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SMEDSED Organizational Review Project SMEDSED Organizational Review Project Document Transcript

  • Project No. 02. 2476.6-000.18 Trade Policy and Trade Promotion ProjectOrganizational Review ProjectInternational Affairs Desk (IAD)Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC)June to September 2007
  • Conducted byAteneo Center for Organization Researchand Development (Ateneo CORD)ateneocord@admu.edu.phhttp://cord.ateneo.eduPublished byThe Trade Policy and Trade Promotion Projectwww.gtz.de/trade10th Floor, German Development CenterPDCP Bank Center Building, V.A. Rufino cor. L.P. Leviste StreetsSalcedo Village, Makati City, PhilippinesMs. Anja Gomm, Project Manageranja.gomm@gtz.dePrinted onNovember 2007
  • Project No. 02. 2476.6-000.18 Trade Policy and Trade Promotion ProjectOrganizational Review ProjectInternational Affairs Desk (IAD)Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC)June to September 2007
  • Table of Contents I. Project Rationale …………………………………………………………………………… 1II. Objective ………………………………………………………………………………. 1III. Methodology ……………………………………………………………………………….. 1IV. Participants ……………………………………………………………………………….. 2V. Results ………………………………………………………………………………… 3 A. IAD Mandate ………………………………………………………………………. 3 B. IAD Structure and Broad Description of IAD Staff’s Key Roles and Responsibilities ………………………………………………………………………. 6 C. Broad Description of Relationship with Other DOTC Departments and Partner Agencies ……………..…………………………………………... 8 D. Competencies of IAD Staff …………………………………………………… 11 E. Issues to be Resolved ………………………………………………………….. 12VI. Analysis and Recommendations …………………………………………………….. 13 A. IAD Mandate ………………………………………………………………………. 13 B. IAD Structure and Broad Description of IAD Staff’s Key Roles and Responsibilities ………………………………………………………………………. 13 C. Broad Description of Relationship with Other DOTC Departments and Partner Agencies ……………..…………………………………………... 15 D. Broad Description of Competencies of IAD Staff …………………….. 16 E. Recommendations on Issues ………………………………………………… 17Appendixes A Summary of Responses …………………………………………………………….. 19 B Documentation of DOTC-IAD Focused Group Discussion ………………. 37
  • I. Project RationaleAccess to world markets is crucial to prosperity and growth in developing countries. Theglobalization of trade has made the international arena doubly competitive. Thus, theneed for countries to strengthen their internal capabilities by establishing structures anddeveloping competencies that will allow them to compete or effectively manageinternational and trade relations.This was the context for the establishment of the Department of Transportation andCommunication’s (DOTC) International Affairs Desk. The unit was envisioned to pavethe way towards mainstreaming international affairs work in the entire Department.Although the need was evident given the abovementioned developments, there was noparticular unit in the DOTC that studies international trends and advancements. It is truethat the DOTC had been sending representatives to international conferences, meetingsand activities, but there was no centralized and structured way by which these weredone. There is a need for a system in coming up with positions on trade negotiations andan agreed process in formulating or adjusting policies to ensure efficient implementationof trade agreements among others.The current IAD has been envisioned as the clearing house and repository of all tradedocuments, and as monitoring body on the implementation of trade agreements.However, the demands of international work seem to require broader duties andresponsibilities. It likewise entails relating with various internal and external stakeholderswithin defined structures and processes.There is a need to clearly define IAD’s functions, structure, work processes and linkswith other DOTC units and partner agencies. Through this, it may evolve into a unit thatcan be instrumental in strengthening DOTC’s capability to adapt to global progressionsthat affect the country’s transportation and telecommunications.II. ObjectiveThe objective of this project is to assist the DOTC in developing and clarifying the role ofthe IAD vis-à-vis the other units in the organization and its partners. This report containsrecommendations on (1) IAD Mandate, (2) IAD Structure, (3) Broad description ofpossible relations with other DOTC Units and Partner Agencies, (4) Broad key roles,responsibilities, and competencies of IAD staff; and (5) Issues to be resolved.III. MethodologyThe methodologies used include analysis of existing documents, orientation meeting witha technical person (Professor Henry Basilio of UA & P), interviews with DOTC leadersand representatives of partner institutions identified by Undersecretary Anneli Lontoc anda focus group discussion with the Secretariat and Technical Representatives of theInternational Affairs Desk.DOTC was able to provide documents such as the organization’s vision, mission andstructure. However documents pertaining to strategies, rationalization plan and jobdescriptions of IAD personnel were not available.GTZ likewise shared important documents such as the Department Order containing the“Amendment to Department Order Nos. 2005-20 and 2006-26 Re: Creation of the 1
  • International Affairs Desk (IAD)” and the documentation of the Trade Meeting of theTransport Sector Group on Trade and Services. It was envisioned that benchmarkingstudies would be provided on the structure and function of international desks of othercountries, however, only the data from the Ministry of Transport in Singapore proved tobe the most useful.At the same time, because the CORD team needed more technical guidance in the areaof trade policies, a group of technical experts were requested to shed more light on thematter, nevertheless, they only had the opportunity to meet with Prof. Henry Basilio ofUA & P. Despite this, the rich insights provided by Prof. Basilio were helpful in analyzingthe data gathered from the interviewees.Most of the information used as basis for the subsequent recommendations came fromthe interviews of leaders from the DOTC and partner agencies, as well as from the focusgroup discussion conducted with the Secretariat and Technical Representatives of IAD.Although not all representatives of the partner agencies were interviewed, the resultsreflect the ideas, opinions and suggestions of majority of the key stakeholders of theInternational Affairs Desk.IV. ParticipantsA total of 16 people were interviewed for the study. Below is the list of people fromDOTC leaders and representatives from Partner Agencies who were interviewed: DOTC LEADERS1. Director for Administrative Services Ms. Rowena Quiogue2. Director for Transportation Planning Service Mr. Idelfonso T. Patdu, Jr.3. Assistant Secretary for Planning and Project Development ASEC Elmer Soneja4. Deputy Administrator for Planning, Maritime Industry Authority Atty. Gloria Bañas5. General Manager, Philippine Port Authority Atty. Oscar Sevilla7. Air Transportation Office ASEC Nilo Jatico8. Land Transportation Office, Operations Division Ms. Flor Creus9. DOTC Legal and Administrative Affairs ASEC Cesar Sarmiento10. Civil Aeronautics Board, Deputy Director Mr. Porvenir Porciuncula11. Technical Representative, WTO (GATT/GATS) Ms. Dolores G. Pua Representatives From Partner Agencies12. Department of Foreign Affairs, North Asia Division Director Daniel Espiritu13. Department of Foreign Affairs, ASEAN Division ASEC Luis Cruz14. Department of Foreign Affairs, Office of Economic Affairs Ms. Marlyn Alarilla15. Department of Tourism, Tourism Services and Regional Offices USEC Oscar Palabyab16. Department of Tourism, Office of Tourism Development Planning Director Rolando Cañizal 2
  • V. ResultsThis section describes the perceptions and opinions of the interviewees on the following: A. IAD’s Mandate B. Its Structure, and Key Roles and Responsibilities of IAD Staff C. Broad Description of Possible Relations With Other DOTC Units and Partner Agencies D. Competencies of IAD staff E. Issues to be ResolvedA. IAD MandateThere are seven proposed changes on the IAD Mandate with regard to its duties andresponsibilities. These are (1) to review existing policies and to develop new policies ontrade and international relations in coordination with stakeholders (DOTC sectors,partner government agencies, business, non-government organizations and people’sorganizations); (2) to monitor, coordinate and provide feedback to stakeholders; (3) toprepare status reports and position of the Department; (4) to represent DOTC in inter-agency technical committees and participate in negotiations, meetings and conferencesfor transport and telecommunications where the Philippines has entered into or proposedto enter into; (5) to act as a focal group within DOTC on all matters pertaining to tradeand international relations; (6) to create and maintain an efficient and easily accessibledatabase of international/trade related data and lastly, (7) to organize and executehuman resource development programs for DOTC personnel involved in internationalrelations. Other recommendations regarding the changes on duties and responsibilitiesof IAD are merely expansion of the formal mandate.The IAD shall perform the following duties and responsibilities according to the mandate:1. Oversee all activities related to the fulfillment of the Department’s commitment to international organizations previously mentioned (ASEAN, APEC, WTO- GATT/GATS, UN-ESCAP and BIMP-EAGA). As such, it shall facilitate the operationalization and shall monitor the status of the implementation of Agreements and Protocols signed by the Philippines;2. Refer to concerned Undersecretaries all matters related to the International Maritime Organization (IMO), International Civil Aeronautics Organization (ICAO), International Telecommunications Union (ITU), and International Commitment relation to the Road Transport Sector, and the Railways Sector;3. Ensure the representation of the Department to the meetings and activities of the former subject organizations, determine the level of delegates and consult with Undersecretaries concerned on the attendees to said meeting. In cases when the Department could not be represented, it shall request the Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA)/concerned Philippine Embassy for representation in behalf of the DOTC and provide the necessary documents;4. Initiate pre-departure briefings among members of Philippine Delegation to meetings of above organizations;5. Cause the submission of status reports/position of the Philippine Government in connection with the issues brought about by the previous said activities of said organizations. 3
