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Learning and the gifted child

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Learning and the gifted child slideshare copy

  1. 1. LEARNING AND THE GIFTED CHILD Lee Marsh Indigo Assessment & Counselling
  2. 2. OVERVIEW • THE GIFTED CHILD AND LEARNING • CHALLENGES • BARRIERS TO LEARNING • EMOTIONAL OVERLAYS • MOTIVATION • THE WAY FORWARD - SUPPORTING THEM APPROPRIATELY • SELF-REGULATED LEARNERS • MEDIATED LEARNING EXPERIENCES • SHIFTING TOWARDS DEEP LEARNING Lee Marsh (Cayzer) 2
  3. 3. SOME DEFINITIONS • “Giftedness is a complex constellation of behaviours that can be expressed in various ways, and there are honest differences of opinion concerning how much of which behaviours are needed for a child or an adult to be considered gifted”. Olenchak, F. Richard; Goerss, Jean; Beljan, Paul; Webb, James T.; Webb, Nadia E.; Amend, Edward R. (2005-01-15). Misdiagnosis and Dual Diagnoses of Gifted Children and Adults: ADHD, Bipolar, OCD, Asperger's, Depression, and Other Disorders (Kindle Locations 233-235). Great Potential Press. Kindle Edition. • Giftedness is more than intellect - has an emotional depth • Definitions that consider giftedness as potential to be developed make a distinction between what a child is capable of achieving and what the child will achieve. The fact that a child has exceptional potential is part of what makes him or her gifted. The child’s environment determines whether potential leads to achievement. Carol Bainbridge Lee Marsh (Cayzer) 3
  4. 4. CHALLENGES Lee Marsh (Cayzer) 4
  5. 5. The Average Student • Limited motivation • Limited volition • Limited engagement More engaged students • Students who are owning their learning journey • Deeper learning and meaning making • Critical thinking Lee Marsh (Cayzer) 5
  6. 6. EMOTIONAL OVERLAYS Lee Marsh (Cayzer) 6
  7. 7. UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DIFFICULTIES IN LEARNING Two schools of thought on whether gifted children are particularly at risk for social and emotional difficulties. 1. Gifted and talented children as being prone to problems and in need of special interventions to prevent or overcome their unique difficulties • ‘high potential children …not identified as gifted … often not in special school programs … because of social and emotional difficulties that may develop in first few years of formal schooling, when there are few attempts made to search out and provide assistance to these children’ (Ballering & Koch, 1984; Webb, 1993). 2. Gifted children as generally being able to fare quite well on their own, and gifted children with problems needing special interventions are seen as a relative minority. • ‘research on students from academic programs specifically designed for gifted children. Such children, by the very nature of the selection process, are usually functioning well in school, and are not experiencing major social or emotional problems’ (Webb, 1993; Whitmore, 1980). • Bottom line: social and emotional difficulties can mask giftedness and also influence school performance • Gifted children – ‘risk factors such as perfectionism or asynchronous development’ (Olenchak, F. Richard; Goerss, Jean; Beljan, Paul; Webb, James T.; Webb, Nadia E.; Amend, Edward R, 2005) Lee Marsh (Cayzer) 7
  8. 8. BARRIERS TO LEARNING • Generally, twice-exceptional students are those who meet the eligibility criteria for both giftedness and learning disabilities. • Giftedness usually pertains to high intellectual abilities or potential rather than students' specific accomplishments. Gifted students are commonly depicted as having exceptional abilities or potential for learning and problem solving. It is important to understand factors that hamper this potential. • Learning disabilities are defined as problems in learning due to a cognitive- processing difficulty in which the dysfunction affects one or more cognitive processes instead of obstructing overall intellectual ability. Dawn Beckley University of Connecticut Lee Marsh (Cayzer) 8
  9. 9. UNDERSTANDING THE IMPORTANCE OF SENSORY AND PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT LEVEL 1 PRIMARY SENSORY SYSTEMS Touch, Balance & Movement, Body & Position, Other Senses including visual and auditory LEVEL 2 SENSORY-MOTOR SKILLS Body Awareness, Hand Preference, Motor Planning LEVEL 3 PERCEPTUAL MOTOR SKILLS Auditory Discrimination, Speech & Language, Visual Discrimination, Eye-Hand Coordination, Purposeful Activity LEVEL 4 ACADEMIC READINESS Academic Skills, Complex, Motor Skills, Regulation of Attention, Organised Behaviour, Self-Esteem & Self-Control. (Adapted from Dr. Jean Ayres’s ‘Four levels of Sensory Integration’ Stock-Kranowitz, 2005:67)Lee Marsh (Cayzer) 9
