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  • 1. Private Sector Promotion (SMEDSEP) ProgramTourism Development for LGUs
  • 2. AuthorsEric AlviaCarlos Libosada, Jr.Editorial TeamVictoria AntonioRhodora May RarasUwe Sturmann (responsible)PublisherPrivate Sector Promotion ProgramPSP SMEDSEPwww.smedsep.phinfo@smedsep.phPSP Program Office7F New Solid Building357 Sen Gil Puyat AveMakati City 1226PHILIPPINESVolker Steigerwald PhDProgram ManagerNovember 2009
  • 3. Private Sector Promotion (SMEDSEP) ProgramTourism Development for LGUs
  • 4. ContentsIntroduction to Local Tourism Development .......................................................................... 2 Value Chain Functions: The 5As ....................................................................................... 2 Institutional Development .................................................................................................. 3 Product Mapping and Prioritization .................................................................................... 3 Product Development and Management............................................................................ 3 Community and Stakeholder organizing ............................................................................ 4 Skills development............................................................................................................. 4 Business Planning Development ....................................................................................... 4 Destination marketing ........................................................................................................ 4Ecotourism ............................................................................................................................ 6 Characteristics of Ecotourism (5As) ................................................................................... 6 Requirements of Ecotourism ............................................................................................. 7 Functions of the Ecotourism Value Chain (5As)................................................................. 7 Checklist for Ecotourism .................................................................................................. 11MICE Tourism ..................................................................................................................... 12 Characteristics of MICE Tourism ..................................................................................... 12 Requirements of MICE Tourism....................................................................................... 13 Functions of the MICE Tourism Value Chain (5As) .......................................................... 13 Checklist for MICE Tourism ............................................................................................. 16Adventure, Outdoor and Sports Tourism ............................................................................. 17 Characteristics of Adventure, Outdoor and Sports Tourism ............................................. 17 Requirements of Adventure, Outdoor and Sports Tourism............................................... 18 Functions of the Adventure, Outdoor and Sports Tourism Value Chain (5As) .................. 18 Checklist for Adventure, Outdoor and Sports Tourism ..................................................... 21Medical, Health, Wellness and Retirement Tourism ............................................................ 22 Characteristics of Medical Tourism .................................................................................. 23 Requirements of Medical Tourism ................................................................................... 23 Functions of the Medical Tourism Value Chain (5As) ...................................................... 24 Checklist for Medical Tourism ......................................................................................... 27Amusement, Entertainment, Leisure and Beach Tourism .................................................... 28 Characteristics of Amusement, Entertainment, Leisure and Beach Tourism .................... 28 Requirements of Amusement, Entertainment, Leisure and Beach Tourism ..................... 28 Functions of the Amusement, Entertainment, Leisure and Beach Tourism VC (5As) ....... 29 Checklist for Amusement, Entertainment, Leisure and Beach Tourism ............................ 32Cultural and Heritage Tourism ............................................................................................ 33 Characteristics of Cultural and Heritage Tourism ............................................................. 33 Requirements of Cultural and Heritage Tourism .............................................................. 33 Functions of the Cultural and Heritage Tourism Value Chain (5As) ................................ 34 Checklist for Cultural and Heritage Tourism..................................................................... 36References and Sources..................................................................................................... 37 1
  • 5. Introduction toLocal Tourism DevelopmentThis booklet serves as a guide for local It is recommended that an LGU makes use ofgovernment units (LGUs) in assessing local this guide after it has undertaken anattractions that have a potential for tourism assessment of their local and regionaldevelopment. It is intended to aid local chief economic development (LRED) conditionsexecutives in: a) recognizing the functions that (see Figure 1), and after it has identified themake up the domestic tourism industry; b) potential of its local tourism industry as a highacquainting them with the range of activities growth high impact economic activity.involved in the sector; c) identifying areaswithin their jurisdiction with tourism potential; The Guide takes off from Biztour5 of theand d) understanding the competitive Tourism Committee of the Philippineadvantages of the LGU within the framework Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PCCI)of the tourism value chain. launched in 2006. The program was intended to complement the government‘s efforts inIt is divided into six sections encompassing the promoting tourism development and boostingmajor tourism subsectors in the Philippines: employment in the tourism sector.  ecotourism;  medical, health and wellness and Value Chain Functions: The 5As retirement; The Biztour5 Program aims to prop up  meetings, incentives, conventions and Philippine tourism by bringing in five million exhibitions (MICE); foreign tourists that would generate an  adventure, outdoor and sports; estimated USD five billion tourism receipts and  amusement, entertainment & leisure to create five million jobs through the USD five billion worth of investments by its fifth year, a (sun, sea, and sand); and goal that has been coined by Tourism  cultural and heritage tourism. Committee of PCCI as the ―Five 5s‖. LRED Implementation Steps Prior to the LGUs initiating a tourism subsector assessment, it is recommended that they undertake a Local and Regional Economic Development (LRED) process. LRED is a tool for participatory planning and implementation process wherein public and private stakeholders in a locality dialogue and work together to improve conditions for economic growth and employment generation. The initial step of the LRED processes is a Rapid Economic Appraisal (REA). It is ideally conducted in cooperation with private sector organizations and the local government to provide an overview of the local economy and identify economic strengths and constraints of an area. The political, legal and regulatory environment, situation and structure of the local business community, institutional environment, human and natural resources and infrastructure would be assessed. Following this, a local stakeholders‘ workshop would be held to validate the rapid appraisal results and identify interventions to improve the local business environment. Interventions must be implemented within a year to achieve ―quick-wins‖ and build trust with local stakeholders. 2
  • 6. Achievement of this goal is structure along the undertaken by tourism industry stakeholders―5As,‖ another term coined by the PCCI that would further enhance tourismTourism Committee to refer to the sequence of development at the local and regional level.activities or functions that form a tourism value These topics are further defined in the sectionchain. These are: below.  Arrival (pre-arrival marketing, air/sea/land transport, air/sea ports); Institutional Development  Access (roads, terminals, and related The local government unit must establish infrastructure); within its overall structure an institutional  Accommodation (hotels, lodging, and framework that will support tourism restaurants); development. Operationally, this will include  Attractions (natural & man-made); and the establishment of a Tourism Office and the  Activities (rest, recreation, and corresponding staff complement within the education). LGU organizational structure that shall be primarily responsible for the development and implementation of tourism development plans.The ―5As‖ framework encourages LGUs toadopt a more strategic approach in tourism Product Mapping and Prioritizationdevelopment, and promotes cooperation with The tourism ―product‖ refers to the specifictheir neighboring areas to cover for tourism destination and activities that arecomponents that may be lacking in their located in and around the LGU. Identifyinglocality in order to create a seamless tourism and mapping the potential tourism productsexperience. will help determine what the destination canEach section of the guide provides the offer. In order to sustain the interest of thedefinition, the characteristics and attributes of tourism industry, the locality shouldeach of the identified tourism subsectors, and periodically introduce new attractions anda functions checklist (5As) that will help the activities. Hence, an LGU with a number ofuser assess the potential and competitive tourism products available should prioritizeadvantage of a locality for each of the tourism the activity that will attract the largest numbersubsectors. of tourists, but at the same time develop in the pipeline other attractions that will captureTo complement the Biztour5 approach, this various segments of the tourist market overguide also lists down the requirements that the long term.should be undertaken by the LGU for each ofthe tourism subsectors that highlight the Product Development andunique conditions needed for specific activitiesto thrive. These are classified according to the Managementfollowing topics: Product development involves creating the type of tourism product that will be offered to a  Institutional Development; target tourist market. This step involves  Product Mapping, Prioritization; identifying the attraction, the activities that can  Product Development and take place, and laying it out on a timeline Management; along the duration of the tourist‘s visit. This is  Community and Stakeholder an ongoing activity that the LGU should Organizing; engage in to keep tourists coming back to the  Skills Development; destination. A foremost consideration in  Business Planning Development; and product development is to optimize the  Destination Marketing. resources without compromising environmental sustainability. Last but not theIt is expected that by going through the least, tourism products should be properlychecklist, suggested activities will be managed to ensure that the quality of the 3
