Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
How to develop a cbt
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

How to develop a cbt

122
views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
122
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. APEC TOURISM WORKING GROUP(TWG02/2008A)
  • 2. !"#$%&&(&#)&**+#,-.(/"01$(2&+3,0*!"#$%&#%()(*#+%,-.%/01&,2-%3456
  • 3. ",-.7##8%#-)45567829(/:;<=(246>8;5!"#$%&#%()(*#+%,-.%/01&,2-%3456 !"#$%(!"*?"@ &$%$((A@"B,C"@ !"#$%&()"*)+,-"*+./0)),".- !"#"$%&"
  •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
  • 5. 09 " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3 !"#$%#$& D31C"F1 )2 :F#&QB1$E1*1#- )22 !"#$%&%%(")*+%,-*./ %% 2@1(:HH3&"F@(-&()&**+#,-.(/"01$(2&+3,0*H![D2VVI/V[/QV;;6[W8`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
  • 6. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 !456785 Q0""+%-./ 2$75A/ 80+#7"/ aQ28b/ C$7/ 5cJ5#5%*5A/ +%J#5*5A5%-5A/ :#0R-C/ A+5/ -0/ -C5/ / %*#5$7%:/ *0%7+"5#/ A5"$%A/ 10#/ 5A+*$-0%$,/ $%A/ J$#-*J$-0#./ -#$45,/ 5cJ5#5%*57M/ Q28/ 7/ $,70/ (5%:/ #5*0:%75A/ $7/$/-00,/-C$-/7-#5%:-C5%7/-C5/$(,-./01/#+#$,/*0""+%-57/-0/"$%$:5/ -0+#7"/#570+#*57/RC,5/C$4%:/C+:5/J0-5%-$,7/%/:5%5#$-%:/%*0"5P/ A45#71.%:/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ 5*0%0".P/ J#575#4%:/ *+,-+#5P/ *0%75#4%:/ -C5/ 5%4#0%"5%-/ $%A/ J#04A%:/ 5A+*$-0%$,/ 0JJ0#-+%-57M/ 80/ J#04A5/ $/ (5--5#/ +%A5#7-$%A%:/ 01/ -C5/ ,0%:/ -5#"/ 4$(,-./ 01/ Q0""+%-./ 2$75A/ 80+#7"/ $7/ $/ A545,0J"5%-/ -00,P/ -C5/ 7-+A./ 0%/ Q$J$*-./ 2+,A%:/ 0%/ Q0""+%-./ 2$75A/ 80+#7"/ $7/ $/ d5C*,5/ 10#/ N045#-./ 5A+*-0%/ $%A/ (./-C5/;%7-#./01/80+#7"/;$,$.7$/a;V8V6b/%/*0,,$(0#$-0%/R-C/ -C5/ 80+#7"/ N,$%%%:/ 575$#*C/ e#0+J/ a8NebP/ 6%45#7-/ 859%0,0:/ ;$,$.7$M 8C5/ H$%A(009/ 0%/ Q0""+%-./ 2$75A/ 80+#7"f/ gH0R/ -0/ D545,0J/ $%A/@+7-$%/Q28h/7/-C5/"$%/0+-J+-/01/-C5/7-+A./$%A/7/A57:%5A/-0/ J#04A5/:+A$%*5/10#/-0+#7"]#+#$,/J,$%%5#7P/[eV7P/%A+7-#./J,$.5#7/ $%A/ Q28/ 0#:$%7$-0%7/ %/ A5*A%:/ RC5-C5#/ -0+#7"/ *0+,A/ R0#9/ 10#/ $/J$#-*+,$#/*0""+%-./$%A/1/-/7/15$7(,5P/C0R/-0/J$#-*J$-5/%/-C5/ -0+#7"/ %A+7-#./ $%A/ 7+7-$%/ -/ 045#/ / -C5/ ,0%:/ -5#"M/ 8C5/ C$%A(009/ #5*0""5%A7/$/7-5J/(./7-5J/$JJ#0$*C//%/RC*C/5$*C/7-5J/7/7+JJ0#-5A/ !"#$%&()*+,+(*+"%&(*&-+."/(0(+& 1"#$.*(2 $,,P/-C7//C$%A(009/*$%/(5/$A$J-5A/(.//*0""+%-57/$-/4$#0+7/7-$:57/01/ -0+#7"/A545,0J"5%-M !%/ "J0#-$%-/ 5,5"5%-/ 01/ -C7/ C$%A(009/ 7/ -C5/ %*0#J0#$-0%/ 01/ *$75/ 7-+A57/01/:045#%"5%-P/[eVP/%A+7-#./$%A/*0""+%-./%-$-5A/Q287/%/ -5%/!N3Q/"5"(5#/5*0%0"57/%$"5,./QC%$P/d5-/[$"P/-C5/NC,JJ%57P/ Q$%$A$P/!+7-#$,$P/[5R/&5$,$%AP/QC%575/8$J5P/W%A0%57$P/I0#5$/$%A/ ;$,$.7$M/ !7/J$#-/01/-C5/7-+A.P/-C5/W%-5#%$-0%$,/Q0%15#5%*5/0%/Q28//R$7/C5,A/1#0"/ / T?-C/ -0/ T>-C/ !J#,P/ T??K/ %/ @$%A$9$%P/ @$($C/ RC*C/ R$7/ $%/ 5c*5,,5%-/ J,$-10#"//-0/A775"%$-5/9%0R,5A:5/$%A/(57-/J#$*-*5/0%/Q28/$7/R5,,/ $7/10#/:5--%:/155A($*9/1#0"/-C5/95./7-$95C0,A5#7/0%/C0R/-0/"J#045/ -C5/ C$%A(009M/ 8C7/ C$%A(009/ 7/ %-5%A5A/ 10#/ -0+#7"/ J,$%%5#7/ $%A/ "$%$:5#7/$7/R5,,/$7/*0""+%-.//,5$A5#7//RC0/$#5/A#5*-,./0#/%A#5*-,./ %40,45A/ %/ Q28M/ / W-/ 7/ C0J5A/ -C$-/ -C5/ 7-5J7P/ $*-0%7P/ $%A/ *C5*9,7-7/ #5*0""5%A5A/%/-C5/C$%A(009/R,,/(5/01/4$,+5/-0/-C575/7-$95C0,A5#7Mvi
  • 7. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3 "89:;<=5>?5@5:A8C5/80+#7"/N,$%%%:/575$#*C/e#0+JP/68;/R0+,A/ ,95/ -0/ -C$%9/ -C5/ 10,,0R%:/ $:5%*57/ )0,9/ d,,$:5/ N#575#4$-0%/ Q0""--55/ $%A/$%A/ %A4A+$,7/ RC0/ *0%-#(+-5A/ -0/ -C7/ ;#M/ @+%:U20/ H0%:/ a!777-$%-/ D#5*-0#b/ 01/J+(,*$-0%f Q+,-+#5/ N0,*./ D5J$#-"5%-P/ B5i+/ W7,$%AP/ I0#5$M @%$95/I,%/Q5#$"*7/Q+,-+#$,/N$#9P/[$%-$+/ 10#/ -C5/ 7-+A./ $%A/ J+(,*$-0%P/ 57J5*$,,./ Q0+%-.P/QC%575/8$J5M ;#M/ 80%/ XAC$7-0%0/ aD#5*-0#b/ $%A/ ;7M/ B0.*5/ `0%:/ aN#0:#$"/ 3c5*+-45b/ 10#/ -C5#/ NC,,JJ$/e,,/a!A"%7-#$-0%/;$%$:5#b/01/ 5c*5,,5%-/$A"%7-#$-0%M XC$,5/X$-*CP/I$90+#$P//[5R/&5$,$%AM J#0i5*-/ 045#755#/ $%A/ 10#/ *0U0#:$%7%:/ -C5/ e(70%/ aQC$#J5#70%/ 01/ 22[/ 20$#A/ 01/ W%-5#%$-0%$,/ Q0%15#5%*5/ 0%/ Q0""+%-./ D#5*-0#7b/ 01/ I+9+/ `$,$%i/ D#5$"-"5P/ 2$75A/80+#7"/%/@$%A$9$%P/@$($C/1#0"/T?/ ;077"$%P/!+7-#$,$M/ j/T>/!J#,/T??KP/$7/$/J$#-/01/-C7/J#0i5*-M/ d*5"%7-#./01/80+#7"P/N5#+/$7/0+#/%4-5A/ *0""--55/"5"(5#7/01/;70R$,$/H0"57-$./ 7J5$95#/10#/-C5/W%-5#%$-0%$,/Q0%15#5%*5/0%/ 10#/ -C5#/ 0+-7-$%A%:/ *0%-#(+-0%/ A+#%:/ Q0""+%-./2$75A/80+#7"M/ W%-5#%$-0%$,/ Q0%15#5%*5/ 0%/ Q0""+%-./ 10#/ -C5#/ J#015770%$,/ $777-$%*5/ %/ -C5/ 2$75A/80+#7"M *0%*5J-P/ A57:%/ $%A/ ,$.0+-/ #5J#0:#$JC*7/ J#0*577M `$%+$#/ !9C($#/ 01/ @$+%:/ !%:9,+%:/ 6Ai0P/ 2$%A+%:P/W%A0%57$M/ O$7-/ (+-/ %0-/ ,5$7-/ 0+#/ A55J57-/ :#$--+A5/ / -0/ H5$AbP/ ;7M/ H5%#5--$/ D+,,$/ aQ00#A%$-0#P/ -0+#/ 0J5#$-0#7/ $%A/ / ,0*$,/ *0""+%-57/ $-/ e+7/Q0""+%-./2$75A/H5#-$:5/80+#7"/ 5$*C/01//-C5/*$75/7-+A57/10#/-C5#/*00J5#$-0%P/ J#0i5*-b/ $%A/ ;7M/ e5%5,,5/ @5,,0#k+5F/ $*-45/J$#-*J$-0%/$%A/R$#"/C07J-$,-./-C$-/ @5:04$P/e+"$#$7P/8C5/NC,JJ%57M H0"57-$./ l/ X5%C$/ 3*0,0A:5P/ Oi$%:P/ 2&+3,0*(DB"##,#E(>101"3F@(G3&+H QC%$M :+E+0-(KTTU Q+7-0"5#/ Q$#5bP/ ;7M/ NC$"/ 8C+/ H5%/ a8#$45,/Q0%7+,-$%-b/01/)00-J#%-/8#$45,/$%A/ ;A"M/ O./ ;$./ QC$%/ aQ00#A%$-0#b/ 01/ 8$/ NC%/d,,$:5P/H$/[0P/d5-/[$"M/ XA5"$%/ )5,/ aD#5*-0#/ 01/ ;$#95-%:b/ 01/ @-MB$*0(/Q0+%-.P/Q$%$A$M vii
  • 8. 5R(%,K72,-S(%,&%X,1R2R,2%"#K(1&,;Y%X2Z2,-LY%3R2-,N
  • 9. /:;8)(G68=< 2@1(:HH3&"F@(-&()&**+#,-.( /"01$(2&+3,0* =M/W%-#0A+*-0%/-0/Q0""+%-./2$75A/ 80+#7" TM/XC$-/7/Q0""+%-./2$75A/80+#7"Y >M/8C5/N+#J075/01/-C7/H$%A(009 ZM/H0R/80/675/8C7/H$%A(009!"#$%& Handbook on Community Based Tourism
  • 10. 5#0:21&1%,&%/,0-L%[-L8*0-L%.Z#%R,)(%&R(%#++#:&0-2&;%&#%*(,:-%,-.%+*,;%12K+*(%K012S,*%-#&(1%012-L%&R(%[-L8*0-L%.0:2-L%&R(%4,K7##%[Q&(:-##-%9(:Q#:K,-S(N
  • 11. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3 *:A4;>B8AC;:]21#$,*,2%"#K(1&,;%3#KK2&&((%.0:2-L% Q0""+%-./2$75A/80+#7"/aQ28b/7/:45%/5"JC$77/%/-C5/#-(%#Q%2&1%$((8*;%K((&2-L1 ;%7-5#$,/ ;55-%:/ C5,A/ %/ I0#5$/ %/ T???M/ / 3cJ,*-,.P/ -C5/ QC$#-5#/ #5*0:%757/ -C5/ #0,5/ 01/ -0+#7"/ %/ "J#04%:/ -C5/ 5*0%0"*P/ 70*$,P/ 5%4#0%"5%-$,/ $%A/ *+,-+#$,/ R5,,U(5%:/ 01/ !N3Q/;5"(5#/3*0%0"57M/W"J,*-,.P/-C5/QC$#-5#/C:C,:C-7/ -C5/"J0#-$%*5/01/Q28/-C#0+:C/-C5/10,,0R%:/7-$-5"5%-7f $%A/"5A+"/7F5A/5%-5#J#757/a=ZMAbm R-C%/ $%A/ $"0%:/ 5*0%0"57P/ J$#-*+,$#,./ $-/ -C5/ J#04%*$,/,545,/a=ZM5bm 75*-0#7/a=Z:bM Q28/C$7/(55%/$JJ,5A/%/A545,0J5A/"5"(5#/5*0%0"57/7+*C/ $7/Q$%$A$P/[5R/&5$,$%A/$%A/!+7-#$,$/$7/R5,,/$7/A545,0J%:/ 5*0%0"57/ ,95/ d5-/ [$"P/ W%A0%57$P/ QC%$/ $%A/ ;$,$.7$M/ 8C5/,-5#$-+#5/#515#7/-0/%+"5#0+7/Q28/J#0i5*-7/%/-C5/!N3Q/ #5:0%/(+-/-C575/$#5/"$%,./0%5U011/J#0i5*-7/"07-,./%-$-5A/ $%A/0J5#$-5A/(./[eV7M/!N3Q/-75,1/*0""770%5A/$/#545R/ 01/ Q28/ J#0i5*-7/ %/ 7545#$,/ "5"(5#/ 5*0%0"57/ %/ =KKK/ (+-/ 1