  • The IAD shall undertake the following coordination in pursuance of its mandate:1. With the Assistant Secretary for Administrative and Legal Affairs, DOTC for: a. the complete processing of request for travel authorities based on its recommendation and other instructions for individual attendees and for Philippine Delegation; and b. the interpretation of legal issues provided for in the agenda through the Legal Service representative on other issues raised during the meeting based on Philippine Constitution and laws that would be advantageous to the Philippine Government.2. With the National Government Agencies (NGAs) with representatives in the delegation for their travel authorities, respective of their positions on issues and pertinent documents and reports.The seven proposed changes on the IAD Mandate with regard to duties andresponsibilities:a.1. Review Existing Policies and Develop New Policies on Trade and International Relations in Coordination with Stakeholders There were four respondents who emphasized the role of IAD as a formulator/developer, and reviewer of policies on transportation and communications, in consultation with the stakeholders. This may encompass executive orders, administrative orders, department orders, agency circulars, and republic acts or laws.a.2. Monitor, Coordinate and Provide Feedback to Stakeholders IAD is seen as responsible for monitoring, coordinating and providing feedback to stakeholders. An example given was coordinating work within DOTC in coming up and implementing trade policies. It is also expected to network with other government agencies regarding transportation and communication concerns. At the same time, IAD’s role is seen as a facilitator of the operationalization of Agreements, Protocols, Codes, Conventions, MOUs and other commitments made by the Philippines, as well as to act as a monitoring body. As such, the IAD should be knowledgeable on the international treaties the Philippines is a member of, as well as our obligations. In the same manner, it should be abreast with the developments and trends in traveling/tourism especially with what is happening outside the country so that it can provide feedback and propose development strategies to the stakeholders.a.3. Prepare Status Reports and Position of the Department One of the most frequently mentioned answer was the preparation of status reports/position of the Philippine Government concerning transportation and communication. This should be done in connection with various issues brought about by the activities and functions of international organizations. In preparing the position of the DOTC and therefore, the Philippine government, IAD will be the one to spearhead consultations but the sectoral agencies will still be responsible for identifying other stakeholders and making the agendas. At the same time, it is 4
  • IAD’s responsibility to integrate the comments, positions, inputs on transport and telecom problems, issues and concerns, in close consultation with affected stakeholders, as it relates to multilateral, regional, and bilateral negotiations or agreements. This can be done through research, and most importantly, through systematic and institutionalized consultation meetings. There was also a suggestion that IAD should take care of documentation of international events and status of implementation. Documentation of international events may include information borne out of process observations (e.g. know who are our allies are in our position). This may be used in effectively creating negotiation strategies.a.4. Represent DOTC in Interagency Technical Committees Pertaining to Trade Negotiations and Participate in International Negotiations, Meetings, Conferences for Transport and Telecommunications Where the Philippines has Entered Into or Proposed to Enter Into IAD is seen as provider of technical and administrative support to the Philippine representatives/delegation on transport and telecommunications in negotiations, meetings, conferences and fora. This can be done by scheduling, arranging and undertaking national and local meetings or discussions for any issues or concerns on transport and communications that needed to be resolved before the scheduled international gathering. In addition, it must inform or notify DFA of all DOTC activities with foreign governments and in return, DFA must make sure that there is one fully coordinated and unified Philippine Government position and effort. Still under this theme is IAD’s duty and responsibility to either represent the country in international meetings or ensure that representatives are prepared when attending international activities. Delegates should be briefed about pertinent information like relevant agreements, results of past meetings, outcome of consultations with stakeholders, the objectives in attending the activity, among other things. This is especially important since delegates sent by the various sectors to conferences and meetings may change from time to time, therefore there is an emphasis to conduct such briefings to ensure continuity. There were likewise suggestions that IAD should be a negotiating entity for trade negotiations.a.5. Act as Focal Group for the Department on Trade and International Relations IAD is seen as a focal group for trade and international relations that people and organizations can communicate or coordinate with. It can represent DOTC in all relevant networking functions with other government agencies. It can also represent the Philippine government in international networks on transport and telecommunications.a.6. Create and Maintain an Efficient and Easily Accessible Database of International/Trade Related Data IAD is also expected to create and maintain an efficient and easily accessible database of international/trade related data. This can be done by organizing and updating an international cooperation data bank or portal. It should act as a depository of all information and other pertinent documents relative to matters and activities involving DOTC in international organizations. 5
  • a.7. Organize and Execute Human Resource Development Programs There were also suggestions that IAD should be responsible for organizing and executing human resource development programs to ensure that the representatives to international activities develop the competencies needed to effectively perform their function. In this role, IAD will make sure that the country is sending representatives that can negotiate and make decisions for the transportation and telecommunications sector in a manner that generates respect from the stakeholders and the international community.B. IAD Structure and Broad Description of Key Roles and ResponsibilitiesThe data on IAD’s structure can be divided into two parts. First is its position within theDOTC structure and second is its own internal structure.b.1. Position Within the DOTC Structure Most of the respondents mentioned that IAD should be a permanent body within the Department. According to them, there is a need for IAD because there are many commitments in the international setting and it entails fulltime work. This is important so that continuity is ensured. b.1.1. Bureau/Service or Ad hoc headed by an Undersecretary There were seven respondents who said that an Undersecretary should head IAD. However, there were different views on how it should be positioned within the DOTC hierarchy. One respondent mentioned that it should be a bureau or service that has a distinct organic structure. Another mentioned that it can be a unit undertaking staff functions for the Office of the Secretary. It will be headed by an Undersecretary that takes the role of the Secretary for international and trade concerns and activities. In this case, it will have enough authority to monitor the implementation of trade agreements and mobilize participation of various sectors for relevant endeavors. b.1.2. Division Under Planning On the other hand, there were six participants who said that it should be a Division headed by a Director. One of the interviewees mentioned that the head must not be a political appointee to ensure continuity. Most of the participants who suggested that it should be a Division mentioned that it can be under the Office of Assistant Secretary for Planning and Development because this unit is responsible for policies. b.1.3. Ad Hoc Two respondents suggested that IAD could remain as an ad-hoc unit headed by an Undersecretary. It will still have a Secretariat that undertakes the coordination and leg work. 6
  • b.2. IAD Internal Structure and Broad Description of Key Roles and Responsibilities b.2.1. According to Sectoral Expertise HEAD (USEC/Director) Secretariat Water Air Land & Rail Telecom (2-3 Technical (2-3 Technical (2-3 Technical (2-3 Technical Experts) Experts) Experts) Experts) There was a suggestion that it will be composed of sectoral experts. Two to three technical experts from each of the 5 sectors (water, air, land and rail, telecom) shall form the sub-units within IAD. It will have a Secretariat that will be in-charge of administrative and logistical functions. b.2.2. According to International Organization Another suggestion that came up was to have a separate sub-unit for each of the international organizations composed of around 4 people per sub-unit (roughly 20 people including the Secretariat). The volume of work borne out of our dealings with ASEAN, WTO and APEC would require sub-units dedicated to each of these organizations. Another sub-unit can be in-charge of other international organizations. Expertise within each sub-unit can either be based on sectors or functions: a. Technical Expertise (Sectors) HEAD (USEC/Director ) Secretariat APEC ASEAN WTO Other International (Technical Experts (Technical Experts (Technical Experts Organizations on water, air, land on water, air, land on water, air, land (Technical Experts on water, air, land and and rail, telecom) and rail, telecom) and rail, telecom) rail, telecom) Each sub-unit dedicated to an international organization, shall be composed of technical representatives from each sector (water, air, land and rail, and telecom). In this case, the technical experts can provide a multi-sectoral and holistic approach to international work. Trade positions can be made in consideration of the various sectors and strategies can be designed in ways that leverages gains 7
  • on some sectors while providing lee-way and flexibility for other countries in other sectors. b. Technical Expertise Based on Function HEAD (USEC/ Director) Secretariat APEC ASEAN WTO Other Int’l Org (Experts on legal, (Experts on legal, (Experts on legal, such as IMO, conference conference conference ICAO, ITU, etc. management, management, management, (Experts on legal, policy formulation, policy formulation, policy formulation, conference research and research and research and management, policy management management management formulation, research information information information and management system) system) system) information system) Sub-units may be composed of experts in legal, conference management, policy formulation, research and management information system. Having people who are experts on these areas of work will ensure that IAD can effectively and efficiently perform its functions. Technical expertise can be tapped from the various sectors as well as the Transportation Planning Service unit and its equivalent in the Telecommunications sector. It was also mentioned that there should be “foreign desks” in the attached agencies that could serve as focal groups with whom IAD could coordinate and work with. This would ensure accountability and sense of responsibility. However, it must be made sure that there will be no duplication of tasks between IAD and the “foreign desks”.C. Broad Description of Relationships with Other DOTC Departments and Partner AgenciesSince IAD’s duties and responsibilities, as stated in the Department Order are yet to beimplemented, the interviews and focus group discussion results show that IAD currentlyfunctions mainly as a Secretariat. The broad descriptions below mostly demonstrate howthey foresee IAD should relate to other DOTC units and Partner Agencies in the future. 8