  • 7. resources are protected and maintained over Business Planning Developmenttime. This entails providing the expertise, Tourism is a business undertaking. No matterharnessing the support of the local what the objective may be in the developmentstakeholders and the community, and of tourism products, sound business modelsmobilizing the funds needed to sustain a should be in place to ensure the sustainabilitytourism product in the long term. Local and profitability of the economic endeavor.government units must ensure that the tourism Included in the business planning processstandards and guidelines are followed by the would be the identification of priority tourismtourism service providers as this would help in products, the business models that can bemaintaining the quality of a tourism developed, the marketing strategies to bedestination. The tourism office should likewise employed, and approaches on how thebe supported by appropriate budgets to business can be conducted. LGUs that havesupport their operations. determined a strong potential for tourism should include clear programs and projects inCommunity and Stakeholder their comprehensive development plans to support it. It would provide a strong messageorganizing to the private sector that tourism developmentInvolvement of the local community and is one of the priority sectors.stakeholders in tourism planning anddevelopment is important to ensure that theirconcerns are given due consideration, Destination marketingparticularly with respect to employment A significant requirement in tourismgeneration, identifying business opportunities, development is effective marketing that ispreservation of local cultures, and protecting able to attract the ideal number and quality ofrights of indigenous groups among others. The tourists to a destination. Given the length ofLGU should coordinate closely with the private time it takes to develop a tourism product andsector in identifying opportunities for involving for it to gain interest among the target market,the local community and to ensure that destination marketing activities shouldeconomic benefits accrue to the residents. commence even while the site/attraction is stillThe creation of a local tourism council, under development. The DOT providescomprised of both public and private support to LGUs in the promotions andstakeholders, has shown to be effective in marketing of tourism destinations and shouldmajor tourism destinations such as Bohol and therefore be tapped. Likewise, the LGUBoracay. should also work with adjacent cities/municipalities in jointly promoting their respective sites in order to create a seamlessSkills development tourism experience for the traveller.Often overlooked is the matching of HR skillswith the requirements of the local tourism All these can be undertaken through a localindustry. Because the skill requirements of and regional economic development (LRED)the different subsectors are diverse, it is process involving all relevant local andimportant to closely coordinate and establish regional stakeholders. The participatorylinkages between the industry, and academe, approach promotes cooperation between thevocational schools, and training providers, public and private sectors in identifying ―quickincluding ―on the job training‖ for students. wins‖ to support local economic development.Such linkages can further open up The following table provides an overview ofemployment opportunities for local residents. the LRED process and implemented by DTIThrough the LGU Public Employment Service and GTZ-SMEDSEP.Office (PESO), Tourism Council, or othersimilar public-private dialogue mechanism, theLGU further help bridge the skills mismatch. 4
  • 8. Figure 1. LRED Implementation Process1 implement organize and develop the monitor the conduct local the action mobilize action plan / action plan / assessment plan / shareholders strategy strategy strategy Resources Responsible Key Steps Activities Outputs Timeline Required Person1. Organize and *Internal *LGU set up and *Minimum one *Meeting venue, *Planning mobilize the meetings, ready to day up to one info materials re: Coordinator, stakeholders orientation within undertake the week economic profile Focal Person the LGU project (LGU) regarding *local mandate to objectives, proceed resources *List of required, interviewees concept, logistics *Itinerary, *Identify relevant detailed schedule stakeholders (public & private) for conduct of REA *Finalize Schedule2. Conduct the *Preparatory *Matrix of data: One to three Workshop costs, Key LRED Focal local meeting strengths and days (depends facilitation costs, Person identified, assessment *Kickoff weaknesses; on size of logistics costs external (Rapid workshop overview of local location); facilitator Economic *Field interviews economy based workshop takes Appraisal) and gathering of data on 5 Fields of one half day validation of *Analysis of Analysis findings in a information *MSMEs stakeholder *Preparing the *Infrastructure workshop presentation of *Enabling results Environment *Presentation *Support and validation of Institutions appraisal results *Human and natural resources3. Develop the *Identified *LRED Action Half day; best in Workshop costs, Overall-LRED Action Plan proposed Plan, Strategy combination with materials, Focal Person, /Strategy interventions *Activities the validation facilitation costs Mayor / LCE, *Identify identified workshop LRED team champion(s) per *Milestones interventions agreed *Action planning4. Implement *Finetune, Stakeholders, One year Budget for LRED team Action Plan / finalize the Plan facilitators activities (LGU, Strategy *Implement trained and identified collaborating agreed steps coached, (trainings, agencies, private *Onsite coaching concrete workshops, sector activities outward representatives) implemented investment missions, etc)5. Monitor the *Monitor *Progress Report One year Workshop costs, Focal person and Action Plan / Progress *Evaluation, field visits, external Strategy Meeting Assessment transportation, facilitator *Annual Results accommodation, Evaluation data gathering *Assessment costs1 Source: Rapid Economic Appraisal Manual 2007, Rolf Speit; For more info, refer to the PSP LRED Reference Document 5
  • 9. EcotourismEcotourismWith natural areas as the main component ofecotourism, many of the provinces, cities and Definitionmunicipalities in the Philippines can position "Responsible travel to natural areas thatthemselves in this particular subsector. This conserves the environment and improvesdevelopment would vastly help in the the well-being of local people.” - Theprotection of the country‘s natural resources International Ecotourism Society, 1990by providing an economically viable use forour natural attractions. quality of the ecotourism product is sustainedEcotourism is a form of tourism that takes for the long within a natural and cultural heritage Ethical Ecotourism puts much weight towardsarea where community participation, protection respecting the cultures of host communities asand management of natural resources, culture well as the visitors. Local folks and theirand indigenous knowledge and practices, traditions are not exploited. Rather tourenvironmental education and ethics as well as programs are formulated with theireconomic benefits are fostered and pursued participation or inputs and with respect to theirfor the enrichment of host communities and social fibers (for example, tribal communitiessatisfaction of visitors. shall not be forced to conduct ceremonies for every tour group instead, tour groups will visitCharacteristics of Ecotourism (5As) the community in time for the traditional dateIn order to fully appreciate the concept of of ceremony and with the approval of theecotourism the following premises must be community).acknowledged by stakeholders who plan to go Community-based Ecotourism always seeksinto the development of ecotourism products: to involve the host communities in theNature-based All ecotourism products must identification, development and operation ofbe nature-based or located in natural areas, products for this sector of the tourism industry.with zero or minimum development. With the This promotes economic equity wherein thenatural environment as the main selling pointof ecotourism, it is imperative that saidenvironment is kept in their most natural form.Responsible and Sustainable The moralground of ecotourism is that it promotes aresponsible and sustainable form of tourismthat puts value first and foremost toenvironmental protection before profit. Itrespects the carrying capacity of the site interms of infrastructure development andvolume of visitors in order to ensure that the 6
  • 10. Ecotourismgains generated by ecotourism developments Requirementswould adequately benefit the local  Conservation of biological diversity andcommunities. cultural diversity  Sustainable use of the environment  Participation of the community in localRequirements of Ecotourism eco-tourism enterprisesSince travel to unspoiled natural environs is aprimary motive, a primary requisite forecotourism includes local culture, flora and livelihood and income opportunities for localfauna as the main attraction. Alongside this is entrepreneurs who can best explore a sitesthe minimization of tourisms own inherent tourist drawing potential.environmental impact (destruction andpollution) on the destination. Functions of the Ecotourism ValueAs an anchor attraction, conservation of Chain (5As)biological and cultural diversity throughecosystem protection is necessary. This could Arrivalsbe ensured by the sharing of socio-economic It must be understood that althoughbenefits with local communities and ecotourism sites might allow only a limitedindigenous people (ie. jobs for local residents) number of visitors at any given time, it mayand having their informed consent and appeal to three ecotourism market segments.participation in the management of ecotourism Ecotourists These are travelers who haveenterprises. high social and environmental knowledge andA local example is the DOT‘s Grassroots who are familiar with the behaviour expectedEntrepreneurship and Employment in Tourism of tourists in reducing the carbon footprints in(GREET) kayak-canoe acquisition & guide a destination. Ecotourists usually travel astraining project in Sohotan National Park, individuals or as small groups that consists ofSamar. It was initiated to promote and three to five persons. They are prepared tosafeguard eco-tourism sites and the stay in local facilities, no matter how simple orsustainable use of biodiversity while offering rustic these may be.essential services to tourists and providing Novice Ecotourists These are usuallyjobs to the local population. A similar program students or people who are willing to learn andin Central America is a tour-guide training appreciate what the destination or ecotourismcourse in Costa Ricas Tortuguero National product offers. This market usually travels byPark. It has helped mitigate negative groups that ranges from mid to high volume.environmental impacts by providinginformation and regulating tourists on the Mass (non-ecotourist) market The very highparks beaches used by nesting endangered profile created by ecotourism products wouldsea turtles. These programs enhance the from time to time be noticed by the mass market and they potentially come in droves to the ecotourism sites. The mass tourist market could eventually destroy unprepared areas especially if mitigating measures are not in place to manage the high volume of visitors. Some examples of ecotourism products availed by the mass market are dolphin watching, river cruising, trekking in easy trails, or snorkeling in shallow coral reefs. Effectively managing the entry of the mass market in ecotourism products offers an opportunity for inculcating the value of environmental protection (such as, the value of protecting 7
  • 11. Ecotourism Characteristics of people in the ecotourism sites, such as in  Appeals to ecologically and socially mangrove areas, habitats of rare flora or fauna conscious travelers. and the like.  Tourism to unspoiled natural resources is a primary concern Table 1 The 5As in Ecotourism  Happens in destinations where flora, Arrivals  Niche market of fauna, and cultural heritage are the environmentally- primary attractions. conscious travelers  Creates economic opportunities for the (ecotourism market) local communities and empowerment for  Market the destination local people as environmentally- friendly, highlightingmangroves instead of cutting them down) for unspoiled natural resourcesthis particular market segment.  Select a low volume- high income strategyAccess Access  Minimize vehicleStakeholders also have to recognize that due accessto the fragility of the natural environment, most  Limit the builtecotourism sites can only accommodate low environment / lowvolumes of visitors. Thus, control measures to impact infrastructurelimit the number of tourists to such sites will  Promote non-have to be implemented. Such control motorized and/or non-measures would include the following: polluting transport options  Low guests to guide ratio Accommodation  Use of local and natural building  Establishing maximum daily visitor materials quotas  ―Small is beautiful‖—  Queuing or ticketing system keep the size and  Limited parking space number of  Limited road or trail system establishments small  Use of ―greenAccess development must also conform to the technologies‖, fordesired level of protection of the natural example, reduction of waste at source, water-features in an ecotourism destination. Access saving plumbingto areas that cannot absorb large numbers of fixtures, recycling,visitors (for example, mangroves, caves, and energy efficient lightingrainforests) must be restricted, allowing only Attractions  Pristine naturaltrails, boardwalks, or dirt roads leading to the environments,sites. protected areas and national parksOn the other hand, products that can  Natural Culturalaccommodate large numbers of visitors (for heritage sitesexample, beach areas that can accommodate  Traditional village lifehigh density development) should allow the Activities  Animal watching (birds, whales)setting up of high volume circulation facilities  Nature trails, canopyand infrastructure such as paved roads and walksvisitor centers without compromising the  Awareness creation forprotection of the ecotourism attractions. environmental and social conservationOther facilities such as boardwalks areeffective ways to properly control themovement of visitors and minimize potentialimpacts resulting from uncontrolled movement 8