  •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a"$%7-#5$"%:bM/2./A0%:/70P/ Q28/R,,/%0/,0%:5#/(5/$%/$,-5#%$-45/A545,0J"5%-/"0A5,/(+-/ $/10#"$,/A545,0J"5%-/-00,M/ ,5770%7/,5$#%5A/1#0"/$/7-+A./0%/Q0""+%-./2$75A/80+#7"/ -C$-/ 7/ 1+%A5A/ (./ -C5/!N3Q/ 80+#7"/ X0#9%:/ e#0+JM/ 8C5/ 7-+A./0%/Q$J$*-./2+,A%:/0%/Q0""+%-./2$75A/80+#7"/ $7/$/d5C*,5/10#/N045#-./5A+*-0%/$%A/D7J5#7%:/3*0%0"*/ T??</-0/!J#,/T??K/(./-C5/;%7-#./01/80+#7"/;$,$.7$P/%/ *0,,$(0#$-0%/ R-C/ -C5/ 80+#7"/ N,$%%%:/ 575$#*C/ e#0+J/ a8NebP/6%45#7-/859%0,0:/;$,$.7$M/8C5/$"/01/-C7/7-+A./ 7/ -0/ "J#045/ -C5/ +%A5#7-$%A%:/ 01/ "5"(5#/ 5*0%0"57/ 0%/ -C5/ *0%*5J-7P/ (57-/ J#$*-*5/ $%A/ ,0%:/ -5#"/ 4$(,-./ 01/ Q28P/ ($75A/ 0%/ -C5/ 5cJ5#5%*5/ 01/ 7+**5771+,/ Q28/ "0A5,7/ %/ -C5/ !N3Q/ #5:0%M/ Q$75/ 7-+A57/ %/ =?/ "5"(5#/ 5*0%0"57/ R5#5/ 75,5*-5A/10#/-C5/7-+A.P/%$"5,.fU ^2LR& ]21#$,*,2%"#K(1&,;% S0*&0:,*%&:#0+(%+(:Q#:K2-L% &#%L0(1&1%,&%)2**,L(%R,**2
  • 13. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3 *$##5A/ 0+-/ $-/ -C5/ 7-+A./ 7-57P/ RC*C/ 5"J,0.5A/ $/ #$%:5/ 01/ #575$#*C/%7-#+"5%-7P/57J5*$,,./1$*5/-0/1$*5/%-5#45R7/R-C/ 95./7-$95C0,A5#7/7+*C/$7/-C5/Q28/0#:$%7$-0%P/:045#%"5%-/ 8C5/*$75/7-+A57/R5#5/75,5*-5A/-C#0+:C/$/7*#55%%:/J#0*577/ "5"(5#/ 5*0%0"57M/ W%/ $AA-0%P/ -C5/ 75,5*-5A/ *$75/ 7-+A57/ #5J#575%-/ Q28/ J#0i5*-7/ -C$-/ $#5/ %-$-5A/ (./ :045#%"5%-/ $:5%*57P/[eV7P/-C5/-0+#7"/%A+7-#./$%A/-C5/*0""+%-./ -75,1/a8$(,5/=M=bM 8C5/7+**577/1$*-0#7/01/Q28/J#0i5*-7/%/-C575/75,5*-5A/"5"(5#/ 5*0%0"57/$#5/-C5%/7.%-C5775A/$%A/"0A5,,5A/-0/#5J#575%-/ -C5/ (57-/ J#$*-*5/ 1#0"/ -C5/ #5:0%M/!,-C0+:C/ 0%5/ 7F5/ A057/ -C5/A545,0J"5%-/J#0*577/$%A/,15/*.*,5/01/Q28/J#0i5*-7M/ @+(75k+5%-,.P/-C575/*0""0%/-C#5$A7/$#5/-#$%7,$-5A/%-0/-C5/ #5*0""5%A5A/ 7-5J7/ 10#/ A545,0J%:/ Q28/ %-$-457M/ ;0#5/ "J0#-$%-,.P/-C5/$%$,.77/$,70/7C0R7/-C$-/0%*5/-C5/%5*577$#./ 7-5J7/ C$45/ (55%/ -$95%/ -0/ 7-$#-/ $/ Q28/ J#0i5*-P/ $/ A115#5%-/5,7*(%INI<%3,1(%/&0.2(1%[SS#:.2-L%&#%9:#Z(S&%_-2&2,&#:P1"$(%.( )&**+#,-.(/"01$(2&+3,0*e045#%"5%-/%-$-5A/Q28/ e+7/Q0""+%-./H5#-$:5/2$75A/80+#7"P/e+"$#$7P/8C5/ NC,J%57/@50%:+J/)0,9/d,,$:5P/B5i+/W7,$%AP/I0#5$[eV/%-$-5A/Q28/ 8$/NC%/d,,$:5P/@$J$P/d5-/[$"/ O$7CC$/H0"57-$.P/Oi$%:P/QC%$/ ;70R$,$/H0"57-$.P/I%$($-$%:$%P/@$($CP/;$,$.7$W%A+7-#./%-$-5A/Q28/ @$+%:/!%:9,+%:/6Ai0P/2$%A+%:P/W%A0%57$/ @-M/B$*0(7/Q0+%-.P/80#0%-0P/Q$%$A$/ @C+UO/@%$95/I,%/Q5#$"*/N$#9P/[$%-0+P/QC%575/ 8$J5Q0""+%-./%-$-5A/Q28/ XC$,5/X$-*CP/I$90+#$P/[5R/&5$,$%A/ I+9+/`$,$%i/D#5$"-"5/X$,9P/;077"$%P/!+7-#$,$ 3
  • 14. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 $JJ#0$*C/7/-C5%/%55A5A/-0/7+7-$%/-C5/J#0i5*-M/ -0/ J$#-*J$-5/ %/ #5,$-5A/ J#0i5*-7P/ $%A/ $#5/ !7/ $/ Q28/ %-$-45/ "$-+#57P/ -C5/ $A0J-0%/ 01/ %40,45A/ %/ "0%-0#%:/ $%A/ *0%-#0,,%:/ -C5/ $/ 70JC7-*$-5A/ (+7%577/ "0A5,/ 7/ 5775%-$,/ %/ %5:$-45/"J$*-7M/@0"5/:5%5#$,/*C$#$*-5#7-*7/ R5$%%:/-C5/J#0i5*-/1#0"/:045#%"5%-/01/A0%0#/ 01/ Q28/ -C$-/ C$45/ (55%/ C:C,:C-5A/ (./ 6[3N/ #5,$%*5/$7/R5,,/$7/-0/7*$,5/+J/-C5/J#0i5*-M/8C7/ $%A/6[X8V/$#5/$7/10,,0R7f 7/ *#+*$,/ %/ 5%7+#%:/ -C5/ ,0%:/ -5#"/ 5*0%0"*/ 7+7-$%$(,-./ 01/ Q28/ J#0i5*-7M/ !7/ 7+*CP/ -C5/ "$%/ $"/ 01/ -C5/ C$%A(009/ 7/ -0/ #5*0""5%A/ (+-/ $,70/ 01/ %A:5%0+7/ *+,-+#57/ J#54$,%:/ -C5/ J#0*577/ 01/ %0-/ 0%,./ A545,0J%:/ Q28/ %/ %$-+#$,/ $#5$7P/ $7/ J$#-/ 01/ -C5/ 47-0#/ %-$-457P/ (+-/ "0#5/ "J0#-$%-,.P/ -0/ 7+7-$%/ 5cJ5#5%*5m -C575/%-$-457M J$#-/01/-C5/-0+#7-/0115#m D E 7 A % C F% 10#/ 7"$,,/ :#0+J7/ (./ 7"$,,P/ 7J5*$,75A/ $%A/ + ; @ @ B : C A G% ,0*$,,./0R%5A/(+7%57757m ( 7 F 5 >% $%A/70*0U*+,-+#$,/5%4#0%"5%-m $; B 4 C F @ H *+,-+#$,/ $#5$7/ (./ :5%5#$-%:/ 5*0%0"*/ Q0""+%-./ ($75A/ -0+#7"/ aQ28b/ 7/ $/ *0""+%-./A545,0J"5%-/-00,/-C$-/7-#5%:-C5%7/ 5"J,0."5%-/10#/,0*$,/*0""+%-57m/$%A -C5/ $(,-./ 01/ #+#$,/ *0""+%-57/ -0/ "$%$:5/ -0+#7"/ #570+#*57/ RC,5/ 5%7+#%:/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ *0%75#4$-0%M *0""+%-.E7/ J$#-*J$-0%M/ Q28/ *$%/ C5,J/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ *0""+%-./ %/ :5%5#$-%:/ %*0"5P/ !7/ C:C,:C-5A/ 5$#,5#P/ -C5/ *$75/ 7-+A57/ 7C0R/ A45#71.%:/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ 5*0%0".P/ J#575#4%:/ -C$-/Q28/J#0i5*-7/:0/-C#0+:C/$/J#0A+*-/,15*.*,5M/ *+,-+#5P/ *0%75#4%:/ -C5/ 5%4#0%"5%-/ $%A/ W%-$,,./ Q28/ J#0i5*-7/ $#5/ 7"$,,/ 7*$,5P/ ,0R/ J#04A%:/ 5A+*$-0%$,/ 0JJ0#-+%-57M/ !7/ A5%7-./ $%A/ 0J5#$-5A/ (./ -C5/ *0""+%-./ R-C/ Q28/ "$./ J#04A5/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ *0""+%-./ R-C/ -C5/ $777-$%*5/ 1#0"/ R5,,/ "5$%%:/ 0+-7A5#7/ $,-5#%$-45/ %*0"57P/ -/ (5*0"57/ $/ J045#-./ 7+*C/ $7/ [eV7M/ W%-$,,.P/ -C5/ *0""+%-57/ #5A+*-0%/ -00,M/ / Q28/ #5k+#57/ $/ ,0%:U-5#"/ $#5/ *0%-5%-5A/ R-C/ -C5/ $4$,$(,-./ 01/ i0(7/ (#0+:C-/$(0+-/(./-C5/Q28/J#0i5*-7M/!7/-C5/Q28/ 10#/-C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-./$%A/,"-7/-C5/%5:$-45/ J#0i5*-/ "$-+#57P/ C0R545#P/ -C5/ *C$,,5%:57/ 10#/ "J$*-7/01/-0+#7"/0%/-C5/*0""+%-./$%A/-C5#/ -C5/ *0""+%-./ $,70/ %*#5$75M/ W%54-$(,.P/ -0+#/ 5%4#0%"5%-$,/#570+#*57M 0J5#$-0#7/R,,/(5:%/-0/7C0R/%-5#57-/$%A/R,,/ 5c-5%A/ -C5#/ *0#J0#$-0%/ -0/ 10#"/ J$#-%5#7CJ7/ Q0""+%-./ ($75A/ -0+#7"/ %55A7/ -0/ (5/ R-C/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ *0""+%-.M/ X-C0+-/ -C5/ $JJ#0$*C5A/ %/ $/ 7.7-5"$-*/ "$%%5#m/ 1#0"/ %5*577$#./ 79,,7/ $%A/ 5cJ5#-75/ -0/ *0J5/ R-C/ 7-+A.%:/ -C5/ 7+-$(,-./ 01/ -C5/ *0""+%-./ -C5/ %*#5$7%:/ %+"(5#/ 01/ -0+#7-/ $##4$,7/ $%A/ -0/ (5/ %40,45A/ %/ -0+#7"/ -0/ 5%7+#%:/ -C$-/ *C$%:%:/ -0+#7-/ A5"$%AP/ ,0*$,/ *0""+%-57/ *0""+%-./"5"(5#7/$#5/:45%/-C5/0JJ0#-+%-./ C$45/-C5/-5%A5%*./01/(5*0"%:/045#/#5,$%-/0%/4
  • 15. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3-C5/-0+#/0J5#$-0#7M/!-/-C5/7$"5/-"5P/Q28/J#0i5*-7/R,,/C$45/-0/"045/+J/-C5/4$,+5/*C$%/$%A/-C5#/,0%:/-5#"/4$(,-./R,,/A5J5%A/0%/C0R/R5,,/-C5/95./7-$95C0,A5#7/*0J5/R-C/%5R/5cJ5*-$-0%7M/$E5%!B4I;F5%;6AECF%37:>J;;97"J,5/3%:,7C/$%A/-#57/-0/(5/+75#/1#5%A,./%/-7/J#575%-$-0%M/W-/7/"5$%-/-0/(5/+75A/(./:045#%"5%-/A545,0J5A/%/$/7+7-$%$(,5/"$%%5#M/8C5/#5*0""5%A$-0%7/$#5/J#$*-*$,/$%A/($75A/0%/(57-/J#$*-*5/A5#45A/1#0"/-C5/*$75/7-+A57M/W%/$AA-0%P/-C5/#5*0""5%A5A/$*-0%7/0115#/7545#$,/0J-0%7/-0/7+-/-C5/ 70*0U5*0%0"*/ *0%A-0%/ 01/ -C5/ "5"(5#/ 5*0%0"./ 0#/ 7-5M/ H5%*5/ -C5/ #5*0""5%A$-0%7/ $#5/"5$%-/-0/(5/+751+,/10#/*0""+%-57/RC0/$#5/0%/-C5/45#:5/01/5"($#9%:/0%/Q28/J#0i5*-7/$7/R5,,/$7/10#/5c7-%:/J#0i5*-7/RC*C/$#5/5cJ5#5%*%:/5-C5#/#$JA/:#0R-CP/*0%70,A$-0%/0#/$%/"J5%A%:/A5*,%5M/Q5%-#$,/-0/-C5/7J#-/01/-C5/C$%A(009/7/-C5/$7J#$-0%/-0/%+#-+#5/-C5/A545,0J"5%-/01/Q28/J#0i5*-7/-0/(5*0"5/"$%7-#5$"/-0+#7"/J#0A+*-7M// W"J,5"5%-/$%A/;0%-0#/ !"#$%& N5#10#"$%*5 WA5%-1./;$#95-/D5"$%A/$%A/ !"#$% D545,0J/;$#95-%:/@-#$-5:. N,$%/$%A/D57:%/_+$,-./N#0A+*- !"#$%( !A0J-/$%/W%-5#:#$-5A/!JJ#0$*C !"#$%) D545,0J/N$#-%5#7CJ7 !"#$%* N#5J$#5/$%A/D545,0J/Q0""+%-./V#:$%7$-0% !"#$%+ WA5%-1./$%A/37-$(,7C/O5$A5#7CJ/]/O0*$,/QC$"J0% !"#$%, 3A+*$-5/$%A/N#5J$#5/-C5/Q0""+%-./10#/80+#7" !"#$%- !77577/Q0""+%-./[55A7/$%A/5$A%577/10#/80+#7" !"#$%. F2LN%INI<%`2-(%/&(+1%&#%()(*#+%,-.%/01&,2-%345 5
