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Bart
 

Bart

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philips success

philips success

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  • Sputnik I: 1955 – Eisenhouwer & Kremlin 4 October 1957 70 kgs bleeping sphere ARPA: Apply state-of-the-art technology to US defence
  • John Licklider: “ Galactic Network” concept --> computers would be networked together Leonard Kleinrock: Break up a message in small packages Send them speratly to their destination Reassembling them at the other end Vint Cerf and Bob Khan who defined the "Internet Protocol" (IP) First WAN: Telephone line were low-speed
  • 1967: MIT, National Physics Laboratory (UK), RAND corporation 1969: IMP is build by BBN (million-dollar contract) 4 computers UCLA Stanford Research Institute University of California Santa Barbara University of Utah First attempt to login (at UCLA into SRI) fails as the letter G of LOGIN was entered
  • 1972: First International Conference on Computers and Communication (Washington DC) Linking computers from 40 different locations together First host-to-host protocols 1974: TCP/IP marked a crucial stage in networking development Crucial concept was the ‘open architecture’ (“Galactic Network”)
  • 1974: crucial stage in networking development Crucial concept was the ‘open architecture’ (“Galactic Network”) Gateway would be a large computer (large volume of traffic) to transmit and redirect any packages Gateway would cut-down workload and speed up the traffic Packages can be rerouted System was designed for a limited number of national (sub-) networks.
  • 1978: TCP/IP split into TCP and IP 1979: first suggestion of adding emotcions (widely used in 1982)
  • Increasingly predictions were voiced that the entire system would eventually grind to a halt Until then eacht host computer had been assigned a name Edu, com, gov, org and country codes
  • IAB: descendent of the IWG (1972) Backbone First computers: 56,000 bytes per second 1988: 1,544,000,000 bytes per second Purposes: only in support of research and education
  • Commercial users Hardware and software suppliers had been adding TCP/IP Little experience 1985 – the IAB organised the first workshop targeting the private sector 1987 – first commercial network, UUNET, was founded Internet still is forbidden place for the uninitiated Documentation available is highly scientific Finding stuff is a pain in the neck Transfer times are relatively slow
  • Al Gore’s project provided funds (over $3,000 mln) for futher research
  • Tim Berners-Lee Scientist at CERN (European centre for High Energy Physics – Geneva) Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
  • Mosaic X Eary to install Easy to use Backed by 24-hour customer support Improved graphical capabilities Many features which are available today 1994: tens of thousands of versions had been installed Commercial websites began their proliferation Followed by local shool/club/family sites Accelerated by even-more powerful and cheap personal computers The web exploded
  • 1994 Supported colour Pictures are placed in-line December 1992 – 50 website were online December 1993 – 150 website were online
  • Microsoft acquires Hotmail in 1998 W3C director is Tim Berners-Lee AOL acquires Mirabilis and Netscape in 1998 Google is founded by two Stanford graduate students, who worked on the idea since 1995

Bart Bart Presentation Transcript

  • History of Internet Bart Meulenbroeks
  • Content
    • Introduction
    • Creation of ARPANET
    • From ARPANET to Internet
    • From Internet to the World Wide Web
    • Development of the World Wide Web
    • Questions
  • Creation of ARPANET (1)
    • 1957 – USSR launched Sputnik I
    • United States were shocked
    • Advanced Research Projects Agency
      • Thechnological think-tank
      • Space, ballistic missiles and nuclear test monitoring
      • Communication between operational base and subcontracters
  • Creation of ARPANET (2)
    • 1962 – computer research program
      • Leaded by John Licklider (MIT)
      • Leonard Kleinrock published his first paper on
      • packet-switching theory
    • 1965 – first “wide area network” created
      • Connection between Berkeley and MIT
  • Creation of ARPANET (3)
    • 1967 – plans for ARPANET were published
      • MIT – NPL (UK) – RAND
    • 1969 – Interface Message Processor (IMP)
      • 4 computers (UCLA, SRI, UCSB and UTAH)
    • 1971 – 23 host computers (15 nodes)
  • From ARPANET to Internet (1)
    • 1972 – ARPANET went ‘public’
      • ICCC
      • First program for person-to-person communication
      • (e-mail)
    • 1973
      • 75% of all ARPANET traffic is e-mail
      • First international connection (University College of London)
  • From ARPANET to Internet (2)
    • 1974 – TCP/IP
      • Each network should work on its own
      • Within each network there would be a ‘gateway’
      • Packages would be routed through the fastest available route
      • Large mainframe computers
      • Several years of modification and redesign
  • From ARPANET to Internet (3)
    • 1974/1982 – Networks launched
      • Telenet – first commercial version of ARPANET
      • MFENet – researchers into Magnetic Fusion Energy
      • HEPNet – researchers into High Energy Physics
      • SPAN – space physicists
      • Usenet – open system focusing on e-mail and newsgroups
      • Bitnet – university scientists using IBM computers
      • CSNet – Computer Scientists in universities, industry and government
      • Eunet – European version of the Unix network
      • EARN – European version of Bitnet
  • From ARPANET to Internet (4)
    • 1974/1982
      • Very chaotic
      • Different competing techniques and protocols
      • ARPANET is still the backbone
    • 1982 – The internet is born using the TCP/IP standard
  • From Internet to WWW (1)
    • System expands
      • Advances in computer capacities and speeds
      • Introduction of glass-fibre cables
    • Problems created by its own success
      • More computers are linked ( 1984 – 1000 hosts)
      • Large volume of traffic (success of e-mail)
    • 1984 – Introduction DNS
  • From Internet to WWW (2)
    • Use of internet throughout the higher educational system
      • British government – Joint Academic Network
      • US National Science Foundation – NSFNet
    • NSFNet
      • Use of TCP/IP
      • Federal Agencies share cost of infrastructures
      • NSFNet shared infrastructure
      • Support behind the ‘Internet Activities Board’
      • NSFNet provided the ‘backbone’
  • From Internet to WWW (3)
    • NSFNet
      • broke the capacity bottleneck
      • encouraged a surge in Internet use
        • 1984 – 1,000 hosts
        • 1986 – 5,000 hosts
        • 1987 – 28,000 hosts
        • 1989 – 100,000 hosts
        • 1990 – 300,000 hosts
      • encouraged the development of private Internet providers
    • Commercial users
  • From Internet to WWW (4)
    • 1990 – ARPANET was wound up
    • 1990 – first search-engine (Archie)
    • 1991 – NSF removed restrictions on private access
    • “ Information superhighway” project
  • The World Wide Web (1)
    • 1989 – WWW concept
    • by Tim Berners-Lee
    • 1990 – first browser/editor program
  • The World Wide Web (2)
    • National Center for SuperComputing Applications launched Mosaic X
    • Commercial websites began their proliferation
    • Followed by local shool/club/family sites
    • The web exploded
      • 1994 – 3,2 million hosts and 3,000 websites
      • 1995 – 6,4 million hosts and 25,000 websites
      • 1997 – 19,5 million hosts and 1,2 million websites
      • January 2001 – 110 million hosts and 30 million websites
  • The World Wide Web (3)
  • The World Wide Web (4)
    • Some facts
      • 1994 – Hotmail starts web based email
      • 1994 – World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was founded
      • 1995 – JAVA source code was released
      • 1996 – Mirabilis (Israel) starts ICQ
      • 1998 – Google is founded
  • The World Wide Web (5)
  • The World Wide Web (6)
  • Questions???