  10. 10. SOME THOUGHTS ABOUT ‘DIAGNOSIS’ • It the situation or setting perhaps inappropriate. Behaviours that fit in one environment may be seen as problematic in another setting. • Unspoken assumption that everyone should function equally well in every circumstance. • We see many children who have been referred with diagnoses/suspected ADD/ ADHD, OCD, Asperger’s Disorder, ODD, or Bipolar Disorder. Assessment might reveal misdiagnosis/overlooking asynchronous development and giftedness (behaviours inherent to gifted children not sufficiently understand or accepted). • Can be a combination of factors - how to help children not feel so very different Lee Marsh (Cayzer) 10
  11. 11. DISCREPANCIES • Emerick (1988) suggested this discrepancy might include any of the following combinations: • high IQ score and low achievement test scores; • high IQ score and low grades; • high achievement test scores and low grades; • high indicators of intellectual, creative potential and low creative productivity; or • high indicators of potential and limited presence of appropriate opportunity for intellectual and creative development. Siegle, Del (2012-10-01). Underachieving Gifted Child: Recognizing, Understanding, and Reversing Underachievement (Kindle Locations 167-173). Sourcebooks, Inc.. Kindle Edition. Lee Marsh (Cayzer) 11
  12. 12. ACKNOWLEDGING ASSETS Lee Marsh (Cayzer) 12
  13. 13. MOTIVATION Lee Marsh (Cayzer) 13
  14. 14. THE WAY FORWARD SUPPORTING THEM APPROPRIATELY Lee Marsh (Cayzer) 14
  15. 15. SELF-REGULATED LEARNING Self-regulated learning emphasizes: • “autonomy and control by the individual who monitors, directs, and regulates actions toward goals of information acquisition, expanding expertise, and self-improvement” (Paris & Paris, 2001:1) Self-regulation refers to: • “refers to self-generated thoughts, feelings, and actions that are planned and cyclically adapted to the attainment of personal goals” (Zimmerman, 2000:14) Self-regulated learning - relies on learners being motivated and being able to exert self-control in attending to tasks: • Sustaining attention/not giving in to distractions • Setting attainable goals – scaffolding!! TRAJECTORIES!! • Persistence when challenged Core principles: • Autonomous learning • Reflective learning & teaching … becoming engaged in their own learning process Lee Marsh (Cayzer) 15
  16. 16. MEDIATED LEARNING EXPERIENCES http://wordplay11.wordpress.com/tag/vygotsky/Lee Marsh (Cayzer) 16
  17. 17. COMING BACK FULL CIRCLE … SHIFTING TOWARDS DEEP LEARNING Lee Marsh (Cayzer) 17
  18. 18. The Average Student • Limited motivation • Limited volition • Limited engagement More engaged students • Students who are owning their learning journey • Deeper learning and meaning making • Critical thinking Lee Marsh (Cayzer) 18
  19. 19. SOURCES • http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/nrcgt/newsletter/spring98/sprng984.html • Olenchak, F. Richard; Goerss, Jean; Beljan, Paul; Webb, James T.; Webb, Nadia E.; Amend, Edward R. (2005-01-15). Misdiagnosis and Dual Diagnoses of Gifted Children and Adults: ADHD, Bipolar, OCD, Asperger's, Depression, and Other Disorders (Kindle Locations 142-144). Great Potential Press. Kindle Edition • Kozulin 1998, Chapter 3, The Mediated Learning Experience and Psychological Tools • Kozulin, A. 1985. Vygotsky in context. Chapter 1 In: Vygotsky, L. 1986. Thought and Language. Cambridge, MIT Press • Van der Westhuizen, G. J. and Lewis, H. 2004. The space for emancipatory learning in outcomes-based education. Paper presented at the International Conference on OBE, Pretoria, HSRC. • Paris, SG & Paris, AH. 2001. Classroom Applications of Research on Self-Regulated Learning. Educational psychologist, 36(2), 89–101. • Magano, MM, Mostert, P and van der Westhuizen G. 2010. Learning conversations. The value of interactive learning. Johannesburg, Heineman. • Siegle, Del (2012-10-01). Underachieving Gifted Child: Recognizing, Understanding, and Reversing Underachievement (p. 20). Sourcebooks, Inc.. Kindle Edition. • Schunk, DH. Motivation. Chapter 14 in: Schunk, Learning theories, an Educational Perspective. New York, Pearson. Lee Marsh (Cayzer) 19

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