BIRTH CONTROL“our ability to prevent or delay pregnancy is fundamentalto our abilities to chose how we live our lives” – ourbodies, ourselves 2011By: leeann riley
BIRTH CONTROL Prevention/delay of pregnancy “The practice of preventing unwanted pregnancies, typically by use of contraception.”
MEN AND BIRTH CONTROL Men have an important role in birth control, this is not often discussed between couples, but should be. Men benefit – being able to decide when and if they will father a child / protection for themselves and partners from sexually transmitted infections Birth control is not a decision for the woman alone- unfair burden Condoms- way for men to get involved in birth control, although many men find wearing condoms to be unmasculine, they are a very easy way of preventing unwanted pregnancies or infections.
BIRTH CONTROL ACTIVISM 1870’s: first major defense of birth control – women’s right to refuse sexual activity 1930’s – 2 things occurred during this time period: a woman named Margaret Sanger fought to have information and services available to all women in regards to birth control. A feminist movement for the legalization of birth control, which also defended the separation of sex from reproduction 1960’s – defined birth control as a reproductive right and motherhood as a choice.
METHODS: WHAT IS BEST FOR YOU! If you are going to be using Important questions: birth control other than condoms or spermicide, it “what characteristics are should be discussed with a you looking for in a birth health care professional, as control given your life style” they are the only ones who can prescribe prescription “how safe is the method for birth control both yourself and your partner” Chosing the right one will be decided between your “what are the side effects doctor and yourself and risks of each method” Every method of birth “how effective is the control is different and every method” body is different Questions and concerns should be discussed. (for more questions see page 255 in our bodies, ourselves)
EXAMPLES OF BIRTH CONTROL: BARRIERMETHODS Prevent pregnancy by blocking sperm from reaching the cervix Male condoms (rubbers, prophylactics) FC2 Female Condom Diaphragm Cervical cap Sponge Spermicides (foams, creams/jellies, VCF)
METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL: HORMONAL They work by using hormones similar to the ones in our bodies to prevent the release of eggs. The protect against pregnancy but not STI’s, including HIV Estrogen and progestin work to stabilize the uterine lining and encourage more regular bleeding patterns. Methods combined estrogen and a progestin reduce the uterine lining/ progestin only methods prevent the lining of the uterus from building up- nothing to shed Pill – 99% effective. Taken daily and contains both estrogen and progestin Minipill – progestin only. 98-99% effective Vaginal Ring- inserted into the vagina. Releases both estrogen and progestin (stopping ovulation, thickens cervical fluid, barrier from the sperm getting to the egg) 92 % effective Patch- ortho eva. Releases combination of estrogen and progestin through the skin. 92-99% effective Shot- depo-povera (injection of progestin). Lasts for 3 months. 99% effective.
METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL: LONG LASTING Contraceptive implant and intrauterine device Do not protect against STIs Requires a visit to the doctors office There is no difference between perfect and typical use effectiveness because they do not require any action for them to work.
PERMANENT BIRTH CONTROL METHODS There are three options for female sterilization They all work by stopping the egg from traveling to the uterus from the ovary and preventing sperm from reaching the fallopian tube to fertilize an egg Tubal ligation- surgical sterilization technique that closes the fallopian tubes Essure- does not require surgery or general sterilization. A small flexible spring is inserted each fallopian tube. Adiana- nonsurgical female sterilization that uses a silicon implant about the size of a grain of rice. Male Sterilization: Vasectomy This involves minor surgery to cut the vas deferens (the tube that carries sperm from the testes to the penis) The man still produces semen, but when he ejaculates, there are no sperm in the semen. This procedure is simpler than female sterilization
NONMEDICAL METHODS Withdrawal (“pulling out”) Removing the penis from the vagina before ejaculation Does not protect against STIs, requires self-control, experience and trust, not always effective. FAM- Fertility Awareness Method Scientifically validated method of natural birth control that involves charting fertility signs Requires background research, record keeping and a daily time commitment If used prefectly, 95-97% LAM – Lactational Amenorrhea Method Can only be used in the first 6 months of breastfeeding Must be strictly followed to be effective – contingent upon frequent nursing 2 criteria that must be met: periods have not resumed and you are strictly breastfeeding Abstinence- not having sexual contact with any person Completely 100% effective
EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTIVES Work by changing a woman’s hormone levels in the same way birth control pills and other hormonal methods work The body receives a short, high burst of synthetic hormones –this disrupts natural hormones needed for ovulation and pregnancy EPCs can be used within 5 days of unprotected sex These should NOT be used as birth control pills, only for emergencies – serious health risks can ensue
IN CONCLUSIONThe practice of safe sex through birth control can beextremely beneficial, if used correctly lower the risk of unwanted pregnancies protect against STI’sHormonal birth controls are also beneficial in that they lighter, more regular periods may reduce painful periods reduce incidence of ovarian cysts may relieve PMS protects against uterine and ovarian cancerEncourages couples to communicate