  • c.1. Relationships With Other DOTC Units c.1.1. Air Transportation Office ATO gave four important work processes in their office and IAD’s potential role. First is the coordination with other agencies and other international bodies. With the support of IAD, this undertaking would potentially be more efficient as it can help eliminate duplication of tasks and unify the efforts towards common goals. Second, IAD could help ATO in managing scarce resources by identifying international sources of funds for activities/projects. Third, it could likewise provide progress reports on international meetings. This would help promote continuity and effective participation and representation of ATO personnel to international gatherings. Lastly, IAD could help ATO by articulating its vision for the future as well as its anticipated barriers to the Department Secretary. In doing so, IAD could assist in speeding up the realization of this vision. It was also mentioned that IAD could greatly contribute to the ATO’s plan to establish the Civil Aviation Authority. c.1.2. Civil Aeronautics Board The interviewee from the Civil Aeronautics Board mentioned that IAD could train their people on trade policies and trade negotiations as well as provide international exposure. They could likewise help establish a more effective way of conducting internal discussions regarding trade positions to lessen the number of delegates from DOTC. In this case, people from the attached agencies, like the CAB, would not be required to attend. c.1.3. Land Transportation Office IAD could help LTO’s work processes in various ways. It can provide benchmarking information that describes the level of adherence of other countries to internationally accepted standards, an example of which is ISO. Aside from this, it can share some of the initiatives and programs of other countries that we can adopt (ex. Driving Academy). IAD could help by sharing the developments abroad so that these could be implemented in the Philippines. IAD could likewise assist in training LTO personnel. Examples are programs that focus on learning new technologies that may address our land transportation problems. It could also provide trainings that will help us meet international standards. For the future plans of LTO, IAD may provide support in developing the motor vehicle standards inspection and information technology projects. IAD could likewise facilitate meetings with ASEAN as well as assist in liaising with LTO’s counterpart abroad. c.1.4. Philippine Port Authority There were five important work processes within PPA where IAD can be of help. First, IAD could be on top of the agenda of international meetings and help prepare a position on each item in the agenda. In this role, it could ensure ample preparation for international meetings by getting the schedule of meetings ahead of time. This will help concerned agencies to effectively prepare their position on various issues that will be discussed. Second, IAD can make sure that travel 9
  • authority papers are prepared ahead of time. IAD may likewise provide information on actions in international bodies that the agency is not aware of. Third, IAD may look into conventions where the Philippines is a participant and monitor which results are supposed to be implemented in the country. It may move for the ratification of such commitments especially since there are many concerning ports. As for the future plans of PPA that IAD may support or where it may be able to contribute, two work processes were cited: The first is related to ensuring that membership dues to international bodies are paid. Second, IAD could help monitor that reports to international bodies are submitted. c.1.5. Maritime Industry Authority Similar with PPA, IAD could help ensure that the position paper submitted by MARINA to any international organization is aligned with the roadmap of the DOTC and our country’s goals. In addition, the MARINA has an existing agency that is similar to IAD, and they see the role of IAD as possibly providing a model for their agency, that is, they can learn from IAD’s experiences; IAD, at the same time, could help in getting funding for this mini-IAD. c.1.6 DOTC Main Organization Economic needs analysis and impact analysis of all agreements entered into by the Philippine government should be undertaken by the IAD. This would greatly support their role of preparing DOTC personnel who are asked to attend international meetings or participate in trade negotiations. IAD can likewise initiate meetings/discussions and provide reading materials, to give avenues for sharing ideas and information on international affairs with other units. It should also be able to make available needed information since it would act as a repository of materials and maintain a database of information on international dealings.c.2. Relationships With Partner Agencies c.2.1. Department of Foreign Affairs IAD should be more active in taking initiatives; it may initiate negotiations and activities. IAD may support DFA by submitting work plans on the economic diplomacy of DOTC. On bilateral activities, IAD may help in determining what economic cooperation activities, bilateral trade, exchange of investments and tourism activities may be good for the country. For instance, they can conduct research on what investments areas would be good to do (e.g. railway development). For economic cooperation, its role could be on the development of infrastructures (highways, ports, railway projects, etc.). On trainings and workshops, IAD would take care of groups involved in international relations within DOTC (human development). IAD could contribute information, and proposals on seminars, conferences and symposia (for transport and communication sectors). It could also help DFA not only on harmonization of regulations, which sometimes involves amendment of rules, but also on fairs, exhibitions, and other promotion activities. 10
  • IAD could likewise be of assistance for regular working meetings, seasonal meetings and interagency consultation meetings of the APEC, ASEAN and UNIO. For interagency consultation meetings, IAD could provide inputs to the head of the delegation. Lastly, since BIMP-EAGA, deals with depressed areas in the region and looks for ways on how to channel aid programs, IAD may provide suggestions in consultation with the Department (e.g. development of ports, airports, SMAs, and infrastructure set in place). c.2.2. Department of Tourism IAD can assist DOT by keeping itself abreast with the developments and trends in traveling (especially in the international arena) and tourism targets. With these, it can be at the forefront of resolving connectivity issues. c.2.3 Department of Trade and Industry There are two main sections of work processes in DTI that could involve IAD. Under the first work process, the relationship between DTI and Board of Investments (BOI) is considered. DTI is the chief negotiator on all trade-related meetings, while Board of Investments (BOI) is in-charge of all investments. Between DTI and BOI, there is a mutual understanding that if an investor will provide services, it should be within the trade in services chapter (the other one being the investment chapter). IAD’s role then would be to consider market access when business is set-up especially if services are offered (e.g. put up a bus company). Also, IAD could help ensure that the Department abides by the Filipino Ownership Equity Law and Tariffs. c.2.4. National Economic and Development Agency NEDA acts as lead agency which coordinates all requests, offers and schedule of commitments. It promotes a holistic approach to trade negotiations and takes care of discussions on trade in services in international meetings. NEDA likewise chairs the inter-agency committee on trade in services. IAD’s role might be in relation to sending the Department’s requests, offers and positions to NEDA’s Director for the Trade Industry and Utility Staff (TIUS).D. Competencies of IAD Staff The key roles, responsibilities and competencies of IAD staff are clustered based on knowledge, skills and abilities/attitudes.d.1 Knowledge Most of the respondents said that an IAD staff should have technical expertise on policies and on issues of the sector they are representing. They must have basic background on economics and political economy, as well as understand regional economic landscape. IAD staff should be marketing-oriented, preferably with a background on international marketing in multinational companies or Philippine company with international trade activities on import/export. Some legal background on international laws and transportation laws are also expected of an IAD staff. At the same time, they should be transport economists. Technical staff should have real training on their sector or must have field experience. As for the formal training, they must have at least a bachelors degree or if possible, a masters degree. 11