  • 16. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 3 ; < % A ;% - F 5 % $ E C F% 37:>J;;9 8C5/ C$%A(009/ #5*0""5%A7/ %%5/ 7-5J7/10#/A545,0J%:/$%A/7+7-$%%:/ Q28P/ RC*C/ $#5/ A4A5A/ %-0/ T/ ;1F-,&#(:/$#5/#5,$-5A/-0/7-$#-%:/$%A/ A545,0J%:/ Q28/ %-$-457P/ RC*C/ $#5/ +751+,/ 10#/ J#0i5*-7/ $%A/ 7-57/ -C$-/ $#5/ 5"($#9%:/ 0%/ Q28M/ 8C5/ 7+(75k+5%-/G/7-5J7/%/;1F-,&#(//$#5/ "5$%-/-0/$AA#577/-C5/7+7-$%$(,-./ 01/ Q28/ J#0i5*-7P/ RC*C/ $#5/ "0#5/ $JJ#0J#$-5/10#/"$-+#5/Q28/J#0i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a0(1&1%+:(+,:2-L%Q#:%$2*.*2Q(%$,&SR2-L%,*#-L %10#"$-0%/01/Q28/%/*.(5#7J$*5M b2-,7,&,-L,-%^2)(:Y%bLN%4,&0%90&(R6
  •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andbook on Community Based Tourism
  • 18. [K#-L%&R(%,:&(Q,S&1%+:#.0S(.%7;%&R(%b080%c,*,-Z2%S#KK0-2&;%$R2SR%,:(%(GR272&(.%2-%&R(2:%,:&%L,**(:;N%
  • 19. Handbook on Community Based Tourism
  • 20. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 )A5I%& ;-1H(I[(:00100()&**+#,-.(711$0(_(>1"$,#100 `&3(2&+3,0* " F F 5 F F % + ; @ @ B : C A G% K 5 5 > F % 7 : > % # 5 7 > C : 5 F F% :F-,&#(If/ :F-,&#(K[/ :F-,&#(Mf/Q$##.%:/ !79%:/-C5/:C-/ D5-5#"%%:/-C5/ 0+-/$/@-+$-0%$,/ 6 ;4 % $ ; B 4 C F @ _+57-0%7 0,5/01/80+#7" !%$,.77 XC./7C0+,A/ !,-5#%$-45/=f/!7/ Q0""+%-.E7/ -C5/Q0""+%-./ $%/$,-5#%$-45/l/ 5cJ5*-$-0%7/01/ (5/%40,45A/%/ ,+*#$-45/70+#*5/ :$%7/1#0"/Q28 80+#7"Y 01/,45C00A/l/ %*0"5 D5-5#"%5/ *0""+%-./ XC./80+#7"Y !,-5#%$-45/Tf/ 4$,+57P/$,--+A57P/ !/-00,/-0/i+7-1./ $7J#$-0%7/l/ *0%75#4$-0%/ *0%*5#%7 5110#-7 WA5%-1./-C5/ !,-5#%$-45/ ,$(0+#/10#*5/ >f/!/-#$%%:/ %55A7/10#/-0+#7" :#0+%A/10#/1+-+#5/ J$#-*J$-0%/%/ F2LN%VNI< 0-C5#/5*0%0"*/ 3#K+#-(-&1%#Q%/&(+%I 75*-0#7 :)2847(I[ $%A/-C#5$-7bM :0,#E(-@1(>,E@-(+10-,&#0 5*0%0"*/*0%A-0%Y XC./ 7C0+,A/ -C5/ *0""+%-./ (5/ %40,45A/ %/ -0+#7"Y/ 8C7/ 7/ -C5/ 95./ k+57-0%/ -C$-/ %55A7/ -0/(5/$795A/$%A/$%7R5#5A/(510#5/$/*0""+%-./ ]@.(-&+3,0*^/ 7/ #5$A./ -0/ 5"(#$*5/ -0+#7"M/ X-C/ -C5/ $A45%-/ 01/ -0+#7"P/ / *0""+%-57/ $#5/ 5%-5#%:/ %-0/ $/ H$4%:/ 57-$(,7C5A/ -C$-/ -C5/ *0""+%-./ -0-$,,./ A115#5%-/ 5%4#0%"5%-/ 1#0"/ RC$-/ -C5./ R$%-7/*C$%:5/10#/-C5/ (5--5#P/RC./ -C5%/ 7C0+,A/ $#5/ $**+7-0"5A/ -0P/ RC*C/ 7/ ,95,./ -0/ (#%:/ -0+#7"/(5/-C5/$:5%-/10#/*C$%:5Y/!%A/RC./%0-/ $(0+-/ "$i0#/ *C$%:57/ -0/ -C5#/ R$./ 01/ ,15P/ -C5/ 0-C5#/ 5*0%0"*/ 75*-0#7Y/ X-C/ ,--,5/ J#0#/ 0+-,009P/ #5,$-0%7CJ7/ R-C%/ -C5/ *0""+%-./ 9%0R,5A:5/ $(0+-/ -0+#7"P/ ,0*$,/ *0""+%-57/ $%A/R-C/-C075/1#0"/0+-7A5/5-*M/@+(75k+5%-,./ $#5/ 7+#J#7%:,./ $**0""0A$-%:P/ %/ -C5/ C0J5/ -C5/10,,0R%:/k+57-0%7/$#5/$,70/J5#-%5%-f -C$-/ -0+#7"/ R0+,A/ (#%:/ %/ (5--5#/ 5*0%0"*/ ,45,C00AY #57+,-7/%/A7$JJ0%-"5%-/$%A/A7,,+70%"5%-/ *0%A-0%Y/ a,545,/ 01/ 5"J,0."5%-P/ $45#$:5/ RC5%/ -C5/ -0+#7"/ J#0i5*-7/ -C$-/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ %*0"5P/%*A5%*5/01/J045#-.bM *0""+%-57/ 7-$#-5A/ $#5/ %0-/ J#0A+*%:/ -C5/ 5cJ5*-5A/#57+,-7/a#515#/-0/X0#97C55-/=f/80/$77577/ *+##5%-/70+#*5/01/,45,C00AY/a0JJ0#-+%-57/ -C5/*0""+%-.E7/#5$A%577/10#/-0+#7"b10
  • 21. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3 5R(%a0212%34^5%3#KK0-2&;Y%a02K,:,1%_1*,-.4?@%ABA>%212**012#-;(-&%,C&(8%D-2&2,*%E0+:#82,%F%5,%G:2-%H2**,I(J%H2(&%K,;7-$:5P/(+-/$1-5#/$/15R/.5$#7/R-C0+-/J#0J5#/"$%$:5"5%-P/70"5/01/-C5"/%0R/155,/($A/$(0+-/-0+#7"/$7/-C5./*0+,A/%0-/"$95/$/,4%:/RC,5/0-C5#7/$#5/:5--%:/#*Chgn545#.0%5/R$7/-#.%:/-0/:5-/0%/-C5/(+7/RC5%/ -/ $##457/ $%A/ R,,/ $+-0"$-*$,,./10,,0R/ -C5/ -#$45,,5#7/ 1#0"/ -C5/ (5:%%%:/-0/ -C5/ 5%A/ 01/ -C5/ -#Jh/ a5c-#$*-7/ 1#0"/%-5#45R/ R-C/ )00-J#%-/ 8#$45,/ 0%/ -C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-.E7/#5$A%577/10#/-0+#7"bM [%^(.%,#%$#K,-%2-%5,%9R2-%d2**,L( 11
  • 22. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 :)2847(K[ =1-13*,#,#E(-@1(>&B1(&C(2&+3,0* 80+#7"/7C0+,A/%0-/(5/#5:$#A5A/$7/$/J$%$*5$/$%A/*$#51+,/J,$%%%:/$%A/7.7-5"$-*/"J,5"5%-$-0%/ $#5/%5*577$#./10#/-/-0/(#%:/$(0+-/-C5/A57#5A/J07-45/"J$*-M/8C5#510#5/-/7/5775%-$,/-C$-/-C5/#0,5/ 01/-0+#7"/7/J#0J5#,./*0""+%*$-5A/-0/-C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-57/57J5*$,,./-C5/A115#5%-/R$.7/-C$-/ -0+#7"/*$%/1+%*-0%P/RC*C/$#5f/ !/800,/80/B+7-1./ Q0%75#4$-0%/ 3110#-7 !%/!,-5#%$-45/ !/g8#$%%:/ !%A/O+*#$-45/ e#0+%Ah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cU $"J,5/ 01/ C0R/ -C5/ *0""+%-./ ,5$A5#7/ -009/ -C5/ #$A*$,/ 7-5J/ 01/ 7-$#-%:/ $/ R,A,15/ -0+#7"/ %A+7-#./ aRC$,5/ R$-*C%:b/ %/ $%-*J$-0%/ 01/ 75#4*5/-C$-/+75A/-0/J#04A5/-C5/"$%/70+#*5/01/ 5"J,0."5%-/10#/-C5/,0*$,/;$0#/*0""+%-.M12
  • 23. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &34?@%ABL>%M2*.*2C(%5#0821;%NM:,*(%M,&9:2-IO%D-.01&8P%,&%Q,2R#08,J%K($%S(,*,-. UR,*(%$,&SR2-L%,S&2)2&;%2-%b,28#0:,8#$A-0%$,,.P/ -C5/ I$90+#$/ *0""+%-./#$,R$./ 5"J,0.557M/ 8C5/ 5*0%0"*/ >&B1(K[(A0R%-+#%/ %/ =K<^P/ *0+J,5A/ R-C/ -C5/ 2&+3,0*(:0(:(2&&B(2&(a+0-,C.()&#013Y"-,&#(A5*,%5/ 01/ 5"J,0."5%-/ 0JJ0#-+%-57/ %/ <CC&3-0A+5/ -C5/ A545,0J"5%-/ 01/ $/ %5R/ C:CR$./ W%/"$%./#+#$,/$%A/"J045#7C5A/*0""+%-57P/C$45/ #57+,-5A/ %/ "$%./ 5*0%0"*/ $%A/ -0+#7"/7/01-5%/+75A/$7/$/"5$%7/-0/$%/5%AM/W%/70*$,/J#0(,5"7/10#/-C5/;$0#/*0""+%-.M/ / -C7/,:C-P/-0+#7"/C$7/(55%/7+**5771+,,./+75A/$7/ $/-00,/-0/i+7-1./*0%75#4$-0%/5110#-7M/H0R545#P/W%/ =K<K/ -C5/ *0""+%-./ ,5$A5#P/ 2,,/ -C7/ #0,5/ 7/ 75,A0"/ A0*+"5%-5A/ :45%/ -C$-/@0,0"0%P/ "$%$:5A/ -0/ *0%4%*5/ 10+#/ *0""5%-$#57/0%/7+*C/J#0i5*-7/J#515#/-0/10*+7/0-C5#/ 1$",57/ -0/ "0#-:$:5/ -C5#/ C0+757/-0/#$75/5%0+:C/1+%A7/-0/J+#*C$75/$/7"$,,/ J#0i5*-7M/5:C-U75$-/ *0""5#*$,/ (0$-P/ -0/ 7-$#-/ $/RC$,5/R$-*C%:/5%-5#J#75P/RC5%/R,A,15/ W%/ -C5/ *$75/ 01/ @$+%:/ !%:9,+%:/ 6Ai0/ a@!6bP/-0+#7"/ R$7/ %0-/ 545%/ %45%-5A/ 0%/ $/*0""5#*$,/($77M 5"J,0."5%-/ 0JJ0#-+%-57/ 10#/ -C5/ ,0*$,7P/ (+-/ "0#5/"J0#-$%-,.P/-/C$7/"$%$:5A/-0/J#575#45/80A$.P/ I$90+#$/ #5*5457/ =>?P???/ 47-0#7/ -C5/ +%k+5/ @+%A$%575/ $#-/ a!%:9,+%:bM/ !7/ $/.5$#,.P/ $%A/ -C5/ "$i0#-./ 01/ -C5/ >???/ 0AA/ -57-"0%./-0/-C5/#54-$,7$-0%/01/-C5/!%:9,+%:P/,0*$,/J0J+,$-0%/5$#%/-C5#/,4%:/1#0"/-C5/ @!6E7/*+,-+#$,/-#0+J57/$#5/#5:+,$#,./%4-5A/-0/"$#%5/R,A,15/-0+#7"/%A+7-#.M J5#10#"/ R-C%/ W%A0%57$P/ -C5/!@3![/ #5:0%/ $%A/ 545%/ %/ 3+#0J5P/ RC,5/ !%:9,+%:/ *,+(7/ C$45/(55%/75-/+J/$7/1$#/$7/I0#5$/5-*M/ 13