  • 12. Ecotourism exceeding environmental standards in waterAccommodation and solid waste management.Ecotourism does not require large investmentsin accommodation facilities. Simple facilities Establishments are also encouraged to sourceranging from homestays to inns would be their supplies from local MSMEs to the extentsufficient for visitors in ecotourism possible to bring down transport costs and todestinations. Luxury accommodations can also allow the local community to benefit directlybe made available in destinations that are able from tourism activities in the attract high-end travelers. AttractionsIn the case of exceptional products that are Typical ecotourism attractions include pristineable to attract large volumes and different natural environments such as primary growthsegments of the tourist market, the forest and jungles, caves and other rockconstruction of high density accommodation, formations, beach and coastlines, mountainssuch as multi-story, hotels should be limited to and volcanoes, waterfalls and lakes or wateridentified development zones or city centers reservoir. Most of these sites may be situatedthat are located some distance away from the in protected areas, sanctuaries and nationalsite to protect the pristine condition of the parks.ecotourism product. Although majority of ecotourism productsApplying ―green technology‖ and indigenous would be ecosystems-based (such as, forests,use of local resources in the design, building, volcanoes, rivers and coral reefs), some wouldand operation of board and lodging facilities focus also on specific animal species (whaleare also highly desired in these so-called shark, dolphin, turtle) or natural featuresecolodges. These would include energy (waterfalls).efficient electrical components (such aslighting, airconditioning) and should strive to Indigenous communities living amidst andreduce carbon emissions and pollutants by dependent on the natural environment areusing renewable sources of energy (such as often part of the total ecotourism makeup of asolar, biomass, wind), observing the 3Rs destination.(reuse, reduce, recycle) and abiding by or 9
  • 13. EcotourismActivities Complementary MeasuresEcotourism activities should lead to a  Zoning of protected areas and ecotourismheightened awareness for environmental and sitessocial conservation. Also, the activities should  Enforcement of environmental regulationsnot create irreversible social and and building restrictionsenvironmental impacts in the destinations.  Availability and/or access to trainedCommon activities consist of animal ecotourism guidesobservation (such as, bird watching, whale  Compatibility of adjacent development plans with ecotourism requirementsshark watching); non-motorized water sports(such as kayaking, rafting, sailing); and natureand rainforest exploration using pre-designated trails for hiking and trekking,canopy walks, zip-lines (cable pulley slides);mountaineering; wilderness camping thatobserves a ―leave no trace‖ ethic; and wildlifeand outdoor photography. 10
  • 14. EcotourismChecklist for Ecotourism Institutional Development • Establish Protected Areas or Species for conservation and ecotourism utilization • Formulate and enforce environmental laws and local ordinances • Initiate collaboration with other government agencies such as DOT, DENR, DA-BFAR • Establish provincial or city/municipal tourism office, with staff and budget • Establish Ecotourism Standards and Guidelines (or Ecotourism Code) • Organize training Programs for ecotourism frontliners (such as, guides, banca operators) • Organize or strengthen tourism councils • Organize trade groups (accommodation, transport, tour operators) Product Mapping and Prioritization • Stakeholders to identify and map out existing and potential ecotourism sites • Prioritize the ecotourism sites into major (for development in the short-term/immediate) and potential (for development in the long-term) sites Product Development • Determine if site/s can accommodate low or high visitor volume and build appropriate facilities to keep the number of tourists within the range • Identify appropriate activities per site to ensure complementarity and protection of the attraction • Identify development needs (for example, trails, water sources) • Procure appropriate gear and equipment (for example, kayaks, life vests, binoculars) Product Management • Enact and implement ecotourism-related ordinances to ensure that the quality of sites and facilities are maintained (such as, ordinance against hunting in birdwatching sites) • Involve the local community in the operation and maintenance of sites Community and Stakeholder Organizing • Identify stakeholders and community members who will be affected and involved in ecotourism activities • Conduct training needs assessment for the local community members • Organize Community members into people‘s organizations, cooperatives, groups of service providers (for example, boatmen association, eco-guides group) Skills Development • Implement skills training for the community members so they can be involved in ecotourism development and operations (such as, guides for trail/mountaineering, cave, bird watching, diving) Business Planning Development • Formulate business plan for the destination and each activity developed for the area. Destination Marketing • Identify market sources and characteristics (for example, demographics, preferences – national and regional figures available at DOT‘s statistics office and website –, • Conduct Product-market matching • Develop materials for publicity (target free) • Disseminate publicity materials • Conduct familiarization trips for media and tour operators and other suppliers 11
  • 15. MICE TourismMICE TourismMICE is an acronym for meetings, incentives,conventions and exhibitions. It refers to a type Definitionof tourism in which groups or individuals are  Acronym for Meetings, Incentives,brought together for a particular purpose Conventions and Exhibitions(ICCA 2007).  Meeting - general term indicating the coming together of a number of people inBids for MICE events are normally placed by one place, to confer or carry out aspecialized convention bureaus located in particular activity.various countries and cities. These groups are  Incentive - meeting event as part of aestablished for the purpose of bidding on program, which is offered to its participantsMICE activities. The subsector is known for its to reward exceptional performance.extensive planning processes and demanding  Conference - participatory meetingclientele. designed for discussion, fact-finding, problem solving and consultation.  Exhibition - Events at which products andCharacteristics of MICE Tourism services are displayed.MICE tourism often caters to groups orindividuals who gather for a particular event or International Congress and Convention Associationpurpose. These groups require suitablevenues that are bidded out and planned inadvance, which ranges from a few months to a developments and sub-specializationfew years, depending on the number of people conferences of lawyers, doctors, engineers,expected. and accountants. Examples would include a gathering of doctors discussing specificMICE gatherings vary in purpose. Meetings practices and mayors discussing issues thatand conferences or conventions are usually may affect local areas (for example, coastalconducted for professional or educational management).purposes. It is also organized to discussissues of concern and advancements to Exhibitions and trade shows typically focus oncertain professions such as recent a particular industry segment and feature keynote speakers, vendor displays, and other information and activities of interest to the event organizers and attendees. These would include events such as construction shows (Worldbex), furniture fairs (FAME), and travel Characteristics  Type of tourism in which large groups are brought together for a particular purpose.  Well-planned agenda centered around a particular theme, such as a hobby, a profession, or an educational topic. 12
  • 16. MICE Tourismexpos (Philippine Travel Mart). Incentive MICE events require extensive and detailedtravel, on the other hand, is a leisure trip planning, management and coordination.undertaken as a reward for expectations met Hence, professional meeting and conventionor exceeded. planners, event management groups from the conventions hosting company, or outside specialists are needed to handle MICE activity.Requirements of MICE TourismTo engage in MICE tourism, the destinationmust have venues of suitable capacity with Functions of the MICE Tourism Valueadequate staff and equipment and accessible Chain (5As)by any local transport. These venues shouldhave the capability and capacity to service Arrivalvarious food and beverage requirements. In A high volume strategy (conventions) or nicheaddition, it must provide easy access to marketing (small functions) is usually adoptedutilities and support services such as to promote and market the destinationelectricity, water, communications, ICT, internationally as a suitable venue.trucking and transport, medical, security,advertising, marketing, supply and logistics, Access to the destination necessitatesamong others. Proximity to complementary seamless connections and arrival processes.facilities, such as retail, health, financial, For large events, assistance teams areentertainment establishments and places of organized to facilitate the transit of tourists andworship within the vicinity of the venue is a baggage from the transport terminal to theirplus. accommodations and MICE venue. To facilitate the influx of MICE participants, the Requirements  Professional meeting and convention venues, infrastructure and facilities should planners & organizers adopt globally-accepted standards and  Convention centers that can accommodate regulations in order to attract the local and large groups of visitors and a variety of international market. Likewise, improved other facilities that can cater to wide range capability of the national (such as, Philippine of group sizes and requirements Convention and Visitors Corporation) and local  Sufficient accommodation facilities in the trade convention or visitors bureau vicinity of the convention center (Provincial/City/Municipal Tourism office) must be emphasized and encouraged to supportThe MICE market varies in size and interests. MICE promotions and marketing, planning,While large groups that can reach several and management.thousand delegates dominate the high profile The domestic MICE industry has proven to beactivities, there are also the smaller, but a very lucrative market for destinations thatnumerous groups that can number less than offer appropriate facilities. The Philippineten individuals to several hundreds. Advertising Congress, which is held every twoThe destination is usually promoted by offering years, has generated much interest in thean array of facilities that can provide full domestic MICE market owing to the largeservice management for MICE including, but numbers of participants they attract.not limited to conference design, registration,site and venue selection and booking,audiovisual equipment, IT support, logistics,leisure management, security services,marketing, printing and web services, sourcingspeakers, funding and sponsorship, financialmanagement and budget control. 13