  • d.2. Skills The most highlighted skill of an IAD staff is communication. They are expected to be good in both written and oral communication. Knowledge of languages is a plus. In line with this, they must be good in public relations since they are also expected to generate support from other members of international bodies. The staff should also have the ability to negotiate and initiate/establish networks. Since preparing position papers and reports was envisioned to be part of IAD’s duties and responsibilities, the staff are expected to be good in preparing these documents. To accomplish these tasks, they should also possess research skills and demonstrate critical thinking and analysis. Being analytical will greatly enable an IAD staff to spot hidden conditionalities in trade positions. They should also be strategic thinkers and good in organizing ideas, and be computer and internet literate. Organization skills are also expected of an IAD staff. They should be good in coordinating, monitoring and networking, and skilled in managing international conferences.d.3. Attitudes/Abilities Attitude towards work is important. As such, an IAD staff is expected to have sense of responsibility and dedication to work. He/she must be willing to learn and must be keen on developments with partner countries. In addition, they should be resourceful, and have the ability to manage scarce resources. Being nationalistic is also important because this will lead him/her to make decisions that shall benefit the country. They should also be visionaries so that they may be able to see future trends and determine the gap between these and the country’s current capabilities. Lastly, these people should be able to work beyond traditional institutions, especially when existing structures will not support the needs and agreements we enter into.E. Issues to be ResolvedIssues to be resolved as shared by the interviewees and the participants of the focusgroup discussion are as follows:e.1. The primary issue at the moment is whether the appropriate quantity and quality ofpersonnel can be assigned to IAD given the recent development that its creation was notapproved by the Department of Budget and Management (DBM). Although some of theDOTC leaders mentioned that they can still assign personnel to perform IAD functions,they must ensure that they will be focused on IAD tasks and not be assigned otherresponsibilities. There is also a question on whether these will lead to eventuallyestablishing a permanent IAD structure.e.2. An interviewee likewise mentioned that there should be recognition of designatedauthorities. Clear delineation of responsibilities and authority should be established.e.3. It must also be ensured that IAD will be given adequate logistical support. To start, itshould have a designated workplace, equipments and budget for operations.e.4. Some interviewees likewise mentioned that IAD personnel might be envied forhaving a number of opportunities to travel abroad, especially since, at present, there are 12
  • instances wherein concerned agencies were not even invited to be part of thedelegation attending international meetings.VI. Analysis and Recommendationsa. IAD’s MandateIAD may only be effective in undertaking its international and trade relations functions if itwill be allowed to perform the seven proposed additional duties and responsibilities citedby the participants. These are: (1) to review existing policies and to develop new policieson trade and international relations in coordination with stakeholders (DOTC sectors,partner government agencies, business, non-government organizations and people’sorganizations); (2) to monitor, coordinate and provide feedback to stakeholders; (3) toprepare status reports and position of the Department; (4) to represent DOTC tointeragency technical committees and participate in negotiations, meetings andconferences for transport and telecommunications where the Philippines has enteredinto or proposed to enter into; (5) to act as a focal group within DOTC on all matterspertaining to trade and international relations; (6) to create and maintain an efficient andeasily accessible database of international/trade related data; and lastly, (7) to organizeand execute human resource development programs for DOTC personnel involved ininternational relations. On top of these, one of its duties may be to continuously conductresearch that will allow it to effectively create positions, suggest policies and developstrategies for international relations and trade negotiations. Its databank may containpertinent and updated information regarding the various stakeholders in the Philippinesas well as data borne out of an analysis of trends in other countries and internationalorganizations.b. IAD Structure and Broad Description of IAD Staff’s Roles and Responsibilities Structure Advantages Disadvantages1. Bureau or Permanent structure Х Deviate from structural Service/ Staff Has clout dynamics within the function under Can mobilize people department especially since the Office of the Structure can accommodate enough all undersecretaries head a Secretary- number of people to competently and sector, thus it may not be headed by an comprehensively perform its proposed generally acceptable to the Undersecretary functions organization Х It will need more people, thus magnifying the scarcity of resources and the harder for it to be approved by DBM Х An Undersecretary is a political appointee, continuity may not be ensured2. Division under Permanent structure Х May not have enough Planning- More feasible given the constraint on authority to monitor headed by a resources implementation of trade Director Technical people are already under agreements nor mobilize planning (Transportation Planning people from various sectors Service), this can be tapped to lessen and attached agencies for the manpower requirement international undertakings Planning is responsible for making Х Too small, cannot effectively policies perform all tasks given the Director is a career person, this will demands help ensure continuity 13
  • Structure Advantages Disadvantages Planning Office usually coordinates with all sectors (corresponding USecs) and attached agencies. Being under planning can promote a balance in creating positions that consider the needs of the country and diplomacy/flexibility in trade relations 3. Ad Hoc No approval needed from DBM Х Not a permanent structure, may not be able to resolve current problems on focus and lack of incentives Х May not have enough authority to monitor implementation of trade agreements nor mobilize people from various sectors and attached agencies for international undertakings Х Too small, cannot effectively perform all tasks given the demandsGiven the abovementioned analyses, it is recommended that IAD be made a Divisionunder the Office of the Secretary. It shall perform staff functions and represent theSecretary in all international and trade concerns within and outside of the Department.Through this, it is hoped that it will be given enough authority to monitor implementationof agreements and mobilize people and resources necessary to effectively perform itsfunctions. It will not deviate from the structural dynamics of the DOTC and will be headedby a career person which could help ensure continuity. Below is an illustration of theproposed structure: ATTACHED AGENCIES SECRETARY PMMA, MARINA, MCIAA, OTS, TRS, MIAA, PNR, CPA, NTC, OTC, PADC, CAB, LRTA, PPA IAD REGIONAL MGT. COUNCIL (RMC) PMOs DIR, ISLES DOTC- ACTION CENTER DIR, FRS USEC FOR MARITIME USEC FOR AIR TRANSPO & USEC FOR ROAD TRANSPORT CIVIL AVIATION USEC FOR RAILWAYS TRANSPORTIAD’s internal structure can be composed of sub-units based on internationalorganizations. It can have four distinct sub-units for ASEAN, WTO, APEC and otherorganizations. Each sub-unit may be composed of experts in legal and policy 14
  • formulation, research and management information system. Technical expertise can betapped from the various sectors as well as the Transportation Planning Service unit andits equivalent in the Telecommunications sector.It is likewise recommended that there should be “international affairs desks” (this can beused since IAD’s name will probably be changed) in the attached agencies that will serveas focal groups with whom IAD could coordinate and work with. This would ensureaccountability and sense of responsibility for international work within the agency. It willspeed up the flow of communication and help promote over-all efficiency in internationalwork. However, it must be made sure that there will be no duplication of tasks.Proposed internal structure: HEAD Director) International Affairs Desks in Partner Agencies Secretariat APEC ASEAN WTO Other Int’l Org (Experts on legal, (Experts on legal, (Experts on legal, such as IMO, ICAO, policy formulation, policy formulation, policy formulation, ITU, etc. research and research and research and (Experts on legal, management management management policy formulation, information system) information system) information system) research and management information system)c. Broad Description of Possible Relations with Other DOTC Units and Partner Agencies.Its proposed relationship with other DOTC units (sector, service and attached agencies)must fall within the parameters of its identified mandate. As suggested by theparticipants, IAD may: a. Provide assistance in coordinating with partner agencies and international organizations; b. Craft and distribute progress reports on international meetings and activities; c. Train DOTC personnel on trade policies and negotiations; d. Provide research information relevant for analyzing positions and agreements; e. Initiate and facilitate discussions to come up with unified trade positions; f. Help ensure implementation of trade agreements; g. Provide avenues for sharing ideas and information on international affairs; h. Provide benchmarking information on other countries’ adherence to internationally accepted standards and best practices on transportation and communication; i. Take charge of processing travel authority; j. Assist in paying dues and submitting reports to international organizations; 15
  • The proposed relationship with partner agencies reflects the need for IAD to be moreproactive in its role in international activities and trade negotiations. CORD believes thatthis is important especially with the fast-changing and dynamic global environment. Forthe Department of Foreign Affairs, IAD may: a. Initiate negotiations and international activities; b. Participate and assist as necessary in regular working meetings, seasonal meetings and interagency consultation meetings of the APEC, ASEAN and UNIO; c. Provide important inputs on transportation and telecommunication to the Head of the delegation during interagency consultation meetings; d. Provide suggestions, in consultation with the Department, on potential beneficiaries of BIMP-EAGA’s aid programs (e.g. development of ports, airports, SMAs, and infrastructure set in place) e. Take charge of submitting work plans on DOTC’s economic diplomacy; f. Help determine economic cooperation activities, bilateral trade, exchange of investments and tourism activities that may benefit the country; g. Help ensure development of infrastructures (highways, ports, railway projects, etc.) needed to enhance economic cooperation; h. Develop the capabilities of DOTC personnel involve in international relations; i. Provide information, and develop proposals on seminars, conferences and symposia (for transport and communication sectors); j. Assist DFA on harmonization of regulations, which sometimes involves amendment of rules; k. Participate and assist on fairs, exhibitions, and other promotional activities organized by DFAThe Department of Tourism emphasized the need for IAD to be at the forefront inresolving connectivity issues which is very important in the growth of the tourismindustry. The Department of Trade and Industry, on the other hand, mentioned IAD’srole in considering market access for foreign investors who are willing to invest in thecountry’s transportation and telecommunications industry.Since NEDA acts as lead agency which coordinates all requests, offers and schedule ofcommitments pertaining to trade relations, IAD’s role centers on its effectiveness inupholding its mandate so that it will be able to submit well researched, consulted andthoroughly discussed requests, offers and positions to NEDA.It is expected that more work relationships involving IAD shall be identified once each ofthe suggested duties and responsibilities are approved and systems/procedures are setup for execution.d. Broad Description of Competencies of IAD StaffThe competencies of IAD personnel will depend mainly on its final mandate andstructure. However, it would be good, considering also the scarcity of resources, to havepeople who possess the following competencies: a. Knowledge 1. Basic understanding of economics 2. Background on international relations b. Skills 1. Good interpersonal skills 2. Good communication skills 16