  • 24. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 >&B1(M[(( 4?@%ABT>% 2&+3,0*(:0(:(b23",#,#E(G3&+#$c(`&3(`+-+31( G8(1(8),&2#-%#C%/0-.,-(1(%U8&%=P%/,0-I% D"3-,F,H"-,&#(8#(4-@13(<F&#&*,F(;1F-&30 U-IR*0-I%V.W#%N/UVO W%/A545,0J%:/*0+%-#57P/:045#%"5%-/$:5%*57/ C$45/ (55%/ 0(75#45A/ -0/ 1$40+#/ *C$%%5,,%:/ W%/=KG<P/-C5/,$-5/6Ai0/[:$,$:5%$/$%A/ C7/ $/ :00A/ -#$*9/ #5*0#AM/ !7/ 7+*CP/ *0""+%-57/ R15/ 7-$#-5A/ $%/ %A5J5%A5%-/ (+7%577/ RC*C/0J5#$-5/7+**5771+,/-0+#7"/J#0i5*-7/$%A/ RC*C/7/9%0R%/$7/@$+%:/!%:9,+%:/6Ai0/ J#0:#$""57/$#5/01-5%/7C0R*$75A/$7/7+**5771+,/ a@!6bP/RC*C/7J5*$,757/%/-C5/@+%A$%575/ #+#$,/ -0+#7"/ "0A5,7/ -C$-/ 01-5%/ $--#$*-/ 47-7/ "+7*$,/J5#10#"$%*5/+7%:/-C5/-#$A-0%$,/ 1#0"/ J0,-*$%7P/ A:%-$#57/ $%A/ :045#%"5%-/ $%:9,+%:/%7-#+"5%-M/V45#/-C5/.5$#7P/-C5/ $:5%*57/1#0"/R-C%/-C5/*0+%-#./$%A/$(#0$AM/ 1$",./ #+%/ @!6/ C$7/ (5*0"5/ $/ -C#4%:/ *5%-#5/ -0/ J#575#45/ $%A/ A545,0J/ -C5/ 2$75A/ 0%/ -C5#/ g7+**577/ 7-0#.hP/ -C575/ @+%A$%575/8#$A-0%$,/!#-7/$%A/Q+,-+#57M/ *0""+%-57/ $#5/ #5*0:%75A/ $7/ (5%:/ R5,,/ 0#:$%75AP/ A7*J,%5A/ $%A/ *0C5745/ -0/ (5/ 80A$.P/ @!6/ C$7/ GT</ 7-+A5%-7P/ "07-,./ $(,5/ -0/ 0J5#$-5/ #+#$,/ A545,0J"5%-/ J#0i5*-7M/ .0+%:7-5#7/ 1#0"/ -C5/ 7+##0+%A%:/ Q0%75k+5%-,.P/ "07-/ 01/ -C5/ #+#$,/ A545,0J"5%-/ 4,,$:57/ ,5$#%%:/ -0/ J,$./ -C5/ $%:9,+%:/ 1+%A7/-C$-/$#5/%0-/%5*577$#,./#5,$-5A/-0/-0+#7"/ $%A/ J5#10#"%:/ -0/ -0+#7-7P/ RC,5/ (5%:/ $#5/ 01-5%/ *C$%%5,,5A/ -0/ -C575/ *0""+%-57/ $**0"J$%5A/ (./ -C5#/ J$#5%-7M/ 8C5/ :45%/ -C$-/ -C5#/ J5#*545A/ #79/ 01/ 1$,+#5/ %+"(5#/ 01/ 47-0#7/ -0/ @!6/ %/ T??</ R$7/ R0+,A/ (5/ *0%7A5#$(,./ ,0R5#/ -C$%/ g+%-57-5AE/ $#0+%A/ <LPZ<>/ 47-0#7P/ $%/ %*#5$75/ 01/ *0""+%-57M/ G?o/ 1#0"/ T??LM/ 8C5/ $%:9,+%:/ "+7*$,/ 0#*C57-#$/ 1#0"/ @!6/ 7/ $,70/ 9%0R%/ )0#/%7-$%*5P/-C5/*0""+%-./$-/I:M/2$-+/N+-5CP/ %-5#%$-0%$,,.P/ C$4%:/ J5#10#"5A/ %/ @$($C/ a;70R$,$/ H0"57-$.b/ C$45/ ,$-5,./ "$%./*0+%-#57/7+*C/$7/!7$P/3+#0J5/$%A/ #5*545A/:045#%"5%-/*0%-#$*-7/10#/#510#57-$-0%/ !1#*$M/ 8C5/ J0J+,$#-./ 01/ -C5/ $%:9,+%:/ J#0i5*-7/ RC*C/ J#04A5/ $/ 7-$(,5/ 70+#*5/ 01/ $"0%:/*0,,5*-0#7/C$7/$,70/70$#5A/$%A/@!6/ ,45,C00A/10#/-C5/,0*$,/R0"5%/a#515#/20c/=MZbM/ *+##5%-,./ J#0A+*57/ $#0+%A/ =KPT??/ 01/ -C7/ 8C7/J#0457/-C$-/-C5/79,,7/$*k+#5A/-0/"$%$:5/ -#$A-0%$,/@+%A$%575/%7-#+"5%-/A$,.M $%A/0J5#$-5/-C5#/Q28/J#0i5*-/$#5/(5%:/J+-/-0/ +75/ (./ -C5/ ,0*$,/ *0""+%-./ %/ 45%-+#%:/ %-0/ -C5/0-C5#/a$%A/01-5%/"0#5/7-$(,5b/75*-0#7/01/-C5/ #+#$,/ 5*0%0".M/ 8C5/ 7$"5/ J#0*577/ 7/ 0(75#45A/ $%A/ #5*0#A5A/ $-/ @$+%:/ !%:9,+%:/ 6Ai0/ a#515#/ 20c/=MGbM 5R(%1&0.(-&1%#Q%/[%.0:2-L%&R(%,Q&(:-##-% +(:Q#:K,-S(14
  • 25. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3 4?@%ABX>% Y8#;%"#;(1&,P%?+(8,&#8%&#% 7(C#8(1&,&2#-%3#-&8,9&#8 ;3@QV8P/ -C5/ Q28/ %-$-0#/ $-/ I:M/ 2$-+/ N+-5C/C$7/R0#95A/R-C/-C5/@$($C/)0#57-#./ D5J$#-"5%-/ a@)Db/ 10#/ "0#5/ -C$%/ =?/ .5$#7P/ %/ 7+JJ0#-%:/ -C5/ J#0-5*-0%/ $%A/ *0%75#4$-0%/ 01/ -C5/ @+J+/ )0#57-/ 575#45M/ W%/ T??<P/ ;3@QV8/ #5*545A/ $/ ;G?P???/ :#$%-/ 1#0"/ @)D/ -0/ *,5$#/ -C5/ ,$%A/ %/ J#5J$#$-0%/ 10#/ -#55/ J,$%-%:/ $*-4-57/ R-C%/ -C5/ N%U@+J+/ )0#57-/ 575#45M/ W%/ T??KP/ @)D/ J#04A5A/ $%/ $AA-0%$,/ ;=M>/ ",,0%/-0/1+%A/-C5/-#55/J,$%-%:/$*-4-57/ *045#%:/$%/$#5$/01/TG?/C5*-$#57M/ 8C7/ #510#57-$-0%/ J#0i5*-/ C$7/ *#5$-5A/ i0(7/ 10#/ $(0+-/ G?/ ,0*$,7P/ 01/ RC*C/ T?/ $#5/ 10#/ R0"5%M/ 3$*C/ R0#95#/ :5-7/ $/ 7$,$#./ 01/ (5-R55%/;^??/-0/;K??/J5#/"0%-CM/!7/$/ $7/#510#57-$-0%/*0%-#$*-0#7P/;3@QV8/C$7/ 545%/ J$#-*J$-5A/ %/ -5%A5#/ (A7/ -0/ *$##./ 0+-/7",$#/-$797/%/N5%%7+,$#/;$,$.7$MX(Q&<+:()(-&2#-%,-.%Q#:(1&%:(1&#:,&2#-%+:#L:,KK(1%0-.(:%&R(%/,7,R%F#:(1&:;%(+,:&K(-&%N/#0:S(<%]21#$,*,2%"#K(1&,;%=be9JX@Y%V??E 15
  • 26. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 4?@%ABZ>% /,0-I%U-IR*0-I%V.W#%[%Y8#;%U-IR*0-I% G(8C#8;,-9(%&#%U-IR*0-I%G8#.09&2#- 0J5#$-0%/(./"04%:/+J/-C5/4$,+5/*C$%P/ 1#0"/ (5%:/ -C5/ $%:9,+%:/ J5#10#"$%*5/ *5%-#5/ -0/ $/ *0""5#*$,/ J#0A+*5#/ 01/ -C5/ $%:9,+%:/ "+7*$,/ %7-#+"5%-M/ 8C5/ J#0A+*-0%/0J5#$-0%/7/(5%:/A7-#(+-5A/ $"0%:/ ==/ *,+7-5#7/ %/ -C5/ 7+##0+%A%:/ 4,,$:57M/ ;0A5#%/ 5k+J"5%-7/ $%A/ -5*C%k+57/$#5/(5%:/+75A/-0/"J#045/-C5/ k+$,-./ 01/ -C5/ %7-#+"5%-/ $%A/ @!6/ 545%/ *0""770%5A/ #575$#*C5#7/ 1#0"/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ +%45#7-./ -0/ *0%A+*-/ #575$#*C/ 0%/ -C5/ 7J5*57/ 01/ ($"(00/ -C$-/ J#0A+*5/ -C5/ (57-/ 70+%AM// 5$#%#Q%&R(%,-L8*0-L K,-0Q,S&0:2-L%S*01&(:1%,&%/[16
  • 27. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3"+$*2K%L+744GC:?%2BA%7%)CAB7AC;:7=%":7=GFCF% = TH$4%:/ $%7R5#5A/ -C5/ 95./ k+57-0%7/ $(045P/@-5J/ =/ 7C0+,A/ -C5%/ J#0*55A/ (./ *$##.%:/ 0+-/ >$/ @-+$-0%$,/ !%$,.77/ 01/ -C5/ *0""+%-.E7/$---+A5P/ *0%*5#%7/ $%A/ $7J#$-0%7M/ !77+"%:/ Z-C$-/-C5/*0""+%-./R$%-7/-0/5"(#$*5/-0+#7"P/-C5/ @-+$-0%$,/ !%$,.77/ 7C0+,A/ *045#/ -C5/10,,0R%:f G O0*$,/ =KPT??/+%-7 *0""+%-./"J( ]@"-($&10(-@1(F&**+#,-.(1ZH1F-(-&(E",#( 01/$%:9,+%: L 1#0"/ C3&*()/2^ J5#/"0%-C 7+##0+%A%:/ 4,,$:57/ 8C5#/ 5cJ5*-$-0%7/ 7C0+,A/ %0-/ (5/ 70,5,./ ^ [-L8*0-L% /0++#:&1%K#:(% +:#.0S&2#-%+(:% &R,-%IYV??%*#S,*% i0(7/ $%A/ (5--5#/ %*0"5/ (+-/ 7C0+,A/ $,70/ K#-&R%2-%V??E% < 2-S*0.2-L%$#K(-% %*,+A5/ %0%U"0%5-$#./ :$%7/ 7+*C/ $7/ -C5/ Q:#K%&R(%II% ,-.%;#0&R%2-% S*01&(:1 &(:K1%#Q%+:#)2.2-L% %*#5$75/%/70*$,/*0C570%/$%A/J#A5/%/,0*$,/ (K+*#;K(-&%,-.% *0""+%-.M/ D0/ %0-/ "J075/ "$-5#$,7-*/ K 1&,7*(%2-S#K( 4$,+57/(5*$+75/-C5/*$75/7-+A57/C$45/7C0R%/ -C$-/-C5/%0%U"0%5-$#./:$%7/$#5/5k+$,,./0#/ =? "0#5/ "J0#-$%-/ -0/ -C5/ ,0*$,7/ a5M:M/ 10#:%:/ 1#5%A7CJ/ R-C/ J50J,5/ 1#0"/ $,,/ 045#/ -C5/ == R0#,A/$%A/%*#5$75/%/75,1/57-55"bM/ 9:#.0S&2#-%#+(:,&2#-%21%7(2-L%.21&:270&(.%%J( =1-13*,#1( F&**+#,-.( Y"B+10d( "--,-+$10d( ,K#-L%II%S*01&(:1%2-%&R(%10::#0-.2-L%)2**,L(1 "0H,3"-,&#0("#$(F&#F13#0J F2LN%VND<%[-L8*0-L%9:#.0S&2#-%e+(:,&2#-%7;%3*01&(:1/ W%/ "07-/ *0""+%-57P/ -C5/ 5,A5#7/ 7-,,/ *0""$%A/ #57J5*-/ $%A/ -C5/ (57-/ R$./ 01/ 5%7+#%:/ g(+./ %h/ 1#0"/ -C5/ 5%-#5/ FJ( 8$1#-,C.( -@1( B"%&+3( C&3F1( #11$0( C&3( *0""+%-./ 7/ -0/ 5%7+#5/ -C$-/ $%./ Q28/ -&+3,0*J J#0i5*-/ %/ -C5/ 1+-+#5/ R,,/ %0-/ i50J$#A75/ / W%/ A5%-1.%:/ -C5/ ,$(0+#/ 10#*5/ %55A7P/ -C5/ 5c7-%:/ *0""+%-./ 7-#+*-+#5/ $%A/ %*,+A5/ -C5/ %A:5%0+7/ 9%0R,5A:5/ 01/ -C5/ 4$,+57M/ )0#:%:/ $/ 75%75/ 01/ 0R%5#7CJ/ $%A/ *0""+%-./ $7/ $/ +%k+5/ C+"$%/ #570+#*5/ 5%7+#%:/ ,0*$,/ *0%-#0,/ 1#0"/ -C5/ (5:%%%:/ 79,,M/ 7/J#045%/%/I:M/2$-+/N+-5C/a;70R$,$/ ! $#5/*#+*$,/:45%/-C5/5cJ5*-5A/%-5#57-/1#0"/ H0"57-$.b/ -C5/ 10#"5#/ ,0::5#7/ C$45/ (55%/ -0+#/ 0J5#$-0#7/ $%A/ 0-C5#/ 0+-7A5/ J$#-57/ $(,5/ -0/ +75/ -C5#/ A55J/ +%A5#7-$%A%:/ $%A/ 0%*5/-0+#7"/J#0i5*-7/$#5/"J,5"5%-5AM/V1/ J#"5/*0%*5#%/7/RC$-/-C5/*0""+%-./7/%0-/ -0/:00A/5115*-/0%*5/-C5./$#5/C#5AP/-#$%5A/ R,,%:/-0/:45/+J/10#/-C5/7$95/01/-0+#7"M 17