  • 17. MICE TourismTable 2 The 5As in MICE Tourism Access Efficiency of operations is foremost amongArrivals  Focus is on corporate MICE tourists since most are business customers and travelers who are usually pressed for time business travelers  Local and while in the destination. Thus, an ideal MICE International destination must have an efficient local marketing of the transport network and is accessible to nearby destination is tourist destinations. Proximity of MICE imperative facilities to an airport and other affordable  Selecting either a high clean, safe and secure public transport volume strategy or facilities are a desirable feature. In some niche market for small international conventions where the functionAccess convention facility is located in an area that is  Efficient transport network, seamless inaccessible, the organizers establish connections and transport routes that have designated drop- airport arrival off/pick-up points for participants for the processes duration of the activity.  Proximity of MICE facilities to airport and Accommodation public transport Functionality and comfort are overriding facilities concerns for the MICE patron. For this reason,  Efficiency - Time is money for the hotels, restaurants, and related MICE facilities business traveler (conference and meeting venues) shouldAccommodation  Hotels with good comply with international quality standards. MICE facilities Venue capacity must be considered and (conference and observed suitable for the event, while meeting rooms) adequate catering facilities to service large  Catering facilities for number of delegates must be available. large number of MICE Support and services personnel must likewise delegates adhere to rigorous service quality standards.  Functionality and comfort are overriding concerns for the MICE MICE venues and accommodations must also industry offer related supplementary services, whichAttractions  Sophisticated MICE include travel guides and agents, and tour facilities (conference operators. Most MICE events would have pre and meeting rooms) and post tours wherein delegates would have  Conference and the option to explore the tourist attractions in sightseeing packages the destination. offered by local tour operators Business facilities and services are also very  Cultural attractions in important for the MICE market. These include the city (theatre, documentation, photocopying, translation churches, museum)Activities services, and Internet access.  Shopping (souvenirs, fashion, local delicacies, Attractions handicrafts, Variety is needed to suit the broad pasalubong) requirements of this niche. While sophisticated  Sightseeing and MICE facilities such as hotels, convention excursions in the centers, conference and meeting rooms, and MICE environment reception halls would help the MICE  Events (weddings, organizers to consider a destination, the birthday parties, company functions) presence of tourist attractions and activities also provide additional incentives to hold an 14
  • 18. MICE Tourismevent in a locality. For example, the Cebumetropolitan area is a popular MICE venueowing to the presence of several large hotelsand convention centers, further enhanced bythe proximity of beaches, cultural attractions,shopping malls and other facilities. Access toattractions such as historical and cultural sites,beaches, and impressive landscapesenhances the potential for developing alocality into a MICE destination.ActivitiesActivities usually fit into the variousclassifications of MICE. Among these are Complementary Measuresgatherings of professional, educational or  Planning and zoning for MICE industry hubhobby associations; trade and industry with ICT infrastructureshows/company functions; product or service  Availability of specialized service providerslaunching an d exhibit; conventions (such as (ICT, event organizers, caterers, tourprofessional, political, religious, socio-civic); operators)ceremonies (such as weddings, anniversaries,  Training facilities for the MICE industrygraduation and commencement exercises); accessible (including hotel and restaurantconcerts, festivals, plays and other management)entertainment events; shopping and bazaars(souvenirs, fashion, handicrafts); contests,pageants and competitions; and sightseeing inand around the MICE venue. 15
  • 19. MICE TourismChecklist for MICE Tourism Institutional Development • Organize a Visitors‘ Bureau that will focus on developing the MICE industry and bid for the hosting of MICE events • For other government infrastructure (e.g. sports center) include MICE as another possible use to optimize the facility Product Mapping and Prioritization • Determine the capacities of MICE facilities as well as the room supply of the destination and the transportation linkages between/among them • For the domestic market, MICE should be provided with enough focus as this can prove to be a highly reliable market, especially in regional and provincial centers. Product Development • Existing facilities should continue innovating to attract a steady stream of clients • Develop tour programs that can be offered to the MICE market Product Management • Maintain meetings facilities and innovate services to ensure the quality and quantity required by local and international markets • Industry members (such as, hotels) must help maintain the site‘s competitiveness by actively participating in marketing and adjusting their rates to help strengthen the bids for large MICE events. Community and Stakeholder Organizing • Organize community members to offer services to the MICE markets who avail of tour programs. This can range from tour guide services, providing meals, transportation and the like Skills Development • Develop skills for catering, guiding, and other services that may be required in a destination (e.g. paddleboat operation) Business Planning Development • The MICE destinations should have a long-term business plan as international bids could take several years, involving large-scale investments (for example, sports arena, convention senter) that should be utilized on a regular basis in order to get a return on investment • Position the destination to attract large events but at the same time have the flexibility to cater to small groups and local companies so to have a steady flow of activities throughout the year as their • ―One-time-big-time‖ groups should be avoided by destinations wherein supplies are unable to cope with the short-term demand and infrastructure investments are not maximized Market Planning and Marketing • Major urban areas with sizeable number of rooms and meeting facilities available should be marketed as an international MICE destination • Emerging MICE destinations should focus on the local market and gradually move into international activities in the long term as they gain more experience 16
  • 20. Adventure TourismAdventure, Outdoorand Sports TourismTourists engage in adventure and outdoortourism to gain an unusual experience which Definitionmay include some level of risk, uncertainty and  Adventure travel is a type of tourismin some cases, use of unconventional means involving exploration or travel to remote,of transport. It is a type of tourism that involves exotic and possibly hostile areas, whereexploration or travel to remote, exotic and the traveler should "expect the unexpected"often times ―risky‖ areas, where the traveler  Sports tourism involves physical activities"expects the unexpected," and hurdles that the traveler does not usuallypersonal, mental and physical challenges. experience at homeThis form of tourism appeals mainly to youngand physically fit travelers as it involves the experience in itself is more the primaryintense activity. Adventure tourism also allows appeal, with local topography, wildlife andcultural exchange with the local community cultural heritage acting as enhancers.and interaction with nature. It is often linkedwith ecotourism activities and at times referred Activities encourage participants to stepto when it involves Nature-Based Tourism-- outside of their comfort zone and on occasion,any activity or travel experience with a focus lead to pursuits, which may provide exposureon nature; and Multi-Sport Adventure-- where to physical danger. The overall experience istrips focus on physical outdoor activities. enhanced through the performance of someHowever, care must be exercised in activities that may require significant effort andintroducing some of these activities, such as involve a higher degree of risk.those related to sea and land motorsports as it Distinction is often made between soft andmay disturb (or even damage) flora and fauna hard adventure travel. Soft adventures have afrom unmanaged passage to local habitats, lower level of risk, greater comfort inmountain or forest trails, and waterways. accommodations and are less physicallySome adventure tourism activities may also rigorous (for example, bird watching, easyfall into the ecotourism category such ascaving, scuba diving and mountaineering, Characteristicscanopy walks (trekking) and kayaking.  Any tourist activity involving physical exercise that allows its participants to stepCharacteristics of Adventure, Outdoor outside of their comfort zone.  Adventure activities include rafting,and Sports Tourism mountaineering, caving, bungee jumping,Adventure tourism distinguishes itself from mountain biking, zip-lining and rockother subsectors by its educational and climbing, social and jungle tourismrecreational activities that are both exciting  Sports activities include water sports, e.g.and physically challenging. It focuses on diving, sailing, surfing, windsurfing, wake boarding, rafting.creating new personal experiences and  Land-based sports include trekking,perspectives in viewing life in a locality. Thus, horseback-riding, golf. 17
  • 21. Adventure Tourismcaving, and golf) while hard adventures often The adventure tourism industry is a highlyhave very basic facilities, higher risk factors resilient segment and can attract visitors to theand greater physical challenges (for example, site even during lean or unstable times, for asmountaineering and technical caving). long as the tourists are still able to undertake the activities that motivated them to visit theTrips frequently incorporate active outdoor site.pursuits but these should never be at theexpense of nature or the people living in the Even with basic facilities, unique products andarea. Adventure tourism often appeals to services have to be offered catering to thisecologically and socially conscious travelers. small but growing and demanding niche. These physically active tourists must have access to various outdoor adventure travelRequirements of Adventure, Outdoor outfitters offering diverse and distinctive traveland Sports Tourism options on the destination.Since unspoiled natural resources is a primarylure, the presence of remote natural Use of outdoor facilities and inexpensiveattractions; ecologically pristine spots offering technology should be made available withunusual features or conditions; and an respect to activities requiring specificabundance of nearby sites with unique navigation systems, transportation, and safetyattributes are requisites. The participation of equipment that will serve to enhance thethe community is a key component as travelers‘ experience.adventure tourism would require authentic, Adventure travel is highly dependent on theunique, and sometimes, indigenous activities. presence of service providers such as guidesAdventure tourism is considered a low-volume, and outfitters (for example, those who operatebut high profile sector of the travel industry. It the tour and provide the equipment at therarely brings in large volumes of visitors but same time, such as kayaking). Due to thewhat it does is to help promote the destination high-risk factor of adventure travel, there isthrough highly graphic images of adventure also a need to develop emergency responseactivities like surfing, scuba diving, and systems and facilities in order to providemountaineering. This provides an entry point frontline medical services (for example, firstfor other possible attractions and tourism aid, airlift services, etc.) for tourists in theproducts that can cater to other market event of accidents.segments visiting the destination. Functions of the Adventure, Outdoor and Sports Tourism Value Chain (5As) Arrivals Promotion and marketing channels for adventure seekers highlighting experience over comfort must be available through various media (internet, magazines, and trade fairs). Examples are sports and outdoor events held in the area with extensive media coverage and promotion. To manage visitor expectations, basic infrastructure requirements for adventure/sports tourism must conform to the natural environment to the extent possible. Moreover, these facilities must have resources and trained personnel to cope with emergencies. Tour operators and guides must 18
  • 22. Adventure Tourismalso lay down guidelines and conduct pre- Table 3 The 5As of Adventure and Sportsactivity briefings to ensure the tourists‘ safety Tourismand prevent damage to the environment. Arrivals  Market channels for physically activeAccess people (web,Destinations must establish a balance magazines, tradebetween providing access to a location in a fairs), highlightingmanageable and tolerable level, while keeping experience overthe area environmentally intact. Roads and comfortpublic transport leading to the destination  Small, but growing niche marketshould be available. Access  Public transportAs most locations are remote, services must availablebe available to assure visitors of their safety  Limit the built environment to theand security to, in, and from the destination minimum necessarybut at the same time be as unobtrusive and  Eco-friendly transportlow key as possible. To minimize the impact optionson the environs, the use of markers, Accommodation  Basic, low cost,directional or aid signages, guides and minimal comfortinformation posts with personnel should be (except for golfers)present. Their presence will also allow them to  Catering for the youngclosely manage the manner by which activities and adventurous (backpacker lodges)are being carried out by the tourists.  Specialized providers – dive resortsAccommodation Attractions  Pristine naturalIn an ideal set-up, infrastructure and environments - jungle,operations should be as low-impact as caves, mountains,possible. Lodging facilities should blend with forests, riversthe natural surroundings by using locally  Wildlife experience -available materials and adhering to local National parks,construction methods, usage and settings. marine reserves,Tourism establishments should be encouraged nature trails, dive sites  Sports facilities – golfto use low cost, indigenous and natural course, sailing andbuilding materials to minimize its impact on the diving schoolsphysical environment. It must also cater to its Activities  Nature (trekking,niche demographics – usually the young and hiking,adventurous—that often times prefer mountaineering,amenities that are spartan, providing only the spelunking, jungle andbasic necessities. However, some may offer wilderness)specific activity infrastructure, equipment  Ground sports – (golfing, beachrentals, courses and trip programming for volleyball, mountain-groups engaged in water sports such as biking, bungeesailing and SCUBA diving. jumping)  Water sports – (Diving, snorkeling, (wind)surfing, kayaking, water- skiing, bangka trips) 19
