reasoning is based on the intent and not on the basis of the action alone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Heteronymous Morality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(2-7 yrs. Old) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action is more important than intention </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development <ul><li>1. Pre-conventional Morality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(4-10 yrs. Old) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis is on external control, that is following rules and standards in order to get rewards or avoid punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 1 : Orientation to punishment and obedience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 2 : Instrumental purpose and exchange </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development <ul><li>2. Morality of Conversational Role and Conformity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(10-13 yrs. old) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis is on internalization of the standards and rules of authority figures, that is obeying as to please others or maintain order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 3 : Maintaining mutual relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 4 : Social system and conscience </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development <ul><li>3. Morality of Autonomous Moral Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(13-not until young adult) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes that morality is fully internal, that is, recognizing conflicts between moral standards and deciding which one to accept or follow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 5 : Morality of contact, individual rights and of democratically accepted law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 6 : Morality of universal ethical principles </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Carol Gilligan’s Theory of Moral Development <ul><li>Level 1 </li></ul><ul><li>-Orientation of individual survival </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goodness as sacrifice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morality of non violence </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Consciousness
  9. 9. Consciousness <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to the condition wherein the individual appreciates the stimuli coming from the environment as perceived by our senses and various sensations produced by our inner thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Attention – between a large number of external stimuli which are perceived by our senses and things that we actually perceived </li></ul>
  10. 10. Consciousness <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of the brain which are responsible for processing attention: </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal lobe – stimulated when it requires attention to verbal stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal Lobe – stimulated when it requires attention to spatial and visual stimuli </li></ul>
  11. 11. Consciousness <ul><li>VISUAL AND AUDITORY PROCESSES IN SELECTIVE ATTENTION </li></ul><ul><li>Stroop Effect (auditory) </li></ul><ul><li>- develop by John Ridley Stroop in 1935 </li></ul><ul><li>- when we read a set of words that are printed in color but their font colors do not correspond to their semantic equivalent, there would be a delay in the processing/perceiving the printed set of words </li></ul>
  12. 12. Consciousness <ul><li>BLACK YELLOW GREEN </li></ul><ul><li>BLUE YELLOW GREEN </li></ul><ul><li>BEIGE RED GREY </li></ul><ul><li>GREEN BLUE GREY </li></ul><ul><li>GOLD BLUE GOLD </li></ul><ul><li>INDIGO BROWN YELLOW </li></ul><ul><li>ORANGE VIOLET PINK </li></ul>
  13. 13. Consciousness <ul><li>MINDLESSNESS </li></ul><ul><li>Mindfulness, which apparently the contradiction of mindlessness, refers to an act which a person deliberately spares attention to the present condition at hand </li></ul><ul><li>Can be influence by obsessive-compulsive disorder </li></ul>
  14. 14. Consciousness <ul><li>COCKTAIL PARTY PHENOMENA </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the research output of E. Colin Cherry (1953)… in which we follow one conversation despite the distraction of other conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Shadowing - where each ear listens to different messages and the listener is asked to repeat (in words) the messages that he heard during the experiment </li></ul>
  15. 15. Consciousness <ul><li>COCKTAIL PARTY PHENOMENA </li></ul><ul><li>Dichotic Presentation – refers to a condition in which at least one ear receives a different message </li></ul><ul><li>Binaural Presentation – refers to a situation wherein both ears received the same message </li></ul>
  16. 16. Consciousness <ul><li>OTHER SELECTIVE ATTENTION THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>Filter Theory </li></ul><ul><li>- developed by Donald Broadbent (1958) which states that we can practically select the stimuli that are coming in our senses, thus, filtering the irrelevant ones </li></ul>
  17. 17. Consciousness <ul><li>OTHER SELECTIVE ATTENTION THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>Single-Pool and Multiple-Pool Model </li></ul><ul><li>-considers attentional resource theories involve </li></ul><ul><li>-these models have something to do with the amount of attention that the individual would spare if given particular amount of task </li></ul>
  18. 18. Consciousness <ul><li>OTHER SELECTIVE ATTENTION THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>Single-Pool Model </li></ul><ul><li>- If the individual asked to pay attention to a particular task, he would tend to focus on the task and may take away attention from all other task </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-Pool Model </li></ul><ul><li>- allocate a particular amount of attention based on each task’s importance </li></ul>
  19. 19. Consciousness <ul><li>THEORIES OF LOCKE, HUME AND DENNETT ON CONSCIOUSNESS </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke (1932-1704) </li></ul><ul><li>- consciousness serves as one of the factors to establish one’s personal identity through the use of the combines affects of the past and present </li></ul>
  20. 20. Consciousness <ul><li>THEORIES OF LOCKE, HUME AND DENNETT ON CONSCIOUSNESS </li></ul><ul><li>David Hume (1711-1776) </li></ul><ul><li>- consciousness’ real task is to show the “succession of the states of the world” </li></ul><ul><li>*to illustrate, think of a film tape. It is composed of a series of static pictures. The pictures seems to be dynamic if the tapes starts to roll and projected with a sufficient amount of light. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Consciousness <ul><li>THEORIES OF LOCKE, HUME AND DENNETT ON CONSCIOUSNESS </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel Dennett (1995) </li></ul><ul><li>- the sense of identity comes from the lower-level processing of our consciousness, this lower-level processing involves the things that we want to do in the absence of unusual substances or conditions </li></ul>