  • 28. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 *0""+%-.Y/W7/-/75$70%$,Y/D0/.0+-C7/,5$45/ 4?@%AB>% -C5/*0""+%-./-0/7559/5"J,0."5%-Y Y#8;(8%]#II(8%508-(.%3#-1(8),&2#-21&%^% _02.( 7C0J7/$%A/75#4*57/%/-C5/*0""+%-.Y *0""+%-./ A5J5%A7/ 0%/ 5*0%0"*$,,.Y/ 5*0%0"*/$*-4-.Y /#92,*^30*&08,* F#:K(:%*#LL(:%&0:-(.%S#-1(:),&2#-21&%O%L02.( ,4%:/%/-C7/*0""+%-.Y 2510#5/ (5%:/ %40,45A/ %/ -C5/ ;3@QV8/ J#0i5*-P/ `$C.$/ R$7/ R0#9%:/ 10#/ -"(5#/ $(0+-/.0+#/*0""+%-.Y *$"J7/ 10#/ "0#5/ -C$%/ =?/ .5$#7M/ !1-5#/ -C5/ -"(5#/ %A+7-#./ R$7/ 10#*5A/ -0/ *5$75/ $*-4-57/%/.0+#/*0""+%-.Y 0J5#$-0%/(./-C5/5$#,./=KK?7P/C5/R$7/:45%/ $/i0(/$7/$/:+A5/10#/;70R$,$/H0"57-$.M/ $%A/,57+#5/5%4#0%"5%-7/R-C/-0+#7-7Y H7/ 5cJ5#5%*5/ $%A/ 4$7-/ 9%0R,5A:5/ 01/ *0""+%-.Y -C5/ i+%:,5/ $#5/ %0R/ (5%:/ +75A/ %/ C7/ %-5#J#5-$-0%/ RC,5/ -$9%:/ -0+#7-7/ 0%/ %$-+#5/ -0+#7M/ 5*5%-,.P/ `$C.$/ R$7/ E-)28#-;(-&,*%NK,&08,*O $JJ0%-5A/ $7/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ 7+J5#470#/ 10#/ -C5/ 10#57-/ #57-0#$-0%/ J#0:#$""5/ 1+%A5A/ (./ -C5/@$($C/)0#57-#./D5J$#-"5%-/a@)DbM/ $#5$7/ $%A/ 0-C5#/ %$-+#$,/ #5*#5$-0%$,/ $#5$7/ R-C/-0+#7-7Y )7@I=5%;6%D;49FE55A%!"#$%&#()*+,( -$.$#/$.(0./1*2/&/2(-+.2+*&/3,4(56667 E-)28#-;(-&%N402*.2-I%,-.%D-C8,1&809&08(O D;49FE55A%&M&%$;%7FF5FF%G;B4% *C$#$*-5#Y 8;@@B:CAGNF%457>C:5FF%6;4%A;B4CF@ 2@1( C&BB&Q,#E( "31( 0&*1( e+10-,&#0( $10,E#1$( 01/.0+#/*0""+%-./$%A/$#5$/a*,5$%P/5-*MbY -&(@1BH(E"-@13(,#C&3*"-,&#(Q@,F@(Q,BB(1#"%B1( .&+( -&( "00100( .&+3( F&**+#,-.f0( #11$0( "#$( R5,,/"$#95AY/H0R/$(0+-/7:%$:5/%-0/-C5/ 31"$,#100(C&3(-&+3,0*[X *0""+%-./1#0"/-C5/"$%/$**577/J0%-7Y U E9#-#;29 "+%-./*C$#$*-5#/$%A/"$:5Y18
  • 29. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3)B@@74G%;6%)A5I%&"+$*2K%&%")O*K,%$3/%#*,3$%P-/)$*2K)XC./7C0+,A/-C5/*0""+%-./(5/%40,45A/%/-0+#7"YXC./-0+#7"Y"+$*2K%0%./$/#Q*K*K,%$3/%#2R/% % % %%%%$*+O2S%$2-#*)Q% % % % %$M//80+#7"/$7/$%/$,-5#%$-45/$%A/,+*#$-45/70+#*5/01/ ,45,C00A/$%A/%*0"5(M//80+#7"/$7/$/-00,/-0/i+7-1./-C5/*0%75#4$-0%/5110#-7*M//80+#7"/$7/$/g-#$%%:/:#0+%Ah/10#/1+-+#5/J$#-*J$-0%/ %/0-C5#/5*0%0"*/75*-0#7"+$*2K%L%+"##1*K,%2-$%"%)*$-"$*2K"R%"K"R1)*)IJ((]@"-($&10(-@1(F&**+#,-.(1ZH1F-(-&(E",#(C3&*()/2^(((////////$M//W%*#5$75/%*0"5(M//3"J,0."5%-/0JJ0#-+%-.*M//6J:#$A5/-C5/k+$,-./01/,15/7-.,5AM//Q0"J,5"5%-/-C5/*+##5%-/JC.7*$,/A545,0J"5%-KJ((=1-13*,#1()&**+#,-.(g"B+10d(:--,-+$10d(:0H,3"-,&#( "#$()&#F13#0$M//N#A5/%/*0""+%-./(M//Q0%75#45/,0*$,/*+,-+#5*M//@5%75/01/0R%5#7CJMJ((8$1#-,C.(-@1(P"%&+3(`&3F1(711$0(`&3(2&+3,0*$M//O545,/01/5A+*$-0%(M//N#540+7/0**+J$-0%*M//Q+##5%-//0**+J$-0%AM//@J5*$,/79,,72-$!-$%$3/%+2QQ-K*$1N)%R/T/R%2S%% % %%%%$*+O#/".*K/))%S2#%$2-#*)Q%% / //////////////////////////////////////////$M//570+#*57/a*+,-+#5]C5#-$:5]%$-+#5]*0$7-$,b(M//Q0""+%-./$---+A5*M//@J5*$,/79,,7AM//!4$,$(,5/*$J-$,5M//W%A:5%0+7/ 19
  • 30. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 /01%2013%13431356378%9:3;73%<=7=>%>?3%40::0@=5A%@3B7=>37CD ZQ^3U!G22UG?L3KD<KLDDTo^D@-+$-0%oT?!%$,.77MJA1 U U U20
  • 31. Handbook on Community Based Tourism
  • 32. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 )A5I%0 ;-1H(K[(<$+F"-1(:#$(D31H"31(2@1()&**+#,-.(`&3 2&+3,0* / > B 8 7 A 5 % 7 : > % ! 4 5 I 7 4 5% A E 5 % + ; @ @ B : C A G % 6 ; 4% :F-,&#(If/Q0%A+*-/ :F-,&#(K[/@-+A./-#J/ :F-,&#(Mf/ N#5,"%$#./ $%A/gQ0""+%-./-0/ )0#"+,$-0%/01/ !77577"5%- Q0""+%-.h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i5$,0+7,./ $%A/+%C5$,-C./(+7%577/#4$,#./$"0%:/-C5/,0*$,/;$0#7M/ / 4?@%LBA>% M:,*(%M,&9:2-I%`38,aP%/(,1#-b UR,*(%U,&SR%5#0:% 3#,SR%70:-&%7;% g8C5/p*#$F./75$70%E/01/RC$,5/R$-*C%:/5"5#:5A/$1-5#/-C5/J#0i5*-/#5*545A/ K,:L2-,*21(.%*#S,*1 045#RC5,"%:/ #57J0%75/ 1#0"/ -0+#7-7M/ 3%40+7/ 01/ -C5/ C+:5/ 7+"/ 01/ "0%5./"$A5/(./RC$,5/R$-*C%:/0J5#$-0#7P/*5#-$%/1#$*-0%7/01/-C5/,0*$,/ *0""+%-./-009/-C5/,$R/%/-C5#/0R%/C$%A7/$%A/7C0R5A/-C5#/1#+7-#$-0%/ (./(+#%%:/A0R%/-0+#7-/*0$*C57/+75A/10#/RC$,5/R$-*C%:M//8C7/%7$%5/ ##$-0%$,/(5C$40+#/*$"5/+%A5#/*0%-#0,/R-C/-C5/$777-$%*5/01/-C5/J0,*5M/ )0#-+%$-5,.P/ %5:0-$-0%7/ $"0%:/ -C5/ ,0*$,7/ "$%$:5A/ -0/ 75--,5/ -C5#/ A115#5%*57h/a$A$J-5A/1#0"/J#575%-$-0%/QD/:45%/(./XC$,5/X$-*CbM///22
  • 33. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &33775%-$,,./ -C5/ ,0*$,/ *0""+%-./ 7C0+,A/ (5/R5,,/ %10#"5A/ $%A/ 5A+*$-5A/ $(0+-/ -C5/ "$%./1$*5-7/ 01/ -0+#7"/ J#0#/ -0/ -C5/ *0%7-#+*-0%/ 01/$%./10#"/01/-0+#7"/JC.7*$,/A545,0J"5%-/0#/$*-4-.M/ 8C5/ 5A+*$-0%/ J#0*577/ 7C0+,A/ -$95/ $/,0%:5#/ -"5/ 10#/ #5,$-45,./ #5"0-5/ 70*5-./ R,,/,0R/ ,545,7/ 01/ 5A+*$-0%M/ 8C5/ e+7/ 5cJ5#5%*5/7C0R7/ -C$-/ -C5/ *0""+%-./ 5A+*$-0%/ J#0*577/-009/+J/-0/G/.5$#7/(510#5/JC.7*$,/A545,0J"5%-/R$7/%-#0A+*5AM/ 4?@%LBL>% 52;(%21%&:(%E11(-9( O0*$,/ *0""+%-./ #5k+#57/ -"5/ -0/ $**5J-/ $%A/A545,0J/$/-0+#7"/*+,-+#5M/8C5/e+7/ Q0""+%-./ 2$75A/ H5#-$:5/ 80+#7"/ (+-/ 0%,./ #5*545A/ -0+#7-7/ %/ $/ (:/ R$./ %/ T??ZM/ !/ -0+#7"/ "$7-5#/ J,$%/ R$7/ [7#)(< J#5J$#5A/ (./ -C5/ :045#%"5%-/ $%A/ -/ -009/ d2**,L(%82.1%+(:Q#:K2-L%,%F2*2+2-#%&:,.2&2#-,*% $#0+%A/ G/ .5$#7/ 10#/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ :045#%"5%-/ .,-S(%.0:2-L%&R(%$(*S#K2-L%S(:(K#-;%Q#:%L0(1&1 $"0%:7-/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ *0""+%-./ -0R$#A7/ -0+#7"M/ N$#-%5#7CJ/ R-C/ -C5/ Q$%$A$%/ 6#($%/W%7--+-5/aQ6Wb/J#04A5A/-C5/%-$,/ N#0i5*- V#5%-$-0% "0%5-$#./$%A/-5*C%*$,/$777-$%*5/10#/-C7/ J#0i5*-M/)0#/-C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-./-0/$**5J-P/ D$,0:+5/l +%A5#7-$%A/ $%A/ 755/ -C5/ "J0#-$%*5/ 01/ Q0%7+,-$-0% l/5cJ5*-$-0%7 -0+#7"P/ 4$#0+7/ R0#97C0J7/ R-C/ -0J*7/ "5%-0%5A/ (5,0R/ R5#5/ 0#:$%F5AM/ 6%-,/ ]&30@&H -C5/ *0""+%-./ C$45/ #5$,,./ +%A5#7-00A/ RC$-/ *0""+%-./ ($75A/ -0+#7"/ 7/ $,,/ V#:$%7$-0%$,/ 6%A5#7-$%A%:/ @-#+*-+#5/l/ $(0+-P/0%,./-C5%/-C5/:045#%"5%-/J#0"0-5A/ #0,57/01/-C5/ -C5/(+7%577/01/ -0+#7" -C5/ $#5$/ $%A/ 5%*0+#$:5A/ -0+#7-7/ -0/ 47-/ *0""+%-. -C5/A57-%$-0%M -0+#7" F2LN%DNV<%5R(%),:2#01%$#:81R#+1%S#-.0S&(.%,&%a0212 23
  • 34. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 3110#-7/ %/ 5A+*$-%:/ $%A/ J#5J$#%:/ -C5/ *0""+%-./$#5/54A5%-/%/-C5/"0#5/#5*5%-/Q28/ 4?@%LBT>% *$757/ 7+*C/ $7/ 8$/ NC%P/ e+7/ $%A/ ;70R$,$/ G8(+,82-I%&:(%3#;;0-2&P a*$J$*-./ (+,A%:bM/ 2$75A/ 0%/ -C5/ ,5770%7/ ,5$#%5A/ 1#0"/ -C5/ $(045/ *$75/ 7-+A57P/ -C7/ C$%A(009/#5*0""5%A7/-C5/10,,0R%:/$*-0%7f 8C5/ ;3@QV8/ J#0i5*-/ %/ I:M/ 2$-+/ N+-5CP/ @$($C/ R$7/ 7-$#-5A/ %/ =KK^P/ R-C/ 1+%A%:/ "8AC;:%&%+;:>B8A%!45=C@C:74G%D;49FE;IF 1#0"/ XX)/ [0#R$./ $%A/ $/ ,0*$,/ [eVM/ 8C5/J#0i5*-/7/$,70/7+JJ0#-5A/(./-C5/@-$-5/ !/ 75#57/ 01/ J#5,"%$#./ R0#97C0J7/ 7C0+,A/ (5/ ;%7-#./ 01/ 80+#7"/ $%A/ 3%4#0%"5%-$,/ *0%A+*-5A/ %/ -C5/ %-$,/ 7-$:5/ -0/ $*C545/ -C5/ D545,0J"5%-/$%A/@$($C/)0#57-#./D5J$#-U 10,,0R%:/0(i5*-457f "5%-M/ 8C7/ "$%/ $"/ 01/ -C5/ J#0i5*-/ 7/ -0/ $777-/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ *0""+%-./ -0/ J,$%/ 5*0U IJ((8$1#-,C.,#E( ( D&-1#-,"B( ( 2&+3,0*( :F-,Y,-,10( -0+#7"/ $*-4-57/ $%A/ (+,A/ ,0*$,/ C+"$%/ 2&(/1(=1Y1B&H1$(:#$(D3&*&-1$( *$J$*-./10#/"$%$:%:/-C5/$*-4-57M/ / 8C5/ J#5,"%$#./ R0#97C0J/ 7C0+,A/ (#%:/ W%/ -C5/ J#5,"%$#./ 7-$:5P/ -C5/ ;3@QV8/ -0:5-C5#/ -C5/ 5%-#5/ *0""+%-./ -0/ A7*+77/ *0""+%-./ :#0+J/ *0%A+*-5A/ g4,,$:5U $%A/ A5%-1./ -C5/ #570+#*57/ $%A/ $*-4-57/ ,545,/ A$,0:+57h/ -0/ 5cJ,$%/ -C5/ 0(i5*-457/ R-C%/ -C5/ 4,,$:5/ -C$-/ R0+,A/ $JJ5$,/ -0/ 01/ -C5/ J#0i5*-/ $%A/ -0/ 107-5#/ *$"$#$A5#5/ -0+#7-7M/ 8C5/ R0#97C0J/ 7C0+,A/ -$95/ -C5/ R-C%/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ *0""+%-57M/ 8C5/ :#0+J/ -0:5-C5#/ R-C/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ *0""+%-./ $,70/ :45/-C5/0JJ0#-+%-./10#/545#.0%5/-0/"$95/ :$-C5#5A/ $%A/ A0*+"5%-5A/ %10#"$-0%/ 7+::57-0%7P/$%A/75*0%A,.P/10#/-C5/R0#97C0J/ #5,$-5A/ -0/ -C5/ g$+#$,/ C7-0#.hP/ -#$A-0%$,/ -0/54$,+$-5/$%A/#$%9/-C5/J#0J075A/$*-4-57/ (5,51P/ -#$A-0%$,/ "5A*%57P/ $%A/ -#$AU %/ -C5/ 10#"/ 01/ $/ g80J/ =?/ !--#$*-0%7] -0%$,/+757/01/10#57-/#570+#*57P/%A:5%0+7/ !*-4-57hM 4,,$:5M/!/7"$,,/4,,$:5/C0+75/R$7/#5%-5A/ $%A/(5*$"5/-C5/"55-%:/J,$*5/10#/A7*+7U 5:,2-2-L%$#:81R#+%,&%]21#$,*,2%"#K(1&,; 70%7/$%A/*5%-#5/10#/#575$#*C/$*-4-57M/ /#0:S(<%]21#$,*,2%"#K(1&,;%=be9JX@Y%V??E24