  • 23. Adventure TourismAttractionsDestinations in natural environments musthave topographic features such as forests andjungles, caves and subterranean elements,rivers, waterfalls, natural rock formations,marine reserves and diving sites, volcanoes,mountains and the like. To provide anauthentic wildlife experience, destinations maybe locations that have been declared asprotected areas; marine reserves and divesites; bird sanctuaries; and national parks withnature trails. Adventure/sports facilities such facilities with patches of nature and those thatas golf courses, sailing, diving and other are purposely built to simulate the outdooractivity related infrastructure, on the other experience that have the potential forhand, cater to the sport and outdoor adventure tourism.enthusiasts. Water based activities include canoe,Adventure activities that are possible in urban river/white water rafting, river expeditions, seaareas include wall climbing and other kayaking, SCUBA diving, snorkeling, marineemerging ones that involve walking on the roof life observation (whale, dolphin, shark, turtle,edges of tall building, such as in Macau, or rays), live on-board trips, surfing, water skiing,climbing across high bridges, as in the Sydney wake boarding, kite boarding, board sailing,harbor. The private sector is very innovative in sailing, jet ski, and island hopping andcoming up with new ideas for activities to outrigger trips. Environs for these activities areattract visitors and make them stay longer in commonly held in open water or coastaltheir properties. The locality, therefore, would facilities, in-land tributary, lakes or rivers.benefit also from working closely with theprivate sector in tourism development. Air sport activities include hot air ballooning, kite flying, parasailing, sky diving,Activities aircraft and hang gliding, and air races.Adventure tourism activities may be Suitable locations for these activities should becategorized into four groups--land, water, and in open areas and fields far from concentrationair. of buildings, electric transmission lines, and air traffic. Frequently these sites are airportsLand activities include mountaineering, closed for the occasion, former military airtrekking and hiking, backpacking, bird installations, or mountain ranges and valleyswatching, zip lines and canopy walks, rock (gliding/ballooning).climbing, spelunking, wheeled vehicle trails,triathlons, adventure and ultra-distance races,orienteering, jungle exploration, beach sports, Complementary Measuresteam and confidence building activities, and  Zoning of protected areas and tourismbungee jumps. Most activities occur in remote sitesor rural communities, but there are also urban  Accreditation of adventure tourism and equipment providers for safety reasons  Availability of qualified personnel (diving instructors, mountain and rafting guides) 20
  • 24. Adventure TourismChecklist for Adventure, Outdoor and Sports Tourism Institutional Development • Enactment of laws and ordinances to encourage and properly regulate adventure activities in protected areas • Offer incentive programs for private sector groups developing pioneering adventure activities (for example, subsidy) Product Mapping and Prioritization • Identify possible adventure sites through extensive research and testing to ensure its appeal to the target market and address safety issues • Prioritize activities into major (developed in short term) and potential (developed in medium to long term) products to attract the most number of visitors given the marketing and development resources. Product Development • Develop a range of possible adventure activities in a destination that can each cater to a specific market niche (i.e., an extensive beach area can simultaneously accommodate swimming, surfing, kite boarding and windsurfing) • Test if adventure activity is viable and safe in the site by inviting local hobbyists and technical experts alike Product Management • Organize a local handler or outfitter that will operate the tour program because in many cases the introduction of adventure activities is done by outsiders. • Maintain sites in their pristine or most ideal condition by ensuring that tourism activities are properly managed and only compatible land uses/activities are allowed to develop in the area Community and Stakeholder Organizing • Organize local community for possible operation of adventure program. Potential roles are guides, porter, tour coordinators, equipment rental operators, caterers, or transport operators. Skills Development • Locals should increasingly be trained in the skills of the adventure program offered in the destination as the market grows in size Business Planning Development • Initial Investments should be prioritized to cover proper site development, provision of graded (for level of safety) gear/equipment and appropriate training of guides to be able to offer safe adventure programs • The adventure travel business plan should be able to cover the required initial investment to position the province or municipality/city as an adventure destination. Market Planning and Marketing • Initial visitors for adventure travel will be composed mostly of what is termed as "hard- core" enthusiasts who are consistently in search of new places to do their hobby. • Events such as adventure races or competitions should be made part of the marketing program in order to pique the interest of the adventure enthusiasts to the area. • Utilize free publicity generated by the high-profile adventure activities at the same time continually invite media personalities to provide free publicity for the site • The local handler or outfitter should maintain close links with tourist suppliers such as tour operators, hotels, resorts, and airlines to ensure a stead flow of visitors. 21
  • 25. Medical TourismMedical, Health, Wellnessand Retirement TourismMedical Tourism, also known as medicaltravel, health tourism or global healthcare, is atrend in which individuals receive healthcare Definitionoutside of their home country in order to take The rapidly-growing practice of traveling acrossadvantage of lower prices with greater international borders to obtain health care ataccessibility to treatment or better facilities, significantly lower costs and/or better qualityand at the same time, enjoy the destination‘s than in the country of origin.attractions and activities. and employment for greater sectors of theMedical tourism is divided into three main society, including the disabled (for example,categories: blind masseurs).  health and wellness; Medical treatment covers consultations or  medical treatment; and second-opinion diagnosis with specialists as  retirement well as procedures ranging from simple cosmetic, dental or eye surgery to complicatedHealth and wellness tourism, as defined by and invasive surgeries.the World Tourism Organization, is associatedwith travel to health spas or resort destinations Retirement tourism has emerged as a viablewhere the primary purpose is to improve the option for the aging population in manytraveler‘s physical well-being through physical developed countries like the US, Europe andexercise and therapy, dietary control, medical Japan. Higher cost of living in these countriesservices relative to health maintenance. is driving retirees to move to developing nations where cost of living and health care isThe spa industry in the health and wellness less is comprised of a range ofalternative/indigenous treatments to include The range of medical tourism activities is anvarious forms of massage, water-mineral estimated USD 40 billion US dollar industrytreatment, chiropractic and related physical worldwide. Forecasts by Deloitte indicate thattherapy, aromatherapy, herbal treatment and it will grow to USD 188 billion by 2013. Healthcleansing diets. Tourism International estimates that in 2008, up to 1 million Americans will seek medicalIndigenous treatments such as Hilot and care abroad. This trend will continue as USDagdagay (form of foot massage in the health care costs increases at 8% per year,Cordillera Region) have been incorporated into eating into corporate profits and householdthe mainstream of spa and health services in disposable income. Furthermore, Japan nowthe Philippines. has 22 million elderly nationals costing them USD 36.5 billion annually in elderly care. TheThe growth of the spa and wellness sector in sector may well be in a position to take up thethe tourism industry has provided windows of slack from other traditional and mature tourismopportunity for many destinations in the subsectors adversely affected by a globalPhilippines in terms of business development economic slump. 22
  • 26. Medical TourismIn the Philippines, revenues from the Medical, Besides seeking a safe and less costlyHealth and Wellness and Retirement substitute treatment, travelers often opt tosubsector have been increasing over the past enhance their stay with a vacation for rest and5 years. Revenues in 2007 reached USD 700 recuperation. These activities should createmillion and are expected to reach USD 3 economic opportunities for the local medicalbillion and USD 8 billion in 2010 and 2015, and health care communities.respectively. But in spite of the subsector‘srapid growth in the Philippines, the country is Requirements of Medical Tourismonly earning a fifth of what Thailand, India, andMalaysia earn annually. Quality and affordability are key requisites in order for a destination to flourish as a desiredPotential and prospects in the Philippines medical tourism destination. It must haveremain optimistic owing to the fact that: prices world class medical facilities staffed byof medical and surgical procedures in the qualified and experienced medical and healthPhilippines are 30% to 50 % lower than care personnel. They should have a provenelsewhere (DOH); and the country supplies system of maintaining the quality of services;some of the world‘s best doctors, nurses, and human resources management and training; ahealthcare providers. careful selection system of health care professionals; constant professional development; and regular improvement ofCharacteristics of Medical Tourism technology and procedures. Moreover,The main reason for a tourist trip is to seek an facilities should have access to financing foralternative quality and cost efficient medical constant upgrade and maintenance.service elsewhere due to expensivehealthcare costs in a traveler‘s home country. RequirementsA destination must have significant price,  Availability of well-equipped medicalquality, and regulatory difference to take facilities & highly-trained medicaladvantage of this trend. Existing safe and personnelquality healthcare available in the destination‘s  Accreditation of practitioners and facilitieshealth facilities should be comparable or is essentialexceed those offered by other leading nations.  Training facilities for the health industry accessible 23