  • 3. Networking skills – ability to establish and maintain networks 4. Report writing 5. Basic research 6. Using basic computer programs and internet c. Abilities/ Attitudes 1. Values diversity 2. Strategic thinking 3. Strong sense of accountability 4. Resourcefulness 5. Creativity and innovativenessRegardless of the approved structure, IAD personnel should be seasoned technicalexperts with a global perspective. This may be sectoral or functional experts that arerespected in their field and are credible in the organization. In this case, it may not matterif it cannot be headed by an Undersecretary. The pool of experts within IAD will allow itto initiate and implement changes pertinent to the realization of its mandate.e. Recommendations on IssuesIt is evident that the primary issue is DBM’s disapproval of its creation as a permanentunit within the Department. This will lessen the possibility of having adequate number ofcompetent personnel. However, the Department can have an internal arrangement ofassigning people to international work (similar to the present set-up) but these peopleshould be focused on their international/trade related functions.Identifying specific source of funds and providing the needed logistical requirements toeffectively run an office should be an important component of setting it up as apermanent unit. It will be strange to demand effective output from an office that isdeprived of logistical materials needed for even basic, day-to-day operations.It is also true that clear delineation of responsibilities and authority should be establishednot only with IAD and the other sectors and offices within DOTC but also with the PartnerAgencies. Although this report contains broad descriptions of work relationships andprocesses, mapping-out each of these processes (identifying specific tasks and workflow) in consultation with other stakeholders will level off expectations, promote clarityand ensure common understanding.Aside from this, IAD’s internal work processes and procedures should be crafted,documented and communicated with its stakeholders. This will ensure efficiency andresolve issues such as traveling privileges.The rationale for creating a permanent and significant international affairs unit must becommunicated to the employees within the various sectors and attached agencies. Theirwillingness to provide support to this unit will start from understanding its importance inthe attainment of organizational objectives. 17
  • 18
  • Appendix A Summary of ResponsesI. IAD MandateA. Duties and Responsibilities1. The IAD’s mandate has been defined in Dept. Order 2006-26, what do you think arenecessary changes in IAD’s mandate. What are functions that should not have beenincluded? What are other duties and responsibilities that should be included in itsmandate?Interviewee Response Partner Agencies 1 • Include all mentioned in IAD memo Other duties and responsibilities that should be included • Networking function with other government agency regarding transportation and communication concern • Inform/notify DFA of all DOTC activities with foreign governments (DFA makes sure there is one fully coordinated and unified Philippine government position) 2 • Include all mentioned in IAD memo • Noted that # 3 is very important (Ensure the representation of the Department to the meetings and activities…) • Conduct interagency coordination meetings which also consults the NGOs concerned about their position on the issues Other duties and responsibilities that should be included • A representative from the IAD should be present in the international meetings to ensure continuity • Comment on report: Aside from submitting report, the group dynamics of international meetings should be observed (e.g. who are our allies in our position) • Comment on travel: everyone should be given equal opportunity (should make sure delegates doing their task) 3 • They should know where we are member of international treaties • Function: Must be aware of international obligations so we can commit • Primary function is Policy Formulation and Coordination 4 and 5 • IAD should be abreast with the developments and trends in traveling/tourism (specially what is happening outside the Philippines), and with tourism targets • IAD should be the at the forefront at resolving connectivity issues DOTC Leaders 7 • IAD is an ad hoc office only. As such, it is not sufficient to perform all the necessary task 19
  • Interviewee Response 8 • No comment on mandate • There is no delineation of roles between the Secretariat and Technical representative Proposed functions/responsibilities of the International Cooperation Division • Formulate, develop and review policies on transportation and telecommunications in consultation with stakeholders • Monitor, coordinate and provide feedback to the stakeholders the development on the implementation of the different provisions • Prepare status reports/positions of the Philippine Government in connection with various issues brought about by the activities and functions of international organizations • Oversee all activities related to the fulfillment of the Department’s commitment to international organizations and facilitate the operationalization and monitor status of implementation of Agreements and Protocol signed by the Philippines • Act as depository of all information and other pertinent documents relative to matters and activities involving DOTC in international organizations • Represent the Department in various Inter Agency Technical Committee relating to international/regional and domestic agreements or transportation and communications 9 • All functions are necessary but are not being done yet. • International Organizations covered is limited only to certain groups. • Must Oversee all international agreements, protocols, codes, conventions, MOUs and other commitments of the department: monitor, coordinate and follow-up 10 • All functions are necessary. • Must prepare well when representing the country (must have knowledge of the subject matter taken, must know the directives of the DOTC and the national government on issues) • Agencies concern can prepare materials needed 11 • Could still be trimmed down or remain the same depending on the challenges • Look at the structure and ask if it will meet the objective: optimize human resources, fiscal management, eliminate passing the buck • Respond to international commitments • Attached agencies have no command on policy direction at this time • Take care of complete documentation of international events (for future reference and performance, timely information) • Important to pick the right person to represent the country 12 • All are necessary • A coordinating and monitoring body is important • IAD collates reports • IAD can coordinate with different government agencies in coming up with a position, it can pinpoint the person in each agency 20
  • Interviewee Response 13 • Was recently assigned as Action Leader for Communications by the secretary (he has to read up well on his field) • All the functions are needed Other duties and responsibilities that should be included in its mandate • Depository of information (reports, documents on commitments, MOUs, other related matters) • Come up with desired position paper which incorporates the stand of the national government with respect to the issue • Have a think-tank (pool of technical representative and writers) who can do the substantial part of preparation for various international meetings) • Right now, the USEC concerned have their respective pool of talents that will accomplish the work 14 • Coordinate work within DOTC about trade policies • Coordinate all issues not under Civil Aeronautic Board • Do strategic coordination and negotiation 15 • Present duties and responsibilities seem too general. ASEC Soneja who is in charge of policies at Planning Division should be included in the list of people • Technical representatives assigned based on sectoral representation but in international meetings, all modes of transportations are covered Functions that should have not been included: • Materials obtained from the meetings must be accessible to technical representatives who were not part of the delegation • For trade in services, there should be at least two people who work with a technical representative • Administrative matters can be handled by a secretariat • Technical information and other international meeting documents should be provided to a head of technical representatives • Inculcate in the minds of heads of agencies what trade services are Other duties and responsibilities that should be included in the mandate *submitted to DOTC duties and responsibilities of international cooperation division 1. Prepare and integrate the Philippine comments/positions/inputs on transport and telecom problems/issues/concerns, in close consultation with the affected stakeholders 2. Review, amend/revise, and formulate/develop policies on transport and telecommunications, in close consultation with affected stakeholders, as it relates to multilateral, regional, and bilateral negotiations or agreements 3. Monitor and coordinate/provide feedback to different concerned/affected stakeholders the development on the implementation and proposed implementation of different provisions of negotiations and agreements that the Philippines has enter into 4. Organize and update an international cooperation data bank or portal on different negotiations and agreements that the Philippines 21