  • 35. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3KJ( =1Y1B&H,#E(P,#"E10(],-@( _-2&2,&(.%2-%ITT> 5<;)42 ;+33&+#$,#E(2&+3,0*( 7;%4,&0%90&(R 3#KK0-2&; 8#,-,"-,Y1 :--3"F-,&#0 g,BB"E1(B1Y1B =M/;5%:$#7/d,,$:5/ W%/"07-/%7-$%*57P/$/J$#-*+,$#/ =,"B&E+10 TM/2$-+/N+-5C/d,,$:5 >M/@%::$C/;$-$/d,,$:5 ZM/N5#J$A+$%/d,,$:5 4,,$:5/ R,,/ %0-/ C$45/ -C5/ 7-#5%:-C/-0/7-$%A/0%/-7/0R%/$7/ 4(L,-%2-%f0-( ITTA 5<;)42 $/-0+#7"/A57-%$-0%M/!7/7+*CP/ $/ 10,,0R/ +J/ R0#97C0J/ 7C0+,A/ 9*,--2-L%9R,1(1 (5/ C5,A/ -0/ A5-5#"%5/ C0R/ -C5/ 4,,$:5/ *$%/ (5/ J07-0%5A/ D@"01(I[ 575$#*C D@"01(K[ 3cJ07+#5 D@"01(M[ 2#$%7-0#"%: D@"01(N[ D5-$,/N,$%%%: D@"01(O[ VJ5#$-0%$,7%: $%A/ J$*9$:5A/ $7/ J$#-/ 01/ $%/ $--#$*-45/ -0+#7"/ A57-%$-0%/ :$-C5#5A/$%A/ 7-+A./-#J7/R5#5/ (#5$9A0R%/01/ 75--%:/+JP/ A0*+"5%-5A/ *0%A+*-5A/-0/ $,,/J0-5%-$,/ *07-7/%40,45A/ #5:7-5#%:/$%A/ *0##A0#M/)0#/%7-$%*5P/;70R$,$/ %10#"$-0%/ $(0+-/-C5/ 4$#0+7/-0+#7-/ $--#$*-0%P/ $*-4-57 %/57-$(,7C%:/ J#0A+*-7]/ 0J5#$-0%$,7%:/ -C5/4$#0+7/ 7+##0+%A%:/ 1$*,-57/$%A/ *0""+%-./7*$,5/ $*-4-57P/ *0""+%-./ 7/ 70,A/ $7/ J$#-/ 01/ -C5/ O0R5#/ (0A45#7-./ 7-57/%/@$($C/ J5#7J5*-45/$%A/ J$*9$:%:/$%A/ -0+#7"/$*-4-57/ $%A/@$#$R$9 7J$-$,/J,$%%%: J#*%:P/$*-0%/ J,$%%5A/%/A5-$, I%$($-$%:$%/X,A,15/@$%*-+$#.M 7-#$-5:57/-0/ C$%A/5cJ5#5%*5 A545,0J"5%-/01/ "J,5"5%-P/ -0+#7"/$*-4-57/ 57-$(,7C%:/ -#$%%:/-0/ $%A/J#0A+*-7/-0/ %-5#%$,/#+,57/ 9:#7#1S21%K#-8(;%21%,%S#KK#-%12LR&% J#04A5/79,,7/10#/ (5/A545,0J5A $%A/#5:+,$-0%7/ A0*+"5%-$-0%/ 10#/0J5#$-0%7/l/ ,&%&R(%X#$(:%b2-,7,&,-L,-%4,12- 01/#575$#*C/$%A/ *0A5/01/*0%A+*-/ *0""+%-./ 10#/-0+#7-7 J,$%7 [S&2)2&2(1%eQQ(:(. 5,0&Q"B", 5=2(Y,BB"E1 5<;)42 5<;)42 2+B+#(2+&+ !&*10-". %&"-(013Y,F1 E+,$10(013Y,F10 F+B-+31(E3&+H !"#$,F3"C- D3&E3"* :00&F,"-,&# F2LN%DND<%345%2-2&2,&(.%+:#S(11%7;%]21#$,*,2%"#K(1&,; 58@;4"A71!6!2!1?!1 @75957B;"*!1=23!4< 1!234!5"67897:;4*72< =35234!5">;472!?; 4?@%LBX>% <21#$,*,2%"#;(1&,P%,1%G,8&%#C%&:(%]#$(8%Q2-,=,&,-I,-%M2*.*2C(%5#0821;%3#882.#8 7J5*57P/-C5/0#$%:U+-$%/$%A/C0#(,,/7J5*57M 7+%/(5$#/$%A/-C5/20#%50/J.:"./5,5JC$%-M 25
  • 36. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 MJ( 43E"#,0,#E(]&30@&H(4#(8#Y&BY1*1#-(4C( =,CC131#-(;1F-,&#0(4C()&**+#,-. 4?@%LBZ>% ( 3,+2&,*2a2-I%#-%5:(%3#;;0-2&Pb1% #570+#*57]$*-4-57/ R-C%/ -C5/ 4,,$:5/ $%A/ /&8(-I&:>%Q0R0%c,*,-W2%8(,;&2;(%M,*R1 %/-C5/7+##0+%A%:/$#5$7P/$%0-C5#/R0#97C0J/ 7C0+,A/ (5/ *0%A+*-5A/ -0/ A5-5#"%5/ -C5/ #0,5/ 01/ A115#5%-/ 75*-0%7/ 01/ -C5/ *0""+%-.M/ )0#/ 8C5/ %-5#J#5-45/ :+A57/ 01/ I+9+/ `$,$%i/ %7-$%*5P/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ .0+-C7/ *0+,A/ (5/ -#$%5A/ D#5$"-"5/ X$,97/ $#5/ 5c*5,,5%-/ %/ -0/ (5*0"5/ :+A57/ $%A/ *+,-+#$,/ J5#10#"5#7/ A57*#(%:/ $%A/ 7C$#%:/ -C5#/ 9%0R,5A:5/ RC,5/-C5/R0"5%/*0+,A/(5/C#5A/$7/*$-5#5#7/ 0%/ -C5/ -#$A-0%$,/ J,$%-7P/ *$45/ 7C5,-5#7P/ $%A/10#/C0+75955J%:/$7/R5,,/$7/J#0A+*%:/ $#-51$*-7/ $%A/ J$%-%:7/ A+#%:/ -C5/ =MG/ C$%A*#$1-7M/ W-/ 7/ $,70/ *#+*$,/ -C$-/ -C5/ C0+#7/R$,9/-C#0+:C/-C5/;077"$%/e0#:5P/ R0#97C0J/ A5%-1./ %0-/ 0%,./ -C075/ RC0/ *$%/ D$%-#55/ [$-0%$,/ N$#9M/ !7/ 0%,./ 7545%/ (5/%40,45AP/10#/%7-$%*5P/%/-C5/J#0A+*-0%/ :+A57/ $#5/ %40,45A/ %/ -C5/ R$,9%:/ 01/C$%A*#$1-7/(+-/$,70/-C5/%A4A+$,7/RC0/ -0+#7P/ 0-C5#/ "5"(5#7/ / 01/ -C5/ *0""+%-./ C$45/-C5/"$#95-%:/$%A/"$%$:5"5%-/79,,7/ *0%-#(+-5/ -C#0+:C/ -C5/ J#0A+*-0%/ 01/ $#-/ -0/ #+%/ $/ C$%A*#$1-/ *5%-#5M/ 8C5/ ;70R$,$/ $%A/ $#-51$*-7/ 01/ !(0#:%$,/ *+,-+#5/ 7+*C/ 5cJ5#5%*5/#545$,7/-C$-/A57J-5/-C5/C:C/,545,/ $7/ J$%-%:7P/ (00"5#$%:7P/ C$%A/ J$%-5A/ 01/79,,7/$"0%:/-C5/R0"5%/10,9/%/J#0A+*%:/ i5R5,,5#.P/ 7J5$#7/ 5-*M/ / RC*C/ $#5/ (5%:/ C$%A*#$1-7P/-C5/C0"57-$./*0""--55/*0+,A/ J,$*5A/ %/ -C5/ $#-/ :$,,5#./ 10#/ 7$,5M/ 8C5/ %0-/ :5-/ $/ ,0*$,/ R-C/ -C5/ %5*577$#./ 79,,7/ -0/ R0"5%/-00/*0%-#(+-5/%/-C5#/0R%/R$./(./ 0J5#$-5/-C5/C$%A*#$1-]70+45%#/7C0JM/ 75,,%:/#51#57C"5%-7/$-/-C5/47-0#7/*5%-#5M// A%L02.(1%,:(%2-)#*)(. 2&+3(G+,$10 2-%&R(%$,*82-L%&#0:1 [:&%,-.%,:&(Q,S&1%#Q A++(9"B"#h, ;&+Y1#,3 [7#:2L2-,*%S0*&0:(%,:( )&**+#,-. D3&$+F-,&# +:#.0S(. U#K(-%1(** `&&$(_(/1Y13"E1 :(Q:(1RK(-&1%,&%&R( )212&#:1%S(-&:( F2LN%DNW<%[S&2)2&2(1%S,::2(.%#0&%7;%b080%c,*,-Z2%3#KK0-2&;26
  • 37. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3 NJ( 8$1#-,C.(23",#,#E(711$0 / W%/ -C5/ ,$7-/ 01/ -C5/ 75#57/ 01/ R0#97C0J7P/ -C5/ *0""+%-./7C0+,A/A5%-1./-C5/:$J7/%/-C5#/ 9%0R,5A:5/ $%A/ 79,,7M/ @+(75k+5%-,.P/ -C7/ R,,/ J#04A5/ -C5/ ($77/ 10#/ -C5"/ -0/ A5%-1./ $A4$%*5A/R0#97C0J7M OJ( =1Y1B&H,#E((:#$()&#$+F-,#E(:$Y"#F1$( 23",#,#E(5&$+B10 / 2./-C5/-"5/-C5/*0""+%-./7/$-/5$75/R-C/-C5/ *0%*5J-/01/A5"$%A//$%A/7+JJ,./%/-0+#7"/ a$7/*0""+%*$-5A/-C#0+:C/-C5/J#5,"%$#./ R0#97C0J7bP/-C5./$#5/-C5%/#5$A./-0/(5/:45%/ "0#5/ 7-#+*-+#5A/ 5cJ07+#5/ $%A/ -#$%%:M/ W%/ 5775%*5P/ -C5/ $A4$%*5A/ -#$%%:/ 7C0+,A/ (5/ *0%A+*-5A/%/-C5/10#"/01/"0A+,57P/*045#%:/[:&%,-.%,:&(Q,S&1%:(*,&(.%&#%[7#:2L2-,*%S0*&0:(% $7J5*-7/7+*C/$7/f.21+*,;(.%,&%&R(%[:&%a,**(:;%#Q%b080%c,*,-Z2% (:(,K&2K(%U,*8 ;6GG<;2<=(2>:8787G( 54=6P<; @5#4*5/@9,,7 )0#5:% O$%:+$:57 W%-5#J#5-$-0%/$%A ;$#95-%: 2$7*/Q0"J+-5# d7-0# Q0""+%*$-0% 7-#$-5:57 @9,,7 ;$%$:5"5%- F2LN%DNC<%/0LL(1&(.%[.),-S(%5:,2-2-L%]#.0*(1 27
  • 38. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 _-Q#:K,&2#-%,7#0&%&R(%*#S,*%S01&#K1%,:(%.21+*,;(.% ,&%&R(%30*&0:,*%,-.%5#0:21K%"#01(%K,-,L(.%7;%&R(% 5,%9R2-%S#KK0-2&;28
  • 39. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &34?@%LB>%3,+,92&P%402*.2-I%D-)#*)2-I%&:(%5,%G:2-%3#;;0-2&PN$#-/01/-C5/*$J$*-./(+,A%:/J#0:#$""5/10#/-C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-./%*,+A57/-C5/5:C-/"0AU+,57/A57*#(5A/(5,0R/RC*C/$#5/A57:%5A/-0/5A+*$-5/$%A/A545,0J/,0*$,/*0""+%-./79,,7M/8C5/"0A+,57/$#5fU/ H0"57-$./$%A C%$((81 J#0A+*-/A545,0J"5%- D%$((81 )00A/@$15-. D%$((81 e+A%: )"H"F,-. I%$((8 /+,B$,#E HWd]!WD@/$R$#5%577 5&$+B10 @$%-$-0%/$%A I%$((8 ;$%-5%$%*5 I%$((8 )#7-/!A V%$((81 3%:,7C I%$((8 Q0%75#4$-0% F2LN%DN><%3,+,S2&;%402*.2-L%]#.0*(1%Q#:%5,%9R2-%d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k+5/*+,-+#5/$%A/-C5/10#"+,$-0%/01/$/*0A5/01/*0%A+*-/10#/47-0#7M/ 29