  • 27. Medical TourismAffordability is measured by the presence of a patients. Furthermore, facilities could invest insignificant price difference between source advance information systems and use clinicaland destination countries. Options should be information technologies to improve patient-made available for similar medical treatments, health care provider matching. Links with topaffordable financing, and private medical care foreign medical institutions could yield furtheramong others. A less restrictive healthcare advance training and undertaking ofregulatory environment that would balance collaborative procedures.price competitiveness and quality care wouldbe beneficial in attracting more medical Spatourists to the country. The spa sector thrives both on domestic and foreign tourists. Foreign tourists will beServices must cater to individual needs by attracted to visit the Philippines for the uniqueallowing consumers to select a provider based (hilot) services, ambience and facilities, whileon maintenance of certain standards, medical the domestic market are lured to avail of theethics and quality, and ease of travel to and spa services in destinations more for wellnessfrom the medical facility and nearby tourist needs. Some of the major spa destinations insites. Providers must also observe cultural the Philippines include The Farm at Sansensitivity and understanding of international Benito in Batangas Province, Mandala Spa indiversity in offering their services. This is an Boracay Island, and Nurture Spa in Caviteimportant consideration since differences in Province. However, major hotels and resorts innutritional habits, religious practices, family the country have already incorporated spainteractions and other customs must be services as one of their service offerings torecognized, understood and addressed. attract this particular market segment. RetirementFunctions of the Medical Tourism The retirement market consists both ofValue Chain (5As) Filipinos living abroad and foreign individuals. Factors that attract this market include theArrivals temperate climate, scenery and the ease of living in their new community. A governmentMedical Tourism agency, the Philippine Retirement Authority,Promoting and marketing the country and its has been at the forefront in attracting thisfacilities should capitalize on its reputation for segment and is working closely with localaffordable prices, English language fluency, an government units and the private sector inabundance of well-trained doctors and nurses, establishing retirement destinations. Oneand unique hospitality and convalescent care. retirement village that is currently undergoing development is Silvertown Retirement VillageTo attract more clients, medical service in Batangas Province.providers are encouraged to establish linkswith international Health Maintenance AccessOrganizations (HMOs), national health care A most basic requirement is to establishservice, insurance companies, non-profits, and networks with international and local transportpartner medical institutions from other operators to provide customized service to andcountries to facilitate matching of potential from the facility. The establishment of more tourist healthcare assistance providers offering facilitation services (i.e. patient records transfer and authentication, legal and insurance documentation, special transport needs, travel bookings, vetting of physicians etc.) to visitors would greatly benefit this subsector. Moreover, this minimizes the dangers of the use of informal channels by patients and providers alike, which in some 24
  • 28. Medical Tourismcases tend to mean less regulatory or legal Accommodationoversight and therefore decrease in quality The main attraction for any medical tourismassurance and options for formal recourse to destination is the presence of fully equippedreimbursement or redress in the event of facilities that offers quality yet affordableproblems arising from the procedure. inpatient and outpatient care and that provides excellent pre and post discharge care. ToTable 4 The 5As in Medical, Health, Wellness enhance the patients‘ positive experience,and Retirement Tourism these facilities should provide a stress freeArrivals  Market the high and relaxing atmosphere. Several major medical standards of hospitals (for example St. Luke‘s, Asian the industry Hospital) have already created wings that  Seamless air cater specifically to medical tourists. connections and airport arrival Among the attributes that make facilities stand processes necessary out are: low patient-to-staff ratio; medical staff  Price competitiveness having appropriate training along with qualified at consistently high certification exams; affiliation with top-tier and qualityAccess reputable foreign provider organizations;  Sophisticated local transport network presence of foreign trained physicians and  Proximity of medical care teams; adoption of evidence-based facilities to airport and clinical guidelines; and facilities should have public transport coordination capabilities with various agencies facilities (for example insurance, government, and  Access to tourism other facilitators). services (hotels, resorts, restaurants, To assure the highest quality clinical care and restaurants, etc.) medical facility standards, local governmentAccommodation  Comfortable hotels in units should encourage participating medical the vicinity of medical facilities institutions to secure certification from  Wellness facilities providers of international healthcare (spa, massage, accreditation. Among such organizations are rehabilitation, gym) the Joint Commission International (JCI), Trent  Niche market for Accreditation Scheme (Trent), International small specialized Society for Quality in Healthcare (ISQua), operators National Committee for Quality AssuranceAttractions  Sophisticated medical (NCQA), and the European Society for Quality and health facilities in Healthcare (ESQH). The Philippine (clinics, medical practitioners, etc) Medical Tourism Program does not yet require  Complementary mandatory accreditation of medical facilities sightseeing packages but it will definitely enhance the attractiveness offered by local tour of facilities to foreign medical tourists. operators  Cultural and natural Hospitals must also have access to and/or set- attractions nearby up provisions for specialty equipment and (theatre, churches, services (i.e. air transport, 24/7 link and museum, etc) matching to organ donor and blood banks,Activities  Wellness activities mortuary and funeral), where such are not (spa, massage, sauna, gym) available in their localities.  Shopping (souvenirs, fashion, handicrafts, While accommodation requirement for medical etc) tourists would include de luxe hotel facilities,  Sightseeing in the the ones for the spa and wellness would be vicinity of the medical hub 25
  • 29. Medical Tourismmore suited for themed units that can be Activitieslocated in mountain or beach resorts. MedicalSpa and wellness facilities must continue Services offered cover a broad range whichinnovating services and ambience to make typically include selected medical proceduresthem more unique and attractive. Indigenous as well as complex specialized surgeries suchconstruction methods and designs must also as joint replacement (knee/hip), cardiac,be researched and effectively applied. dental, cosmetic/reconstructive, angioplasty, prostate resection, hernia repair,Attractions tonsillectomy-tonsil removal, hysterectomy-The hubs of medical tourism are in urban uterus removal, eye related, reproductivecenters in Metro Manila and Cebu owing to treatment and other assisted reproductiveexisting health or medical facilities. Among the technology treatments. Other non-surgicalhospitals in Metro Manila that currently provide procedures and services cover every type ofservices to medical tourists are: St. Luke‘s health care to include psychiatry, alternativeMedical Center, Asian Hospital, Medical City, treatments, convalescent care and evenMakati Medical Center, Capitol Medical mortuary services. The presence of otherCenter, Lung Center, Philippine Heart Center, complementary activities, like beaches, golf,National Kidney and Transplant Institute and and shopping enhance the attraction of athe Philippine Children‘s Medical Center. medical tourism destination.Other specialized ones are the ResearchInstitute for Tropical Medicine, Asian Eye SpaInstitute, and various accredited cosmetic Spa services typically include the usualsurgery facilities. Three hospitals in Cebu massage and other wellness services, whichinclude: Cebu Doctors, Chong Hua and may include traditional practices (i.e., hilot).Perpetual Succour. Others include detoxification while some would have exercises (and yoga) as part of theHealth and Wellness establishments are activities offered. For resort-based spadispersed all over the country with the best facilities, the opportunity to do other activitiesones located in pristine and rural locations. such as swimming or exploration wouldMost are promoted as part of ecotourism usually be offered to the guests.packages or luxury services offered by resorts. RetirementSpas can become attractions by themselves The retirement market requires a wide variety(some are classified as destination spas) while of activities to keep the clients occupied andothers become important components of the interested. Golf is one of the major motivatorswhole range of tourism offerings in the area. for this market. Other low-impact and non- strenuous sports activities, such as tennis,Retirement villages are usually located in gym, and badminton are also offered to theareas that offer both rural ambience and retirees. Visits to nearby attractions such asnearby service centers. While the climate beaches and local communities can also becould be the primary lure for this market, the made part of the range of activities offered toavailability of services and facilities enhance this market.their attraction a retirement destination. Complementary Measures  Planning & zoning for health industry hub  Accreditation of health facilities to ensure international standards 26
  • 30. Medical TourismChecklist for Medical Tourism Institutional Development • Hospitals to establish facilities and create complementary services that will cater to medical tourism market • Provide opportunities for specialty clinics and dental services to be part of the medical tourism industry • Coordinate closely with DOH on accreditation, medical ethics and allowed procedures • Establish guidelines for medical and wellness services with regard to providing ethical and wholesome services. • Coordinate closely with the Philippine Retirement Authority to determine the needs of the sector Product Mapping and Prioritization • Develop a ―medical, health and wellness and retirement tourism‖ map for the locality showing the hospital, spa and retirement facilities, including services offered and reh relative proximity pf support facilities Product Development • Develop tour packages to complement the medical services to be availed of by tourists • Identify indigenous healing practices in the locality, train local residents, and include these as part of spa services Product Management • Encourage local medical facilities to secure international accreditation • LGUs should strictly enforce mechanisms to control the practice of unauthorized procedures • Enforce control mechanisms for the strict enforcement of health and sanitation standards • Product management for the retirement industry would involve ensuring that the quality of living is maintained in the area to keep the destination attractive to the market. Community and Stakeholder Organizing • Encourage local industry players in the medical and spa sectors to organize themselves for promotion and self-regulation. • For the spa community, identify indigenous wellness knowledge and practices, and the corresponding members of the community who can be trained to provide these services • The retirement community will likewise need local residents to provide the homecare needs of retirees and should therefore receive the appropriate training Skills Development • Provide proper training on massage and related services to ensure high standard services in wellness facilities • The retirement sector required properly trained personnel for ambulant patient care, activity coordination and other related services. Business Planning Development • The LGU should strengthen the linkages along the supply chain, particularly with respect to matching skills with the industry requirements, and the supply of raw materials Market Planning and Marketing • LGU tourism office should work closely with the DOT for the promotion of medical and spa tourism in the international community • Work closely with PRA for the marketing and establishment of retirement villages 27