  • has entered into and proposed to enter into 5. Provide technical and administrative support/assistance to the Philippine representatives/delegation 6. Participate in negotiations/meetings/conferences where the Philippines has entered into and proposed to enter into 7. Act as the focal point and network of the Philippine government on negotiations and agreements on transport and telecommunications 8. Act as the information depository of the Philippine government on international cooperation on transport and telecommunications 9. Organize and execute a human resource development program/trainings/cooperation for the development of Philippines capability on international negotiations and agreement on transport and telecommunications 10. Schedule/arrange/undertake national or local meetings/discussions/for any issue/concern on transport and telecommunications that need to be resolved before any international negotiations take placea. How can the IAD help in strengthening the negotiating position of the Philippinegovernment in trade negotiations pertaining to transport services/sectors.Interviewee Response Partner Agencies 1 • Coordinate with line agencies to address overlapping concerns • Arrive at a unified view of position on an issue before going to DFA, could be done by completing staff work • IAD will inter-phase with primarily with the DFA’s Office of International Economic Relations (OUIER) headed by USEC Custodio because trade and economics experts could not be found here 2 • Create an interdepartmental secretariat • Review past meetings, not just meetings based on current agenda specially with ASEAN (past meetings, decisions made) • IAD should have records of all international partner meetings, commitments and agreements • IAD’s main function is to prepare briefing papers for DOTC official attending meetings • Note/report the dynamics between those attending the international meetings • Know the websites to visit for international materials DOTC Leaders 8 • Assist the Planning and Policy Service Director in the formulation of the programs and policies in pursuance of the international commitments/agreements entered into by the Government • Serve as a focal unit in negotiations and agreement on transport and telecommunications with international organizations 9 • Must come prepared (have consulted concerned stakeholders, done research, know the issue) 10 • DFA and IAD should coordinate to find out which countries the Philippines has supported and ask these countries to support us in turn • IAD should ensure that a full report is made, with recommendations, future activities, and future meetings 22
  • • Initiate own resolutions (marina) – IAD could come up with some positions that could be supported by all delegations across sectors • Must liaise the agenda of all international meetings ahead of time 11 • Coordination with different agencies to know whether these other agencies should be involved (in international meeting’s agenda); validation of documents and checking up on the national government position on international issues 14 • Develop people for IAD that specializes on negotiation • Can represent the country 15 • For ASEAN – should have more people assigned here because we have many agreements and concerns with the group • For WTO – has many needs (multilateral agreements, we need to make many comments on things) • For APEC – also has commitments but usually, the country is not obliged to implement these (that is, does not necessarily follow that the country implements these commitments) • For WTO and ASEAN – commitments, once made, must be implemented • More research on transport sector • In local meetings, transport agencies do with the DOTC technical representatives to discuss trade in servicesb. Comment on the International organizations identified as the main focus of IAD work,does it encompass all relevant international linkages necessary for DOTC to achieve itsgoals and support the government’s economic development plans?Interviewee Response Partner Agencies 1 • Yes, but include UNIO (United Nations International Organizations Office) 2 • Yes, but include all the international organizations (ASEAN, APRC, WTO-GATT/GATS, UN-ESCAP and BIM-EAGA) 3 • Matters related to international organizations should fall under IAD – it should be an overarching body and has jurisdiction over all small matters relating to international affairs DOTC Leaders 8 • More international organizations can be included. 9 • Yes, but could also emphasize of ILO, IMO, and the ASEAN Port Association 10 • Yes, but could include the ILO 11 • Could add, transfer, or delete as necessary 12 • Complete but a new group to add would be the UNEC (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) 13 • Yes. 15 • Yes. Technical representatives from IAD should be knowledgeable about all sectors 23
  • *Do you have a similar unit within the Department? If yes, what is the unit’s identifiedfunction/goals? Strategies and methods?Interviewee Response Partner Agencies 1 • All offices at DFA operate like an international affairs desk except that they are organized according to major global regions • All the positions pertaining to their region is brought to the USEC. Inter-office meetings and meetings with the ASEC are held to thresh out all differences, and different aspects of issues • Communication technology is needed for the bulk of the coordination work, only when it is very necessary to they meet face to face • Recommended that the IAD form a permanent network with partner agencies 4 and 5 • Planning office is concerned with similar tasks since international relations is integrated into their tasks. 24
  • II. IAD Structure2. Given its current mandate and your proposed changes, how should the IAD bepositioned within the DOTC structure?3. What can be its level within the organization hierarchy (bureau, division, unit under aparticular division)? Why?Interviewee Response Partner Agencies 1 • Could be a division headed by a director but ideally at least a USEC • Could be a specific unit under USEC (who already has a functional assignment) that will coordinate with international offices, agencies and foreign governments 2 • Bureau level, must be headed by a USEC to be able to mobilize people 3 • Ideally it should be a separate unit • Depends on the need of the transport sector • Can be in the Planning Unit • Benchmark with other countries • Head should have stature and can gain respect, may be ASEC 4 and 5 • Should be under the office of the secretary • Undersecretary level is recommended • Should be able to provide important information DOTC Leaders 6 • Answered in previous questionnaire • Telecommunication sector is big and needs two representatives • One representative for each of the other sectors • Administrative office is also necessary. 7 • IAD should be a bureau or service, equal with other departments. Distinct organic structure. • Should have a separate desk for each of the different international organizations composed of around 4 people per desk (roughly 20 people including secretariat) • Can benchmark against Malaysia 8 • Under Planning Service, under the office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Development because Planning is responsible for policies • Not a service, just a division • Total of 15 people, technical and secretariat combined • Each of the five sectors represented by 2-3 people 9 • Retain a high official with the rank of USEC to head IAD • Have representatives to attend for him (Secretary), do not have time to attend to IAD matters • IAD can be headed by a USEC (for administration?) ideally not assigned, or attached to a particular sector • ASEC could help with the IAD’s function as a core secretariat office • There could be a focal person from the agencies to coordinate with IAD. Technical and secretariat support is given. • IAD is an ad hoc function of USEC Lontoc • Secretariat support work does not need a USEC • Administrator on top • Breakdown coordination assignments according to people’s experience and expertise 25
  • • Can tap IAD core secretariat office • MIA cannot afford foreign desk • There should be mini foreign desks in the attached agencies to ensure accountability, to establish responsibility, and thus, no duplication of tasks. Persons assigned here could be the point persons to coordinate with IAD. • In DFA they have desks, physical space • IAD could be Ad Hoc 10 • It should be a permanent body given specific functions in relation to all international bodies DOTC attend regularly • A USEC could be its head • Just emphasized that it should be a permanent body within the department 11 • IAD could be the personal staff of the Secretary himself • It is a must to have such office (IAD) • A unit under the Office of the Secretary. Becomes a personal staff, where a USEC takes the role of the Secretary in maters of coordination with other agencies and international organizations 12 • Could add an HR unit to choose qualifications of people and to do training of people if there is a need for capacity-building (but may not be really necessary if DOTC takes care of this) • IAD could remain an AD HOC unit which monitors and keeps reports, with a secretariat that prepares travel papers, coordinates with relevant government agencies (since it’s an ad hoc, people would have other functions) 13 • Right now, IAD remains an ad hoc unit (DBM did not approve International Cooperation Division) • There is a need for IAD because there are many commitments in the international setting, it should be a fulltime work not just borrowed from another unit/agency (issue of continuity) • A division with its own think-tank personnel (technical representatives) • A director level as its head, must report to too many people (a clear mandate from the director and the USEC?) 14 • Should not be desk only. Not only admin secretariat but must be doing the analysis, strategizing, negotiating • At least Director Level, must be institutionalized (for continuity since ASEC and up – political appointees can be changed) • There should be someone in DOTC that will strategize what services should be specialized in the aspect of work (e.g. in WTO, ASEAN, etc.) 15 • Should not be an AD HOC unit only • Should have dedicated staff to do the work because there are many things to do • ASEC/USEC to the unit • A divisionFor Partner Agencies: If they have a similar unit within the department: How is the(name of similar unit) positioned in your organizational structure? 4 and 5 • In DOT, the planning office has one person for each task force project, wherever the USEC goes, the person goes with him/her 26
  • III. Broad Description of Relationships with Other DOTC units and Partner4. What are important work processes within your office/department that involvesinternational relations? Which of this are coordinated/achieved with the help of IAD?Please give a brief description of the work process and IADs role in each process.Interviewee Response Partner Agencies 3 • APEC-transport group is one of the most active…does not have any problems • If IAD should be in the picture, maybe be more active in the initiative • Depends. IAD can benchmark and coordinate with other groups (e.g. Agri and DTI should have similar desks) 4 • Planning office links different offices of DOT in terms of implementing international agreements. DOT monitors the offices’ accomplishments and reports them to the international body. They do not do everything, the just coordinate with concerned units and offices DOTC Leaders 8 • Duties of the IAD currently being done by the Planning Office are secretariat functions • Attendees in meetings are usually Director Patdu, Usec. Lontoc and Asec. Soneja 9 • Must make sure that position paper submitted by Marina is aligned with the roadmap of the DOTC and country goals 10 • Agenda about international meetings – (What will PPA mention?) – IAD will prepare a position on each item in the agenda • Security problems – What is the government position. • Get schedule ahead of time so that concerned agencies can prepare ahead – prepare position • Travel papers – travel authority prepared ahead of time • Related actions in international bodies that the agency is not aware of agency representatives just reiterate – IAD coordinates, informs, sign an agreement with a country; give instructions • Look into conventions that the country has not been ratified yet – could link up IAD to have these ratified 11 Work Process IAD Role 1. Coordination with other 1. Makes it easier, eliminates agencies and other kanya-kanya international bodies 2. Management of scarce 2. Can fast track where to find resources needed resources 3. Progress report on meetings 3. Provides a conduit for progress report undertaken 4. Visions for the future, point of 4. IAD can articulate this vision struggle to the Secretary; objectively can reach its higher position; if vision is heard, it is transformed into reality in just a matter of time 12 Work Process IAD Role 1. Benchmarking in terms of 1. In ASEAN meetings, which standards (ISO), countries are implementing 27
