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  • Sputnik I: 1955 – Eisenhouwer & Kremlin 4 October 1957 70 kgs bleeping sphere ARPA: Apply state-of-the-art technology to US defence
  • John Licklider: “ Galactic Network” concept --> computers would be networked together Leonard Kleinrock: Break up a message in small packages Send them speratly to their destination Reassembling them at the other end Vint Cerf and Bob Khan who defined the "Internet Protocol" (IP) First WAN: Telephone line were low-speed
  • 1967: MIT, National Physics Laboratory (UK), RAND corporation 1969: IMP is build by BBN (million-dollar contract) 4 computers UCLA Stanford Research Institute University of California Santa Barbara University of Utah First attempt to login (at UCLA into SRI) fails as the letter G of LOGIN was entered
  • 1972: First International Conference on Computers and Communication (Washington DC) Linking computers from 40 different locations together First host-to-host protocols 1974: TCP/IP marked a crucial stage in networking development Crucial concept was the ‘open architecture’ (“Galactic Network”)
  • 1974: crucial stage in networking development Crucial concept was the ‘open architecture’ (“Galactic Network”) Gateway would be a large computer (large volume of traffic) to transmit and redirect any packages Gateway would cut-down workload and speed up the traffic Packages can be rerouted System was designed for a limited number of national (sub-) networks.
  • 1978: TCP/IP split into TCP and IP 1979: first suggestion of adding emotcions (widely used in 1982)
  • Increasingly predictions were voiced that the entire system would eventually grind to a halt Until then eacht host computer had been assigned a name Edu, com, gov, org and country codes
  • IAB: descendent of the IWG (1972) Backbone First computers: 56,000 bytes per second 1988: 1,544,000,000 bytes per second Purposes: only in support of research and education
  • Commercial users Hardware and software suppliers had been adding TCP/IP Little experience 1985 – the IAB organised the first workshop targeting the private sector 1987 – first commercial network, UUNET, was founded Internet still is forbidden place for the uninitiated Documentation available is highly scientific Finding stuff is a pain in the neck Transfer times are relatively slow
  • Al Gore’s project provided funds (over $3,000 mln) for futher research
  • Tim Berners-Lee Scientist at CERN (European centre for High Energy Physics – Geneva) Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
  • Mosaic X Eary to install Easy to use Backed by 24-hour customer support Improved graphical capabilities Many features which are available today 1994: tens of thousands of versions had been installed Commercial websites began their proliferation Followed by local shool/club/family sites Accelerated by even-more powerful and cheap personal computers The web exploded
  • 1994 Supported colour Pictures are placed in-line December 1992 – 50 website were online December 1993 – 150 website were online
  • Microsoft acquires Hotmail in 1998 W3C director is Tim Berners-Lee AOL acquires Mirabilis and Netscape in 1998 Google is founded by two Stanford graduate students, who worked on the idea since 1995
  • Bart

    1. 1. History of Internet Bart Meulenbroeks
    2. 2. Content <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of ARPANET </li></ul><ul><li>From ARPANET to Internet </li></ul><ul><li>From Internet to the World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
    3. 3. Creation of ARPANET (1) <ul><li>1957 – USSR launched Sputnik I </li></ul><ul><li>United States were shocked </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Research Projects Agency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thechnological think-tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space, ballistic missiles and nuclear test monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication between operational base and subcontracters </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Creation of ARPANET (2) <ul><li>1962 – computer research program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaded by John Licklider (MIT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leonard Kleinrock published his first paper on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>packet-switching theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1965 – first “wide area network” created </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection between Berkeley and MIT </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Creation of ARPANET (3) <ul><li>1967 – plans for ARPANET were published </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MIT – NPL (UK) – RAND </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1969 – Interface Message Processor (IMP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 computers (UCLA, SRI, UCSB and UTAH) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1971 – 23 host computers (15 nodes) </li></ul>
    6. 6. From ARPANET to Internet (1) <ul><li>1972 – ARPANET went ‘public’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ICCC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First program for person-to-person communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(e-mail) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1973 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>75% of all ARPANET traffic is e-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First international connection (University College of London) </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. From ARPANET to Internet (2) <ul><li>1974 – TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each network should work on its own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within each network there would be a ‘gateway’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packages would be routed through the fastest available route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large mainframe computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several years of modification and redesign </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. From ARPANET to Internet (3) <ul><li>1974/1982 – Networks launched </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telenet – first commercial version of ARPANET </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MFENet – researchers into Magnetic Fusion Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HEPNet – researchers into High Energy Physics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPAN – space physicists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usenet – open system focusing on e-mail and newsgroups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bitnet – university scientists using IBM computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CSNet – Computer Scientists in universities, industry and government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eunet – European version of the Unix network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EARN – European version of Bitnet </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. From ARPANET to Internet (4) <ul><li>1974/1982 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very chaotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different competing techniques and protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ARPANET is still the backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1982 – The internet is born using the TCP/IP standard </li></ul>
    10. 10. From Internet to WWW (1) <ul><li>System expands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advances in computer capacities and speeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of glass-fibre cables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems created by its own success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More computers are linked ( 1984 – 1000 hosts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large volume of traffic (success of e-mail) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1984 – Introduction DNS </li></ul>
    11. 11. From Internet to WWW (2) <ul><li>Use of internet throughout the higher educational system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British government – Joint Academic Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US National Science Foundation – NSFNet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NSFNet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of TCP/IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Agencies share cost of infrastructures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NSFNet shared infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support behind the ‘Internet Activities Board’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NSFNet provided the ‘backbone’ </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. From Internet to WWW (3) <ul><li>NSFNet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>broke the capacity bottleneck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>encouraged a surge in Internet use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1984 – 1,000 hosts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1986 – 5,000 hosts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1987 – 28,000 hosts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1989 – 100,000 hosts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1990 – 300,000 hosts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>encouraged the development of private Internet providers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial users </li></ul>
    13. 13. From Internet to WWW (4) <ul><li>1990 – ARPANET was wound up </li></ul><ul><li>1990 – first search-engine (Archie) </li></ul><ul><li>1991 – NSF removed restrictions on private access </li></ul><ul><li>“ Information superhighway” project </li></ul>
    14. 14. The World Wide Web (1) <ul><li>1989 – WWW concept </li></ul><ul><li>by Tim Berners-Lee </li></ul><ul><li>1990 – first browser/editor program </li></ul>
    15. 15. The World Wide Web (2) <ul><li>National Center for SuperComputing Applications launched Mosaic X </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial websites began their proliferation </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by local shool/club/family sites </li></ul><ul><li>The web exploded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1994 – 3,2 million hosts and 3,000 websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1995 – 6,4 million hosts and 25,000 websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1997 – 19,5 million hosts and 1,2 million websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>January 2001 – 110 million hosts and 30 million websites </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. The World Wide Web (3)
    17. 17. The World Wide Web (4) <ul><li>Some facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1994 – Hotmail starts web based email </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1994 – World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was founded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1995 – JAVA source code was released </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1996 – Mirabilis (Israel) starts ICQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1998 – Google is founded </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. The World Wide Web (5)
    19. 19. The World Wide Web (6)
    20. 20. Questions???