  • 31. Leisure TourismAmusement, Entertainment,Leisure and Beach TourismThe amusement, entertainment and leisuresubsector is a segment of the more widely Definitionknown tourism related products and services. Amusement, entertainment, leisure and beachIt usually refers to a trip away from home; or tourism usually refers to a trip nearby or distanttime off from work or school for rest or destinations for entertainment or leisure. Suchrecreation. It can also be taken in the destinations are designed for mass travel where a large number of tourists converge inobservance of a public or religious holiday that the area, usually coinciding with specificoften accompanies celebrations or festivities. holiday observances (i.e., Holy Week, Christmas, summer break)Improvements in technology have allowed themass travel of people in a short period of timeto nearby or distant destinations for destination or area attraction away from theirentertainment and leisure. Partakers to this home and return on the same day. It is antype of travel cover a wide range of individuals emerging form of leisure travel for families whosuch as those who live a fast-paced lifestyle, have young children in tow or who are too frailretirees, or those on a family vacation. to travel long distances. It offers an alternative for which the logistics and cost of a stay away from home may be prohibitive.Characteristics of Amusement,Entertainment, Leisure and Beach Requirements of Amusement,Tourism Entertainment, Leisure and BeachMajority of this type of tourists embark ontravel designed for relaxation and/or Tourismentertainment. A trip will often be undertaken To accommodate the diverse needs of thisduring specific holiday observances, for tourist type, it is advisable to select a highfestivals or religious celebrations, and is often volume – high-income strategy. Ideally,used as a time to visit with family or friends. destination towns or cities must have tourismThere are also those who take pleasure Characteristicsvoyages (for example, cruises) where the trip  Mainstream tourism (sun, sand, sea)itself and the ships amenities are part of the attractive to the average traveler whoexperience. Others take a trip that focuses on seeks relaxation, possibly combined withthe traditional holiday taken by newlyweds to amusement (casino) and entertainmentcelebrate their marriage (for example, (music) activities.honeymoon tourism) in exotic or romantic  No specific focus on ecological or socialdestinations. concerns; mass tourism is often associated with negative impacts on localPersonal limitations or financial constraints do customs and the environment.not necessarily hinder the desire to travel. This  Due to necessary economies of scale, fewhas in fact spawned a new type of traveler linkages with the local economy are created. Lack of sustainability is of greatknown as a ―day-tripper.‖ They visit a tourist concern. 28
  • 32. Leisure Tourism Requirements efforts must also include value packages by  Selecting a high volume - high income customizing products to market requirements strategy and matching them with a corresponding local  Availability of large numbers of skilled staff destination or resort. for the hospitality industry. Tour operators and travel agents must provide efficient and seamless reservation andas a major part of the local economic activity. booking services. Destinations must haveModern commercial establishments, hotels, nearby airports, seaports and bus terminals toand resorts must be abundant in such accommodate a large number of tourists.destinations and able to accommodate largevolumes of tourists. There should also be an adequate number of guides that provide corresponding services to Where seashores are the primary focus of this market.tourists, resorts must have beaches andwater-based recreational facilities that meet Accessstringent quality standards of water quality, It is indispensable to have a good roadsafety, provision of services and general network and efficient transport infrastructure toenvironmental management (i.e. Blue Flag convey a large number of tourists to variousstatus). local destinations. Public or private transport options must always be available: taxis, buses,Functions of the Amusement, jeepneys, tricycles, car rentals, regular and charter flights, ferry.Entertainment, Leisure and BeachTourism Value Chain (5As) Tour operators must be flexible enough to offer tourism products and packages for bothArrivals short and long term trips.To spur arrivals, the country must be promotedand marketed for its tropical island image and Accommodationmass tourism destination (for example, Lodging should offer complete amenities asBoracay, Puerto Galera, Cebu, Bohol). These much as possible and can be self-contained to 29
  • 33. Leisure Tourismenhance the visitor‘s experience, create more Other attractions could be created in nearbyvalue per stay, as well as increase tourists‘ facilities that boast of many visitor activitiesspending. Given that this type of tourism and attractions such as a recreational area, acaters to a wide range of travelers, diversity in scenic or historic site, a theme park, a gamingthe type, quality and price range of facility or other tourist attraction.accommodations should be extensive. Itshould attract those seeking an affordable yet Table 5 The 5As in Amusement, Leisure Entertainment and Beach Tourismcomfortable lodging as well as those requiringmore upscale and rooming facilities along with Arrivals  Market the tropicaladjacent natural features. Resort hotels island image of the(luxury, seaside, destination, budget) of Philippines (fordifferent standards must be available with the example Boracay)room capacity to accommodate larger number  Travel agents providingof tourists. reservation servicesTourism facilities and service operators must  Airports / seaportshave competent staff providing a remarkably nearby to allowhigh degree of customer service efficiency and arrival of largerhospitality, with the ability to service varying number of touristsvolumes of tourists. Access  Tour operators offering packages forA typical establishment for this subsector short and longer-termoffers a range of services and activities within tripsthe confines of the premises such as food,  Public transportdrink, lodging, sports, entertainment, and options available: taxis, buses,shopping. Guests would have no need to jeepneys, tricycles,leave the premises throughout their stay if car rentalsoffered various activities and services. The  Road infrastructure toresorts do not need to be near a destination to transport largedraw tourists, as it can be an attraction in number of touristsitself. The activities, amenities, service, and Accommodation  Resort hotels oflocation can attract specific types of tourist or different standardsvacationers (such as, a top rated spa in a hotel  Large number ofwill draw health and wellness tourists, rooms / beds  High-rise buildingsrestaurants in resorts/hotels with good reviews may be an option tois a potential attraction for food connoisseurs, accommodate largerwater theme park resorts may attract families number of touristsand sports enthusiast). Attractions  Long strips of white sandy beaches, palm-Attractions fringedFor a tropical destination, the foremost  Beach facilities:attraction would be its white sandy-palm chairs, umbrellas,fringed beaches, lush forests, opportunities for public toilets, showers, etcisland hopping, long shorelines, and pristine  Nightlife: bars discos,bodies of water such as lake calderas, night clubs, casinos,mountain springs, unspoiled beaches and karaokemarine sanctuaries. Available facilities, quality, Activities  Leisure - sun-bathing,and safety provisions must enhance these swimming, etcnatural features.  Entertainment - bars, discos, clubs  Sports – (wind) surfing, sailing, diving, water-ski, beach volleyball 30
  • 34. Leisure TourismSites must have amenities, which increase theattractiveness or value of the destination.These features should contribute to thetourist‘s comfort or convenience. Tangibleattractions may include parks, themed rooms,hiking and bike paths, shopping and retailoutlets, pools, golf courses, marinas, spa andhealth clubs, nightlife and legal gamingfacilities, party rooms, community centers, andconcierge /door attendant conveniences.Intangible appeal might include a scenic viewor feature, or a tranquil environment thatenhances the ambience of the location.ActivitiesThese would include, among others:  Leisure - sunbathing, swimming, hiking, cycling, and mountain climbing, beach volleyball;  Shopping, dining, and nightlife entertainment;  Water sports – wind and board surfing, sailing, diving, water-ski, fishing;  Visits to local parks and museums;  Attendance at local festivals; and  Organized local day tours by bus, taxi, boat or walking tours.Shopping, as a side activity, forms a goodpercentage of visitor expenditures and as suchmany destinations have strengthened theirtourism foothold by incorporating shopping. Complementary Measures  Zoning of various areas for different uses: accommodation, entertainment, transport, etc  Enforcement of building regulations to prevent wild growth and protection of environment in high-density areas 31
  • 35. Leisure TourismChecklist for Amusement, Entertainment, Leisure and Beach Tourism Institutional Development • LGU to establish quality standards by encouraging tourism enterprises to to adopt DOT tourism standards and accreditation of tourist facilities and services. The LGU can further support compliance by making it part of the business and permit licensing process for accredited establishments • Create or strengthen the local tourism council to promote public-private cooperation in tourism development Product Mapping and Prioritization • Stakeholders to map out the tourist attractions and create linkages that will make seamless travel • Prioritize tourism products into major and potential sites Product Development • Map out the tourism products to create a seamless movement of the visitors from one attraction to the next • Prioritize the development of attractions with the greatest potential for tourists to optimize resource allocation at the same time maximizing the movement and stay of the tourists within the destination. • Some of the considerations in product prioritization would include the followin:g: quality of tourism product, potential market volume of the tourism product;, accessibility and seamless movement, existing infrastructure, and availability of tourism service providers • Major tourism products should undergo appropriate development programs designed to attract the most number of manageable visitors. Infrastructure development should also go hand-in-hand to provide uninterrupted services and quality experience for the tourists. Product Management • Ensure the quality of the services by implementing appropriate licensing mechanisms for tourism establishments. • Enforce proper statistical reporting of the local travel industry to generate data as a basis for tourism development planning Community and Stakeholder Organizing • Organize tourism awareness program to prepare local communities on the benefits of tourism, its possible impacts and how they can participate in various segments of the industry Skills Development • Universities offer tourism-related courses • Training facilities offer tourism skills training • Government and other organizations provide trainings and skills development for the local communities Business Planning Development • LGU can support the growth of tourism enterprises by providing creating a healthy business investment climate (for example, incentives, streamlined business permits and licensing) • Part of the business plan to include environmental and resource protection Market Planning and Marketing • Employ varied marketing media to attract the most number of manageable visitors, which may include the following: printed collateral materials (such as, brochures, posters); conduct of invitationals or familiarization tours to the media and market suppliers; website and mobile site development; and online information and booking facilities 32
  • 36. Heritage TourismCultural andHeritage TourismHeritage tourism pertains to travel with anorientation towards savoring the experience Definitionoffered by the cultural heritage of a location. It Travel oriented towards the cultural heritage ofis concerned with the identification, the location where tourism is, protection and preservation ofthe heritage values and legacy of a site. Asense of discovery and consequent enriching A journey of this form creates a positiveexperience defines the travel. economic and social impact, establishes and reinforces identity, and helps preserve the cultural heritage. Furthermore, it facilitatesCharacteristics of Cultural and harmony and understanding among people,Heritage Tourism supports culture and helps refresh tourismThis subsector attracts travelers with a special (Richards, 1996).interest in heritage and the arts and crafts. Culture, heritage and the arts have longVisitors seek to experience the culture, history, contributed to the appeal of touristarchaeology of a site and at times, interaction destinations. In recent years however, ‗culture‘with local people. Often times, returning has been rediscovered as an importantimmigrants also embark on a nostalgic journey marketing tool to attract travelers with specialto trace or reunite with their family roots. interests in heritage and arts.Cultural heritage tourism is the fastest growingsegment of the tourism industry because of a Requirements of Cultural andtrend toward an increased specialization Heritage Tourismamong tourists. This trend is evident in the risein the volume of tourists who seek adventure, Heritage tourism involves visiting historical orculture, history, archaeology and interaction cultural sites that may include battlegrounds,with local people. places of historical importance, and places of religious or socio-cultural significance. The overall purpose is to gain an appreciation of the past. A unique and rich culture, heritage Characteristics and art scene contributes to the appeal of a  It attracts travelers with a special interest tourist destination. in heritage and arts.  It has a positive economic and social Local examples are destinations inscribed in impact, establishes and reinforces identity, the UNESCO World Heritage Sites such as and helps preserve the cultural heritage. the Tubbataha Reef National Park, Puerto With culture as an instrument it facilitates Princesa Subterranean River National Park, harmony and understanding among Banaue Rice Terraces, City of Vigan, Ifugao people, it supports culture and helps renew Epic ―Hudhud‖ chants, numerous Baroque tourism (Richards, 1996). churches, and the Palawan ethnographic sites.  Involves an understanding of the impact of Others destinations that have been declared tourism on communities and regions national cultural treasures include the Angono 33