  • standardization of standards? organizations 2. Things that could be adopted 2. IAD disseminates in the country (e.g. Driving developments abroad that Academy) could be implemented in the Philippines 3. Training of people (e.g. 3. IAD could facilitate in the learning new technologies provision of training to meet that could be implemented in international standards the Philippines could solve a lot of problems)13 Work Process IAD Role 1. Legal matters and papers 1. Centralize IAD regarding international concerns 2. As an Action Process Officer 2. Have IAD prepare these so for Communications: that it could be sent to Position papers, reports, requesting international scenarios, situations organizations regarding international issues14 • Role right now is secretariat • Lacks technical knowledge of the sector • Ideal scenario: there should be someone to steer all things, directly negotiate15 Work Process IAD/DOTC Role 1. NEDA - In general, DOTC sends - lead agency, coordinates all in its requests, offers requests, offers, schedule of commitments - takes care of discussion of trade in services in int’l mtgs. - handles agreements 2. DTI - When a business is set- - chief negotiator on all trade- up, market access is related meetings considered especially if - between DTI and BOI, there is services are offered, this a mutual understanding that if is where the DOTC an investor will provide comes in (e.g. put up a services, it should be within the bus company) trade in services chapter - 60-40% Filipino ownership is - Justify why the existing applied to our public utilities tariff 3% should be retained 3. DOT - more liberalized, allows 100% equity of ownership (e.g. hotels, restaurants, tourist, destinations 4. GATT - DOTC is a consumer - DOTC is a member of technical (must protect its interest) committee on tariff and related matters 28
  • 5. DFA - starts negotiations Process of Coming Up With Trade Proposals DOTC Role WTO Role 1. We have to know the services 1. Where do these services fall provided by the agency under? 2. 60/40 Foreign equity ownership is always considered because transport and communications are considered public utilities 3. Prepare the request list. What do you want to enter in particular country? What do you want to loose or remove from the limitations they impose? 4. Know what your stakeholders want. 5. Conduct consultation meetings with stakeholders. 6. Must bear in mind the policy decisions of the government and limitations must be placed. 7. IAD role is to give recommendations/technical advice about which trade services to commit, or to accept. Must conduct a through research about trade services in other countries which can help DOTC in making recommendations5. What should be other work processes within your office that may becoordinated/achieved with the help of IAD?Interviewee Response DOTC Leaders 8 • There’s a need for an office that will serve as a central depository or database of all the international commitments, reports, agreements/protocols made pertaining to transport and communications • Preparation and coordination of reports/recommendations and offers to various bilateral, regional and multilateral negotiations 13 Work Process (with role as IAD Role communication leader) 1. Preparation for international 1. Pre-departure briefings meetings 2. Regular meetings; discuss all 2. Provide readings, other relevant topics materials; discuss/share ideas with group6. What are the future plans of your office that IAD may support or where it may beable to contribute? Please give a brief description of the work process and their role ineach process.Interviewee Response Partner Agencies 1 Work Process IAD Role 1. Economic Diplomacy 1. IAD to submit work plans on economic diplomacy of DOTC 2. Bilateral Activities 2. Economic cooperation activities, bilateral trade, 29
  • exchange of investments, tourism activities 3. Economic Cooperation 3. Infrastructure (highways, ports, railway projects, etc.) 4. Trainings and workshop 4. Groups (human development) 5. Seminars, conferences, 4. In DFA, 30+ working groups symposia 6. Harmonization of regulations which sometimes involves amendment of rules 7. Fairs, exhibitions, and other promotion activities 8. Regular working meetings 8. e.g. APEC – every year have new plans; ASEAN meets more to discuss new issues 9. Seasonal meetings 9. 4 Senior Official meetings, Ministerial Meetings, etc.2 Work Process IAD Role 1. Interagency consultation 1. Give inputs to head of meetings delegation 2. Bilaterals (between 2. What investment areas countries) would be good to do (e.g. railway development) 3. In BIMP-EAGA which deals 3. What projects could with depressed areas in the DOTC suggest to help, e.g. region and how to channel development of ports, aid programs airports, SMAs, infrastructure set in place DOTC Leaders6 • Administrative services are not directly related to IAD. • Processing of travel authorities done by the HRD. • Director Quilogue initials all travel requests/authorities before they are forwarded to Usec. Lontoc for final approval. • Also, there is a need for a repository of materials/agreements/issues gathered from the meetings for future reference7 • Economic needs test analysis is very important – we don’t really do scientific studies • Need to study the impact of all the agreements on the country, which are currently outsourced to other offices8 • Assume all the roles and responsibilities related to international affairs currently being done ad hoc by some planning staff • Will ensure that there is a division that will monitor economic or trade facilitation agreements entered into • Will ensure that representatives of the country are adequately equipped with all required data/information regarding issues, what was agreed upon and the position of the DOTC, pertaining to specific issues9 • A mini IAD in Marina – IAD role: what model would be for dept? get funding for this 30
  • Interviewee Response 10 Work Process IAD Role 1. Membership dues to 1. Help agency because this is international bodies an international commitment 2. Regular reports to 2. IAD must know what kind of international bodies reporting is needed for int’l org that we are part of and must comply with these 3. Reports after attending int’l 3. Reporting should be meetings. For continuity, mandatory, if the submit recommendations to representatives do not submit guide others reports, they cannot go 11 • Formation of Civil Aviation Authority 12 Work Process IAD Role 1. Motor vehicle standards 1. In relation to ASEAN, IAD inspection of type approval of could take the initiative to motor vehicles facilitate meeting 2. Information technology 2. IAD coordinates with projects implemented offices/counterparts abroad, Liaison with its counterparts in other countries 14 • Training of people on trade policies, trade negotiations and exposure • IAD should train CAB people to do trade negotiations • If the present structure should change, IAD should do the necessary coordination and research from CAB. They must be able to analyze then strategize, do the negotiation. 31
  • IV. Broad Key Roles, Responsibilities, and Competencies of IAD7. If they have a similar unit in the Department, what is the unit’s internal structure? Arethere specific sub-units? What are specific functions of these sub-units?Interviewee Response Partner Agencies 1 • IAD could be a taskforce within the DOTC depending on the magnitude of work and resources available • USEC as head • Functions: (1) administrative activities; (2) policy unit coordinating the Secretary and other concerned heads; (3) internal coordination within DOTC; (4) external coordination with other government agencies and international groups; (5) additional functions depend on resources availableInterviewee Response 2 • Could be “mini-DFAs” where there are: (1) legal which reviews/makes documents, memos, treaties and declarations; (2) protocol; (3) conference management; (4)policy formulations; (5) research; (6) production of outcome documents which come in the form of MOUs to advance Philippine interests; (7) MIS which holds history of agreements, and build upon previous agreements (they can outsource this) • IAD must know priorities, strengths of bilateral partners • Can research well • IAD can train their own people (e.g. undertake training for DOTC negotiators so that the mentality of meeting-goer is not just to participate but to act as Philippine negotiators8. Please suggest competencies (technical and/or organizational expertise) that IADpersonnel should have.Interviewee Response Partner Agencies 1 • Technical competencies in their line of work • Training and experience in negotiation • Know-how in crafting policy positions • Background in international marketing ideally with multinational companies or a Philippine company with international trade activities on import/export • Knowledge of language/s • Being alert, has the ability to adapt to all changes, developments with the partner country 2 • Negotiating techniques • DAP could train people on protocol, process observations • Must have research capabilities • Must be analytical (read between the lines, spot hidden conditionalities) • Must know international conference management 3 • Technical competence in their field 4 and 5 • Broad perspective of the whole region not only locally • Should be able to benchmark with other countries in the region • Must be marketing oriented • Must have an understanding of the sector he/she is handling 32