  • 40. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 "+$*2K%0 )AB>G%$4CI%7:>%U+;@@B:CAG 4?@%LBd>% A;%+;@@B:CAGV%$47C:C:? !",-.1%?-6%U++8#,9:>%/&0.P%52+1 !7/ 0JJ075A/ -0/ *,$77#00"/ ,5$#%%:P/ 7-+A./ -#J7/ -0/57-$(,7C5A/Q28/J#0i5*-7/$#5/"0#5/5115*-45/%/ 5cJ07%:/ -C5/ *0""+%-./ -0/ #5$,/ ,15/ 7-+$-0%7M/ W%/$AA-0%P/-/R,,/:45/-C5/0JJ0#-+%-./10#/-C5/ *0""+%-./ -0/ 5cJ5#5%*5/ -C5/ 155,%:/ 01/ (5%:/ 75#45A/ $%A/ -0/ (5/ i+A:5"5%-$,/ $(0+-/ -C5/ ,545,/ 01/75#4*5/$%A/C07J-$,-./$7/R5,,/$7/-C5/k+$,-./ X#S,*%S#KK0-2&;%.0:2-L%1&0.;%&:2+N% 01/-C5/-0+#7-/5cJ5#5%*5/(5%:/0115#5A/-0/-C5"M/ /#0:S(<%]21#$,*,2%"#K(1&,;%=be9JX@Y%V??E 8C7/R,,/C5,J/-C5"/+%A5#7-$%A/-C$-/:+57-7/*$%/ (5/A5"$%A%:P/1+77./$%A/5cJ5*-/-C5/(57-/A+#%:/ W%/ -C5/ 75*0%A/ JC$75/ 01/ -C5/ *$J$*-./ -C5#/ 7-$.M/ @+*C/ 4$,+$(,5/ ,5770%7/ ,5$#%5A/ 1#0"/ (+,A%:/ J#0:#$""5/ $-/ ;70R$,$/ -C575/ -#J7/ R,,/ C5,J/ -C5/ *0""+%-./ %/ *0"%:/ H0"57-$.P/ ;3@QV8/ :#0+J/ 0#:$%75A/ 0+-/ R-C/ %5R/ A5$7/ -0/ 5%C$%*5/ -C5#/ J#0A+*-P/ 7-+A./ -#J7/ -0/ 1+#-C5#/ 5cJ075/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ -0+#7-/5cJ5#5%*5/$%A/75#4*5/k+$,-.M *0""+%-57/ 0%/ -C5/ #5$,-57/ 01/ Q28M/ W-/ 7/ $,70/ $/ :00A/ J,$-10#"/ 10#/ %5-R0#9%:P/ gQ0""+%-./ -0/ *0""+%-.h/ -#$%%:/ 7/ 0%,./ 7C$#%:/01/5cJ5#5%*57/$%A/5c*C$%:%:/01/ $JJ,*$(,5/ 10#/ 7-+A./ -#J7/ (./ $/ J$#-*+,$#/ 5-C%*/ A5$7M/8C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-./47-5A/4$#0+7/ "%0#-./-0/$%0-C5#/*0""+%-./(5,0%:%:/-0/-C5/ 5*0-0+#7"/ 7-57P/ -0+#7-/ $--#$*-0%7/ $%A/ 7$"5/5-C%*-./(+-/R-C/$/,0%:/5cJ5#5%*5/%/Q28M/ -0+#7-/1$*,-57/$#0+%A/-C5/@-$-5/01/@$($C/ !7/0(75#45AP/-C5/7J#-/01/*$"$#$A5#5/7/7-#0%:5#/ $%A/ @$#$R$9/ 7+*C/ $7/ ;-M/ I%$($,+P/ %/ 7+*C/ -#$%%:/ J#0:#$""5/ $%A/ ,$%:+$:5/ $%A/ D$%+"/ d$,,5.P/ e+$/ ;+,+/ @$#$R$9/ 5-*M/ O5770%7/,5$#%5A/1#0"/-C575/-#J7/%*,+A5f "+$*2K%L "$#95-%:/7-#$-5:57P/%-5#J#5-$-0%/$%A/ S;4@B=7AC;:%;6%$47C:C:?%Q7:B7= *0""+%*$-0%/#5k+#5"5%-7/$7/R5,,/$7/ "$%$:5"5%-/79,,7 80/ 5%7+#5/ -C$-/ -#$%%:/ 7/ *$##5A/ 0+-/ %/ $/ 7.7-5"$-*/ $%A/ *0%77-5%-/ "$%%5#P/ $/ -#$%%:/ "$%+$,/7C0+,A/(5/10#"+,$-5AM/8C7/7/5775%-$,/ -0+#%:/-0/J$#-*J$%-7 -0/ 5%7+#5/ -C5/ 7+7-$%$(,-./ 01/ Q28/ J#0i5*-7/ I1&%+R,1( 1#0"/ -C5/ J5#7J5*-45/ 01/ C+"$%/ #570+#*5/ @-+A./-#J7/-0/7+##0+%A%:/ $#5$7/R-C%/-C5/7-$-5 *$75/ 7-+A.M/ X-C/ -C5/ A0*+"5%-$-0%/ 01/ -C5/ ;-+$. -#$%%:/ "0A+,57/ $%A/ %7-#+*-0%7/ 5-*M/ %/ -C5/ 23,H0 @-+A./-#J7/-0/0-C5#/7-$-57 "$%+$,P/$,-C0+:C/-C5/"$%$:5"5%-/*0""--55/ 0#/045#75$7 $%A/ -#$%5#7/ "$./ *C$%:5/ %/ -C5/ 1+-+#5/ (+-/ V-.%+R,1( -C5/ -#$%%:/ 7-#+*-+#5/ $%A/ 7.7-5"/ R,,/ #5"$%/ F2LN%DNA<%5;+(1%#Q%/&0.;%5:2+1 %-$*-M30
  • 41. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3D;49FE55A%0M&%*:W5:A;4G%;6%A;B4CF@%45F;B485F8C5/10,,0R%:/7/$%/5c$"J,5/01/$/#570+#*5/%45%-0#./1#0"f 8.J57/01/570+#*5 [$"5/01 O0*$-0% 570+#*5 N$#9][$-+#$,/!#5$7 O$95 45# X$-5#1$,,7 [$-+#$, @C0#5,%57 !#5$7 )0#57-7 80J0:#$JC. d5:5-$-0% d5R 6%k+5/O$%A7*$J5 ;+75+" e$,,5#57 8C5$-#57 )57-4$,7]8#$A-0%$,/345%-7 !#-7$% Q+,-+#$, O0*$,/)00A570+#*57 8#$A-0%$,/O157-.,5 V-C5#/5%-5#-$%5#7f/7%:5#P/ "+7*$%P/ 7-0#.-5,,5#7/5-*M O0A:%:]/!**0""0A$-0% 57-$+#$%-]/)00A/@-$,, d7-0# @0+45%#/@C0J7/ 1$*,-57]/ 80+#7-/W%10#"$-0%/Q5%-#5 75#4*57 N+(,*/80,5- Q+,-+#$,/Q5%-#5 @:%(0$#A]/@:%$:5Y#8%;#8(%8(C(8(-9(1J%+*(,1(%)212&%&:(%C#**#$2-I%$(=12&(1>[/ W%45%-0#.MJA1/ 70+#*57W%45%-0#.TMJA1 31
  • 42. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 / D0*+"5%-7]3@8oT?T??GoT?;$#95-%:oT?X@oT?5J0#-MJA1 JA1 )B@@74G%;6%)A5I%0 "+$*2K%&%+2K.-+$%!#/R*Q*K"#1%D2#O)32!)%%%%%%%$*+O ]4>A;!4D(I([(8$1#-,C.,#E(H&-1#-,"B(-&+3,0*("F-,Y,-,10 -&(%1($1Y1B&H1$("#$(H3&*&-1$ $M/ D7*+77/$%A/A5%-1./-C5/$4$,$(,5/#570+#*57/$%A / $*-4-57/ (M/ 34$,+$-5/-C5/5c7-%:/#570+#*57/$%A/#$%9/-C5"/ *M/ @5,5*-/-C5/-0J/G/j/=?/$--#$*-0%7]$*-4-57/-0/A545,0J/ ]4>A;!4D(K([(=1Y1B&H,#E(B,#"E10(Q,-@(0+33&+#$,#E( -&+3,0*("--3"F-,&#0 $M/ WA5%-1./-C5/7+##0+%A%:/#570+#*57/ (M/ Q$##./0+-/$%/%45%-0#./01/7+##0+%A%:/#570+#*57 /////a,0*$-0%]A7-$%*5]+%k+5%577]JC.7*$,/$%A/5-*Mb/ *M/ D545,0J/*0##A0#7/$%A/J$*9$:57/ ]4>A;!4D(M([(43E"#,0,#E(Q&30@&H(&#(,#Y&BY1*1#- &C($,CC131#-(01F-&30(&C(F&**+#,-. $M/ WA5%-1./-C5/-.J57/01/*0%-#(+-0%/a5M:M/75#4*57] / 5%-#5J#5%5+#7CJ/$%A/5-*Mb/ ]4>A;!4D(N([(8$1#-,C.(-3",#,#E(#11$0/ $M/ WA5%-1./-C5/:$J7/%/-5#"/01/-C5/9%0R,5A:5/$%A/79,,7/ (M/ D5-5#"%5/-C5/-#$%%:/%55A7/10#/5$*C/75*-0%/01 / *0""+%-./a5M:M/R0"5%]/.0+-C]:+A57/$%A/5-*Mb//32
  • 43. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3]4>A;!4D(O([(=1Y1B&H,#E("#$(F&#$+F-,#E(-3",#,#E*&$+B10(*M/ D5-5#"%5/-C5/-#$%%:/"5-C0A/a-C50#.]/C$%A7/0%b/AM/D5-5#"%5/-C5//*0%-5%-/01/"0A+,57/"+$*2K%0%)$-.1%$#*!)%"K.%U+2QQ-K*$1%%% %%%%$*+O$2%+2QQ-K*$1V%$#"*K*K,$M//80/5cJ075/*0""+%-./-0/#5$,/,15/7-+$-0%(M/ 80/5%C$%*5/-C5/J#0A+*-0%P/-0+#7-/5cJ5#5%*5/$%A/ 75#4*5/k+$,-."+$*2K%L%S2#Q-R"$*2K%2S%$#"*K*K,%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%$*+OQ"K-"R$M/ 80/5%7+#5//-#$%%:7/*$##5A/0+-/%/$/7.7-5"$-*/$%A/ *0%77-5%-/"$%%5#(M/D0*+"5%-$-0%/01/-C5/-#$%%:/"0A+,57/$%A/%7-#+*-0%7*M/)0#"+,$-5/-C5/-#$%%:/"$%+$, 33
  • 44. 5R(%)212&#:%S(-&:(%,&%/&N%f,S#71%3#0-&;%$,1%1(&%0+%&#%(.0S,&(%)212&#:1%,7#0&%&R(%](--#-2&(%S#KBK0-2&;N
  • 45. Handbook on Community Based Tourism
  • 46. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 )A5I%L 8C5/ 7+**577/ 01/ Q28/ J#0i5*-7/ 7/ 5775%-$,,./ A5J5%A5%-/ 0%/ ,5$A5#7CJ/ $%A/ 0#:$%7$-0%M/ e045#%"5%-/ $:5%*57/ * > 5 : A C 6 G % 7 : > % / F A 7 J = C F E% 0#/ [eV7/ 01-5%/ $*-/ $7/ -C5/ J#0i5*-/ %-$-0#/ (+-/ -C5/ ,0%:/ -5#"/ 4$(,-./ 01/ 7+*C/ J#0i5*-7/ A5J5%A7/ 0%/ -C5/ 75%75/ 01/ R 5 7 > 5 4 F E C I % X % R ; 8 7 =% 0R%5#7CJ/$%A/(+./%/1#0"/-C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-.M/Q5%-#$,/ +E7 @ I C; : -0/ -C5/ *0%-%+0+7/ 7+JJ0#-/ 1#0"/ -C5/ *0""+%-./ 7/ -C5/ J#575%*5/01/$/7-#0%:/,5$A5#/RC0/*0""$%A7/#57J5*-M 8C5/ ,5$A5#/ *$%/ (5/ $/ :045#%"5%-/ $JJ0%-5A/ J#0i5*-/ "$%$:5#P/ $/ A5A*$-5A/ 40,+%-55#/ C#5A/ (./ $%/ [eV/0#/$/75,1/$JJ0%-5A/7J0957J5#70%/10#/-C5/*0""+%-.M/W%/-C7/,:C-P/-C5/i0(/--,5/0#/A57:%$-0%/ 01/-C5/,5$A5#/7/%0-/"J0#-$%-/*0"J$#5A/-0/C7]C5#/*0""-"5%-P/A5A*$-0%/$%A/J$770%/10#/-C5/i0(M/ 80/(5/5c$*-P/-C5/,5$A5#/7C0+,A/(5/-5#"5A/$7/-C5/,0*$,/*C$"J0%P/$%A/-C5/"$i0#-./01/-C5/*$75/7-+A57/ 1#0"/0+-7A5P/$,(5-/C$4%:/7-$.5A/%/-C5/$#5$/10#/$/*0%7A5#$(,5/,5%:-C/01/-"5M !7/54A5%-/%/-C5/*$75/7-+A57P/-C5/B&F"B(F@"*H,&#/C$7/-0/C$45/"$%./J07-45/k+$,-57/(+-/-C5/*&0-( 1001#-,"B(H3131e+,0,-1(,0(-@1("%,B,-.(-&(E"BY"#,01("#$(-3"#0C&3*(-@1(F&**+#,-.J/8C5./7C0+,A/$,70/ (5/ #79/ -$95#7/ (+-/ 0%,./ $1-5#/ :$+:%:/ -C5/ 5*0%0"*/ $%A/ 70*$,/ 4$(,-./ 01/ -C5/ J#0i5*-M/ 8C5/ 0-C5#/ k+$,-57/-C$-/$/,0*$,/*C$"J0%/7C0+,A/C$45/$#5/$7/10,,0R7f/36