  • 37. Heritage Tourism Requirements construction; and commercial enterprises to  Heritage tourism involves visiting historical the heritage or cultural site must be kept to a or industrial sites that may include old minimum. This also contributes to the canals, railways, battlegrounds, etc. The protection and maintenance of the natural overall purpose is to gain an appreciation environment. Similarly, historical buildings of the past. need to be protected from demolitions by a  Places of socio-cultural significance (i.e., legal ordinance and be maintained within its religious sites, pilgrimages) original status and environment, as much as it  Financial resources for protection and is practically possible. preservation of historical buildings and monuments Accommodation Destinations should encourage the use ofPetroglyps (prehistoric art) and the Balanghai traditional and ethnic housing. As such, the(large precolonial outriggers) excavation sites unique design and architecture of thein Butuan. structures must be maintained and kept intact. Home stays featuring indigenous living andReliving the remnants of the colonial past, local hospitality should be promoted andrenewed interest in Philippine heritage, and offered as an alternative lodging facility. Like inimmigration-migration are key influences to the most cases in domestic tourism, the numbergrowing trend towards cultural and heritage and size of establishments must be dictated bytourism. In addition, accessible and affordable the carrying capacity of the place. To promotetravel have made cultural and heritage tourism an authentic experience to travelers,possible for more people. accommodation in protected and/or restored buildings can be offered.Cultural heritage tourism is not only concernedwith identification, management and protection Activitiesof the heritage values but it must also create Among the activities commonly offered are:an understanding of the impact of tourism on tours of historical sites, archaeology, culturalcommunities and regions, achieve economic or historical character; the experience ofand social benefits, provide financial resources cultural differences through music, dance,for the protection of the sites, as well asmarketing and promotion.Functions of theCultural and Heritage Tourism ValueChain (5As)ArrivalsLike in most tourism subsectors, a low volume-high income strategy must be adopted toensure sustainability. This would involveminimizing and at the same time, maintainingthe infrastructure requirements for culturalheritage tourism. With unspoiled attractions,marketing the location as a heritagedestination must highlight the rich history of alocality and its accompanying culturalresources.AccessTo promote a positive impact on thecommunity, road access, aggressive 34
  • 38. Heritage Tourism Table 6 The 5As in Culture and Heritage Tourism Arrivals  Minimize and maintain the infrastructure requirements for cultural heritage tourism  Market the location as a heritage destination, highlighting the cultural resources  Selecting a low volume-high income strategy Access  Minimize road accessfolklore, and religious pilgrimages; the to keep the historicalawareness creation and education for cultural environment intactheritage protection; and shopping for  Limit the builtsouvenirs, local arts and crafts, etc. In some environment to maintain the originalcases, trekking may be part of the total character of the area.experience of the tourists in search of  Provide eco-friendlyauthentic, cultural experiences. transport options to prevent damage toAttractions heritage sitesCultural heritage sites often offer man-made Accommodation  Maintenance of traditional and ethnicattractions such as religious structures, housingagricultural formations (i.e., rice paddies, crop  Small is beautiful –circles, etc.), and places of historical keeping the numbersignificance. and size of establishments smallPopular and familiar attractions include: and typical for the area  Accommodation in Cultural heritage - churches, museums, protected and/or restored buildings historical monuments, architecture; Attractions  Cultural heritage sites Festivals – religious, traditional music and – churches, museums, dance, folklore, local cuisine, historic historical monuments events;  Festivals – religious, Cultural exchange and education – non- traditional music and dance, folklore, local profit volunteer, English as a second food, historic events language programs (ESL), short courses,  Arts and crafts - and degree programs; exhibitions, paintings, Arts and crafts - exhibitions, paintings, pottery workshops, pottery workshops, handicrafts using local handicrafts materials. Activities  Sightseeing – historical sites, archaeology, authentic character  Experience cultural Complementary Measures differences: music,  Protection and maintenance of cultural dance, folklore, religious pilgrimages heritage sites and buildings  Awareness creation  Enforcement of zoning regulations and and education for building restrictions cultural heritage  Check compatibility of adjacent protection development plans with heritage provisions 35
  • 39. Heritage TourismChecklist for Cultural and Heritage Tourism Institutional Development • Enact local laws and ordinances to protect the cultural and heritage treasures • Private sector should take an active part in the protection of local cultural treasures and explore various ways in maximizing their economic potential without compromising their historical value Product Mapping and Prioritization • Map out cultural sites • All cultural and heritage treasure should be prioritized for protection Product Development • Protect and restore cultural and heritage sites • Develop visitor management system (i.e., designated parking areas, establish visitor routes, directional signage, etc.) Product Management • Enforce proper development to prevent damaging the sites (e.g. suitable location of parking lots) • Ensure proper visitor control mechanisms to protect the sites Community and Stakeholder Organizing • Organize community folks and involve them in the protection of the cultural and heritage sites. Part of community organizing should include identifying their possible roles in tourism operation in the area Skills Development • Conduct in-depth research on the facts and other information on the cultural and heritage sites. Information to be learned by the guides and local curators Business Planning Development • Historic sites should explore innovative strategies to generate revenues for their upkeep. • Possible windows for revenue generation would include: setting up of concessionaire corners, conduct of special events, and soliciting corporate sponsorships from public and private sources. Market Planning and Marketing • Prioritize campaigns to target the niche markets first, eventually increasing the market segments to include other types of tourists (i.e., students, other visitor types—MICE, medical, etc.) to increase and sustain arrivals 36
  • 40. References and SourcesA Comparison of Tourism Policy Frameworks: Philippines and Thailand, Ma. Cherry Lyn S.Rodolfo, PASCN Discussion Paper No. 2003-08Appropriate Tourism Impact Assessment: A case study of Kaniki Point Resort Palawan, WilliamTrousdale, Ecoplan International 2001Building a Dynamic Future-A Guide for Development (The IMT-GT Guide 2007-2011 ActionPlan: Status and Updates), Asian Development Bank, 2007Business World Health Guide-Is there a doctor in the house? The Medical Diaspora, August 17,2005Community Tourism Planning and Design ( and Historical Sites-Assessing the Tourism Potential, Greg Belland and Erin Boss( Heritage Management and Tourism: Models for Cooperation Among Stakeholders – ACase Study on Vigan Philippines, UNESCO – ORACAP April 2000Destination Competitiveness: Determinants and Indicators, Larry Dwyer and Chulwon Kim,Current Issues in Tourism, Vol. 6 No. 5 2003Developing the Japanese Market for Philippine Tourism and Retirement Services: Prospectsand Impediments, Winston Conrad B. Padojinog and Ma. Cherry Lyn S. Rodolfo, PIDS DiscussionPaper No. 2004-31Development of a Classification Framework on Ecotourism Initiatives in the Philippines,Ramon B. Alampay and Carlos M. Libosada Jr., PASCN Discussion Paper No. 2003-04Eco-tourism in the Philippines, Carlos M. Libosada Jr., Bookmark 1998Establishment of a Tourism Marketing Agency in Negros Occidental (Mission Report), GTZ-SMEDSEP, February 4-13, 2006Facilitating the Set Up of Negros Island Tourism Inc. (A Private Business Tourism MarketingAgency), GTZ-SMEDSEP, August 2006Green Tourism ( Economics: a boost to the economy, Veronica C. Silva, Business World April 7, 2003( Principles in Destination Planning, UNESCO ( Ecotourism and Community Participation: Case Studies from Bohol Philippines, StuartJ. Green, Sept 2008 ( the Contribution of Tourism to the Economy: The Philippine Tourism SatelliteAccount; R.A. Virola, M.M. Remulla, L.H. Amoro and M.Y. Say; NSCB October 2001Medical Tourism-Consumers in Search of Value, Deloitte August 2008( 37
  • 41. Medical Tourism: Thailand Troubles Could Lift Philippines, Bruce Einhorn, Business WeekSeptember 2, 2008 ( Philippine Development Plan 2004-2010: Chapter 5-Tourism, NEDA 2004Philippines; C. Rowthorn, G. Bloom, M. Day, M. Grosberg, R.V. Berkmoes, Lonely Planet 9th edition2006Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry BizTour5 Program, CACCI Profile November2006Philippines at the Crossroads of Competitiveness, Amb. Cesar B. Bautista presentation at the2008 State of Philippine Competitiveness National Conference, SMX July 15 2008Places with a Heart (100 Resorts in the Philippines); Lily Yousry-Jouve, Dominique Grele‘;Encyclea 2003Rapid Economic Appraisal Manual 2007, Rolf Speit, GTZRepublic Act 9593 – An Act Declaring a National Policy for Tourism, Hon. Prospero Nograles,Sen. Juan Ponce Enrile, H.E. Gloria Macapagal-ArroyoSenate Bill no. 481 – National Tourism Development Fund Act of 2007, Sen. Jinggoy EstradaSubsector Analysis of the Tourism Industry in Negros Occidental, GTZ February 2005Sustainable Tourism Management Plan for the Central Philippines (Final Report), CHLConsulting 31 Dec 2007The Action Asia Adventure Travel Guide to the Philippines, Robert Houston, AAP Limited HongKong 1999The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2008, World Economic Forum (WEF)( Updated Medium Term Philippine Development Plan 2004-2010: Chapter 5-Tourism,Joseph H. Durano presentation 2008Tourism Subsectors in Central Visayas-Using Value Chain Analysis Framework, GTZ /SMEDSEP-DTI, October 2007Trade and Liberalization of Health Related Services, Jovi Dacanay and Ma. Cherry Lyn S.Rodolfo, PIDS Discussion Paper No. 2005-Travel Blogs on the Philippines: A comparative study of international and domestic touristsconsumption of place, Miguel Mena and Carmela Bosangit, UP-AIT June 2007 ( on Biological Diversity (CBD) Guidelines on Biodiversity and TourismDevelopment ( Training Needs Analysis of Site Managers on the Participation of Local Communitiesin Natural World Heritage Site Management in Southeast Asia, West Pacific, Australia, and NewZealand; P.G. McGahan and J.A. Bassett; Countours New Zealand August 1999United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) World Tourism Barometer, Vol. 6 No. 2June 2008ValueLinks Manual: The Methodology of Value Chain Promotion (1st ed.), GTZ 2007Whale Shark Tourism in the Philippines ( Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) 2008 Travel and Tourism Economic Research-Travel and Tourism: The Winds of Change (Philippine Report) ( 38
  • 42. GTZ Office ManilaGerman Development Center10F PDCP Bank CentreV A Rufino St cor L P Leviste StSalcedo Village, Makati City 1227, PHILIPPINESPrivate Sector Promotion (SMEDSEP) ProgramPSP Program Office, 7F New Solid Building357 Sen Gil Puyat AvenueMakati City 1226 PHILIPPINES( 2 897 8199, 556 8732, 896 +63* info@smedsep.ph8 smedsep.phPrivate Sector Promotion (SMEDSEP) Program CebuGF LDM BuildingLegaspi St cor M J Cuenco AveCebu City 6000, PHILIPPINES( 32 412 2256 +636 +63 32 254 4958*