  • DOTC Leaders6 • Background: knowledgeable about policies, issues of the sector they are representing • Good written and oral communication skills • Public relations skills7 • Should be transport economists • Able to understand regional economic landscape • Visionaries • Someone who can work beyond traditional institutions8 • Technical expertise in their particular sector: policies, issues, laws • Knowledgeable • Can do research well; resourceful • Prepare position papers • Nationalistic • Good public relations skills; friendly • Can communicate well • Representatives should be higher up in position/rank to be able to convey ideas and recommendations firmly and have the authority to decide right away9 • Technical staff with real training on sector; at least bachelors degree, and a masteral (must have formal training) • Writing/English proficiency • Styles of Communication • Field experience • Ability to coordinate well • Computer and internet literate • Know the issues • Critical thinker • Ability to organize ideas • Knowledge of the organization system • Ability to see the total picture10 • Knowledgeable in each and every agency under the Dept. • Technical expertise can come from the agencies concerned • Ability to make reports (and can strengthen their positions) • Can ask for support from other members of international bodies11 • Managing scarce resources • Articulate in English language, has power of expression and communication • On selective basis, sent to school for statesmanship and foreign affairs interests12 • Technical competencies must be balanced in representation • Provide training to update on developments • Good in organizations: Coordinating, monitoring, networking, dedication to work • Has technical report writing skills13 • Exposure and experience • Technical expertise in different sectors of DOTC (i.e. land, air, water, rail, communications and transport security) • Organizational expertise: writing, analytical skills, ability to discuss 33
  • Interviewee Response 14 • Basic background of economics, political economy aside from the technical aspect of the transport sector • Some legal background, international law, transportation law • Can do research • Strategic thinker • Posses negotiating skills 15 • Attitude toward work: Willingness to learn, sense of responsibility • Ability to do research • Ability to write well • Knowledge/orientation about WTO and trade in services • Know how to deal with other agencies, networking skills • Resourceful • Computer and internet literate 34
  • V. Issues to be Resolved9. Given the various points you’ve raised in this interview, what could be possible issuesthat may arise regarding the mandate, structure and your office’s linkages with the IAD?Interviewee Response Partner Agencies 1 • Inform the DFA all international activities • During inter-agency consultations, consider work relations and clarify at the start how would they like to handle things when interacting with one another 2 • Agencies hosting international conferences should inform DFA ahead of time regarding commitments to host meetings • Must work closely with DFA in formulating programs and Philippine positions • Can be resourceful by tapping sponsors (for local hosting) • Focus on commitment, develop network. • Kaiingitan ang IAD when they travel and always accompany delegation as advisers to the spoke persons • There must be public awareness of meetings • IAD must know the schedule of meetings so they could anticipate the needs • With regards to budget for attendance in international meetings, IAD could coordinate where to get funds 4 and 5 • Primary concern is how fast can DOTC move given the targets and requirements DOTC Leaders 6 • None. Undersecretaries understand the need for the creation of IAD. • Usec. Len is pushing very strongly for technical people to help her with the meetings 7 • Structure of IAD is missing • No incentive to work for IAD (except the opportunity to travel) 8 • None 9 • Recognition of the designated authority (who is authorized, who should be responsible for things) • Seafarers/maritime issues should be addressed; Marina should not be compared to the Coast Guard • Be definitive as to the role of the agency • Having timely and relevant information (so we can make substantive participation in important international conferences) • Send competent staff to give the exposure and experience (knowledge is not based on one person only) 10 • Agencies concerned are not invited to be part of delegation attending international meetings • IAD could give regulations that specify which ranks could be sent as delegates to international meetings • IAD could post some rules of conduct and protocol to address the issue (head of delegations insist on speaking up for the group all the time even if their members are more knowledgeable on the issue at hand) 35
  • Interviewee Response 11 • Need to monitor progress because there is delay and uncertainty in the reaction of the country to international matters • Public perception must be addressed; public information dissemination 12 • Inggitan, envy on who gets to be sent abroad • IAD could have a roster of those who already attended meetings to ensure continuity of those who actually get to go abroad to represent the country 13 • IAD is not manned by experts now. • It is functioning more as a secretariat. • Organize it. 14 • Define the function under the rationalization plan • There will be issues with DBM and civil service commission if the structure and mandate will be changed 15 • Reports, related documents of international meetings not forwarded to people concerned • Financial support for consultative meetings • Willingness of persons to go to stakeholders • Observed that Koreans and Japanese are very well prepared for international meetings 36
  • Appendix B Documentation of DOTC-IAD Focused Group Discussion 10 August 2007I. Participants There were five representatives from the International Affairs Desk (IAD) whoparticipated in the focused group discussion. These were the following:No. Name Designation1 Ms. Nonita S. Silva (Nonie) Secretariat, Head2 Ms. Teresita V. Rosales (Tess) Secretariat, Member3 Mr. Renato R. David (Rene) Technical Representative, Road Transport4 Mr. Ferdinand I. Caberto (Ferdy) Technical Representative, Railways5 Ms. Ma. Lourdes T. Pagtalunan Technical Representative, Maritime TransportII. FGD Proper and its DocumentationA. Work ProcessParticipants formed 2 groups according to technical expertise/represented unit. Eachgroup was asked to answer the following questions: (1) What are important work processes that involve the IAD and your unit/the partner agencies? (2) What are future plans of your unit that IAD may support or where it may be able to contribute? The following template was shown as a guide in answering the two questions. Template1. Nature of Work ProcessRole of IAD (data/information, expertise, Role of DOTC Unit/Partner Agencylogistics, others) (data/information, expertise, logistics, others)2. Future plans which may require IAD support3. Required competencies (knowledge, skills, abilities and attitude) of IADpersonnel given the identified work processes and plans 37
  • Output:Group 1 (Rail and Road)1. Nature of Work ProcessRole of IAD Technical Representative Role of DOTC Unit/Partner Agency a. Information/Data Gathering a. Craft policies relative to agreements b. Making reports/recommendations b. Implement sectoral policies2. Future plans which may require IAD support (no answer)3. Required competencies (knowledge, skills, abilities and attitude) of IADpersonnel given the identified work processes and plans a. Technical knowledge of each sector b. People skills to deal with different partner agency counterparts/internationaldelegates (for coordination) c. HRD-type persons – conduct seminars/orientations d. MIS group – depository of information (software supported)Group 2 (Secretariat and Maritime)1. Nature of Work ProcessRole of IAD Technical Representative Role of DOTC Unit/Partner Agency a. Ensure attendance to international a. Nominate delegates and submit fora travel b. Process travel documents documents c. Prepare meeting documents b. Prepare travel funds for their d. Coordinate pre and post delegation delegates meetings c. Prepare technical papers for e. Write communications, reports and international meetings documents d. Negotiates international agreements2. Future plans which may require IAD support: Hosting of international meetings3. Required competencies (knowledge, skills, abilities and attitude) of IADpersonnel given the identified work processes and plans a. Ability to write reports and correspondences b. Facility for the English language c. Workaholic d. Can manage stress e. Preferably with technical expertise f. Can work with minimum supervision 38
  • B. Duties and ResponsibilitiesAfter discussing work processes, duties and responsibilities of IAD were reviewed. Thefollowing instructions were given. 1. Review duties and responsibilities of IAD 2. Using the previous activity and your experience of working in IAD, individually formulate suggestions as to what functions should be: • Stopped – use/write on pink metacards • Started – use/write on green metacards * reminders: (1) only one suggestion per metacard, (2) write in big, bold lettersOutput:* answers were clustered into 6 groups 1. Data Management System on International Meetings/Management of Conferences • Develop a more sophisticated information management system • Trade agreement • Relevant research materials and communications relating international relations 2. Documents Needed for Policy Direction • Refer to concerned USEC 3. Oversee Activities (trade agreements) • Facilitate operationalization/monitor • Coordinate 4. Come Up With Pre-Requisite Information/Research • Facilitate discussions to come up with official positions in trade negotiations and agreements with concerned sectors (DOTC), consultation with stakeholders 5. Ensure Representation/Screen Nominated Delegates (only within DOTC proper) 6. Create a Dedicated Group for IAD* Participants did not use pink metacards which implies that there are no dutiesand responsibilities of IAD that must be stopped.C. IAD StructureFor IAD structure, these questions were asked: (1) How should IAD be positioned in theDOTC structure; and for Internal Structure: (1) What is? and (2) What should be? 39
  • Output: IAD Internal Structure Chair • Vice Chair • Director • Secretariat • Technical Director for International Relations Division Chief for Division Chief for Division Chief for ASEAN APEC Other International OrganizationsSection Chief on Water, Air, Land and Rail, Telecom Section Chief on Water, Air, Land and Rail, Telecom Section Chief on Water, Air, Land and Rail, Telecom Technical People Technical People Technical People D. Potential Issues and Concerns Under issues and concerns, this was the instruction: Given the various points raised in the discussion, what could be possible issues that may arise regarding the functions, structure and your office’s linkages with IAD? Output 1. Getting approval from DBM/funding 2. Getting the right people for IAD 3. Logistics/support • Right people for IAD: Dedicated Group Not an Ad Hoc Dedicated people – willing to work odd hours • Logistical Support Vehicles to fetch delegations, for use to attend interagency meetings Standby cash advances for entertaining foreign delegates Office/furniture/equipment 40
  • Contact InformationManila Office10/F German Development CenterPDCP Bank Centre BuildingV.A. Rufino cor. L.P. Leviste Streets,Salcedo Village, Makati CityTrade Project c/oGTZ Office Manila, P.O. Box 2218 MCPOMakati City, PhilippinesTel. No.: +63 2 8123165 local 47E-mail: c/o zenaida.tejerero@gtz.deWebsite: www.gtz.de/tradeIloilo Officec/o DTI, 2/F Trade & Industry BuildingJ.M. Basa Street, Peralta Avenue, Iloilo CityTel.: +63 32 4122256Telefax: +63 32 444494E-mail: c/o victor.tumilba@gtz.de