  • 47. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3:( B&F"B( F@"*H,&#( %311$0( B&F"B( F@"*H,&#0J/ H5%*5/ -/ 7/ $,70/ "J0#-$%-/ -C$-/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ *C$"J0%/7/ :45%/ -C5/ 1#55A0"/ -0/ A5%-1./ $%A/ -#$%/ C7]C5#/ 7+**5770#/ 0#/ $/ -5$"/ 01/ ,0*$,/ *C$"J0%7M/ 8C5/I$90+#$/*$75/7-+A./A5"0%7-#$-57/-C5/*#+*$,/#0,5/01/,0*$,/*C$"J0%7/%/-C5/10#"$-45/.5$#7/01/Q28/J#0i5*-7P/10,,0R5A/(./-C5/(#-C/01/$/75*0%A/-5#/01/,0*$,/*C$"J0%7/$7/-C5/J#0i5*-/"$-+#57M 4?@%TBA>% 42**%/#*#;#-%,-.%"21%M:,*(1 W%/ =K<^P/ $/ ,0*$,/ ;$0#/ ,5$A5#/ $-/ I$90+#$P/ %A+7-#./ $%A/ #$,R$./ 75#4*57/ -C$-/ C$A/ 10#/ A5*$A57/ J#04A5A/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ *0""+%-./ R-C/ i0(7/R5#5/$-/-C5/J0%-/01/*0,,$J75M/!-/-C5/-"5/ RC5%/ R,A,15/ -0+#7"/ R$7/ +%C5$#A/ 01P/ 2,,/ J#0J075A/ -C5/ %045,/ A5$/ 01/ J+#*C$7%:/ (0$-7/ -0/ (5/ +75A/ -0/ -#$%7J0#-/ -0+#7-7/ 0%/ RC$,5/ R$-*C%:/-#J7/011/-C5/*0$7-/01/I$90+#$M/@%*5/ 5R(%*,&(%42**%/#*#K#- $777-$%*5/0#/*#5A-/1$*,-.P/2,,/C$A/-0/*0%4%*5/ Z/ 0-C5#/ 5,A5#7/ -0/ "0#-:$:5/ -C5#/ C0"57/ -0/ 8C5/Z/5,A5#7/-009/RC$-/R$7/-C5%/*0%7A5#5A/$7/ $/"$i0#/#79/(5*$+75/01/-C5#/#57J5*-/$%A/-#+7-/%/ RC$,5/R$-*C%:/%A+7-#./:#5R/1#0"/7-#5%:-C/ -0/7-#5%:-C/$%A/-0A$./I$90+#$/$--#$*-7/$(0+-/ =>?P???/ -0+#7-7/ $%%+$,,.P/ RC*C/ 7/ %0/ 7"$,,/ 15$-/ 10#/ $/ -0R%/ 01/ >???/ J50J,5M/ 2,,/ @0,0"0%/ R$7/ $/ -#+5/ 470%$#./ RC0/ *0+,A/ $%-*J$-5/ -C5/*C$%:57/%/-0+#7-/A5"$%A/R5,,/(510#5/-C5/ *0%*5J-/ 01/ R,A,15/ -0+#7"/ R$7/ 5cJ$%A5A/ -0/ %*,+A5/"$#%5/R,A,15M/W%/-C5/A545,0J"5%-/01/ Q28/$-/I$90+#$P/2,,/J,$.5A/$/*#+*$,/#0,5/$7/ $/-#+5/,0*$,/*C$"J0%/$%A/C$A/$,70/"$%$:5A/ -0/ %+#-+#5/ $/ 75*0%A/ ,%5/ 01/ ,0*$,/ *C$"J0%7/ (510#5/J$77%:/0%M 37
  • 48. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 4?@%TBL>% 7#P%_2=1#-%,-.%"21%8(,;&2;(%M,*R1 ^#;%a271#-Y%1(S#-.%Q:#K%:2LR&Y%$2&R%R21%Q(**#$% L02.(1%Q:#K%b080%c,*,-Z2%:(,K&2K(%U,*81 O0*$,/ *C$"J0%/ 0./ e(70%/ 7/ $%/ 3,A5#/ 01/ -C5/ ;077"$%/ e0#:5/ !(0#:%$,/ Q0""+%-.M/ H5/ *0+,A/10#5755/-C5/J0-5%-$,/01/-C5/-0+#7"/%A+7-#./$7/$/%*0"5/70+#*5/-0/-C5/*0""+%-./$%A//C7/ %A+*-0%/%-0/-C5/-0+#7"/%A+7-#./R$7/(./75--%:/+J/$/7"$,,/7-$,,/-0/75,,/*0*0%+-/A#%97/-0//-0+#7-7/ RC0/J$775A/(./C7/,0*$,/*0""+%-.//0%/-C5#/R$./-0/-C5/;077"$%/e0#:5/N$#9/%/-C5/5$#,./=K<?E7M/ / $%:5#7/1#0"/-C5/:045#%"5%-/$:5%*./+75A/-0/C#5/0./$%A/C7/1#5%A7/-0/(5/-C5#/:+A5/-0/5%-5#/ -C5/#$%10#57-M/!1-5#/(5%:/"J#5775A/(./-C5#/$(,-.P/-C5/#$%:5#7/7+::57-5A/-C$-/-C5./*0%A+*-/-C5/ R$,9%:/-0+#7/%/-C5/#$%10#57-/$7/$/10#"/01/-0+#7"/$*-4-.M/W%/=K<LP/0./$%A/C7/1#5%A7/(+,-/-C5/ R$,9%:/-#$*97/+7%:/-C5#/0R%/"0%5.M/8C5./$,70/+75A/-C5#/7$4%:7/$%A/R0#95A/R-C0+-/:5--%:/ $%./7$,$#.M/e#$A+$,,./:045#%"5%-/$:5%*57/*$"5/%/-0/J#04A5/"$*C%5#./-0/7+JJ0#-/-C5#/5110#-M/ / ,0*$,/#57A5%-7P/RC0/C$%A,5A/-C5/"$%$:5"5%-/$7J5*-/01/-C5/(+7%577M//W%/$AA-0%/-0/-C5/R$,9%:/ -0+#7P/-C5/"$%$:5"5%-/-5$"/(#0+:C-/$#-51$*-7/1#0"/-C5/%5$#(./*0""+%-./-0/75,,/-0/-0+#7-7M/ !1-5#/70"5/-"5P/-C5/;077"$%/e0#:5/*0""+%-./7-$#-5A/-0/J#0A+*5/-C5#/0R%/$#-7/$%A/$#-51$*-7/ -0/75,,M/8C5/*+##5%-/-0-$,/-0+#7-/$##4$,7/$#5/KP???M/8,,/-0A$.P/0./e(70%/7-,,/*0%-#(+-57/-0/-C5/ D#5$"-"5/X$,97/$7/$/80+#/e+A5/$%A/7C$#57/C7/>?/.5$#7/01/5cJ5#5%*5/R-C/-0+#7-7M/H5/7/$,70/ -C5/*+##5%-/*C$#"$%/01/-C5/2$"$%:$/2+(+/[:$A"+%9+/W%*M )B@@74G%;6%)A5I%L / "+$*2K%&%*./K$*S1%R2+"R%+3"Q!*2K% % %%%%$*+O $M//d70%$#. (M//e00A/Q0""+%*$-0% *M/ D7*J,%5A AM/N#0$*-45 5M/ W%%04$-45 1M/ @5%7(,5 :M/ N$-5%- CM/8#+7-R0#-C. M/ Q0+#$:50+7 iM/ [545#/7$./A5/$---+A5 9M/ D5A*$-0% ,M/ Q0""-"5%- /01%2013%13431356378%9:3;73%<=7=>%>?3%40::0@=5A%@3B7=>37CD C--Jf]]RRRM7%4R0#,AP0#:]5%]D0*+"5%-7]I%0R,5A:5oT? N+(,*$-0%7]Q$75oT?QC5J$%:oT?*0""+%-.oT?5cJ5#5%*5MJA138
  • 49. Handbook on Community Based Tourism
  •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i5*-7/"$-+#57 F2LN%WNI<%5R(%S#K+#-(-&1%#Q%/&(+%W !-/-C7/i+%*-+#5P/-C5/,5$A5#/0#/,0*$,/*C$"J0%/7C0+,A/$--5"J-/-0/57-$(,7C/$/*0""+%-./0#:$%7$-0%/ -C$-/7/*$J$(,5/01/J,$%%%:P/0J5#$-%:/$%A/J#0"0-%:/Q28/J#0i5*-7M/e45%/-C$-/g(+./%h/1#0"/-C5/ *0""+%-./7/5775%-$,P/-C5/*0""+%-./0#:$%7$-0%/7C0+,A/%*,+A5/545#./75*-0%/01/-C5/*0""+%-./ 57J5*$,,./-C5/R0"5%/$%A/.0+-C7M Q28/J#0i5*-7/R,,/:0/-C#0+:C/$/,15/*.*,5/-C$-/"$./%*,+A5/$/A5*,%5/JC$75/7C0+,A/-C5/,5$A5#7CJ/ $%A/0#:$%7$-0%/1$,/-0/#5%45%-/-C5/5c7-%:/J#0A+*-/0%*5/-/540,457/$%A/"$-+#57M/8C5/540,4%:/ 7-$:57/%/-C5/J#0A+*-/*.*,5/01/Q28/J#0i5*-7/#5k+#5/A115#5%-/0#:$%7$-0%/7-#+*-+#57f ^(Z0)(-,&2#- )$",/%&%+;@@B:CAG%24?7:CF7AC;:%*:% : *:CAC7=%!E7F5%26%+($%Z%.47<C:?%);=5=G%S4;@% )>828):P(>:7G<(4` / /&,L-,&2#- <P<5<72;(4`():D:)829 $E5%$7=5:AF%DCAEC:%$E5%R;87=%+;@@B:CAG ) 3#-1#*2.,&2#- = K0;=(8%#C W%/ "07-/ 01/ -C5/ *$75/ 7-+A57P/ -C5/ *0""+%-./ 5#0821&1 (S*2-( 0#:$%7$-0%/R$7/%-$,,./"$A5/+J/01/-$,5%-5A/ ()(*#+K(-& $%A/ *0""--5A/ %A4A+$,7/ 1#0"/ R-C%/ -C5/ *0""+%-.M/e45%/-C5/40,+%-$#./%$-+#5/01/-C5#/ _-)#*)(K(-& %40,45"5%-P/C$4%:/$/J$770%/10#/-C5/i0(/$%A/ JG+*#:,&2#- -C5/A57#5/-0/75#45/$#5/-C5/T/"J0#-$%-/k+$,-57/ 52K( F2LN%WNV<%5R(%5#0:21&%[:(,%X2Q(%3;S*(%3#-S(+&%=40&*(:Y%ITE?@40
  • 51. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0- %1 2 &34 _-2&2,&#: `"*,B.(6$h&C0R/ #5k+#5A/ -0/ 0J5#$-5/ $/ 7+**5771+,/ -0+#7"/ /&,8(R#*.(:1(+7%577/R5#5/,$*9%:/(+-/-C575/7C0#-*0"%:7/ ;"+#E )&**+#,-.(&C /,0-L%[-L8*0-L%.Z#R5#5/ 01-5%/ *0"J5%7$-5A/ (./ -C5#/ A#45/ $%A/ ],-,L(K(-&%5(,K :#EB+#E(6$h& D"$"0+"(g,BB"E1A5A*$-0%M/ ;0#5045#P/ -C5/ %$-+#5/ 01/ -C5/ Q28/ [S&2)2&2(1%g%F,S2*2&2(1 9:#)2.(.(+7%577/ %/ -C5/ %-$,/ 7-$:57/ R$7/ 7"$,,/ 7*$,5/$%A/C5%*5P/AA/%0-/#5k+#5/:#5$-/5cJ5#-75M [:& 4,-h0(& /#0)(-2: [S,.(K; 4,K7##%[:&%g% +(:Q#:K,-S( /R#+ 3:,Q&%+:#.0S&2#- a0(1&%"#01(;2:G<(K[()&**+#,-.(43E"#,0"-,&#(:0()/2( d(-0(D3&h1F-(5"-+310(X(;11,#E(D3&C100,&#"B(!1BH( F##.%g 4()(:,L(/ F2LN%WND<%`($%e:L,-21,&2#-%3R,:&%Q#:%/[!7/ Q28/ J#0i5*-7/ "$-+#5A/ $%A/ 545%/ (5*$"5/ 7+*%13(&C 2&+3,0-0J$#-/ 01/ "$%7-#5$"/ -0+#7"/ a$7/ %/ I$90+#$/$%A/ @$+%:/ !%:9,+%:/ 6Ai0bP/ -C5/ (+7%577/ `0K7(:%#Q%&#0:21&1 2-S:(,1(.%0+%&#%E>YWEDA"5%70%7/ $%A/ #5,$-0%7CJ7/ R-C/ 0-C5#/ 2-%V??EY%,-%2-S:(,1(%#Q C?i%Q:#K%V??>7-$95C0,A5#7/%/-C5/%A+7-#./$,70/(5*$"5/"0#5/ 3#-1#*2.,&2#- ^(Z0)(-,&2#-*0"J,5cM/)+#-C5#"0#5P/-C5/A57-%$-0%]4,,$:5/ (S*2-( ()(*#+K(-&%54-$(,./ $--#$*-5A/ $/ "0#5/ A45#75/ "$#95-/ 5:,-12&2#-%+(:2#.%Q:#K _-)#*)(K(-& Q,K2*;%#:2(-&(.%&#75:"5%-7P/5$*C/R-C/A115#5%-/%55A7M// JG+*#:,&2#- 7012-(11%#:2(-&(.%345 IUVV IUUU KTTW((2,*1 _-2&2,&(.%7;%9,8 `0K7(:%#Q%&#0:21&1%.:,1&2S,**;% .(S*2-(%#Q%&#%IIY%EIA%2-%ITTT;0#5/ 01-5%/ -C$%/ %0-P/ -C5/ 40,+%-55#/ ($75A/ .Z#%g%F,K2*;0#:$%7$-0%/R5#5/%0-///$(,5/-0/*0J5/R-C/-C575/ F2LN%WNW<%`0K7(:%#Q%5#0:21&%[::2),*1%Q#:%/[Y%ITAA%B%V??E*C$%:57P/ RC*C/ ,5A/ -0/ -C5/ #5A+*-0%/ %/ -C5/k+$,-./01/-C5/-0+#7-/5cJ5#5%*5P/RC*C/%/-+#%P/ "M%#;=5F%;6%+($%24?7:CF7AC;:%#57+,-5A/ %/ $/ A#$7-*/ A#0J/ %/ -0+#7-/ $##4$,7/a@$+%:/!%:9,+%:/6Ai0bM IJ(( <*H&Q13,#E(]&*1#(:#$(9&+-@0(W%/ -C5/ *$75/ 01/ @$+%:/ !%:9,+%:/ 6Ai0P/ -C5/ / 8C5/*0""+%-./0#:$%7$-0%/-C$-/0J5#$-57/1$",.U0J5#$-0#/ A5*A5A/ -0/ -$95/ -C5/ #$A*$,/ -C5/Q28/J#0i5*-/7C0+,A/(5/$(,5/-0/5"J0R5#/7-5J/01/7559%:/J#015770%$,/C5,JP/%/-C5/10#"/01/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ R0"5%/ $%A/ .0+-C7/ (./ *#5$-%:/C#%:/$/D#5*-0#/01/VJ5#$-0%7/RC0/"$%$:5A/-0/-+#%/$#0+%A/-C5/(+7%577/0J5#$-0%/R-C0+-/ 7C0+,A/ (5/ ($75A/ 0%/ -C5/ -$,5%-7/ $4$,$(,5M/a):MZM>bM/ ;07-/ Q28/ J#0i5*-7/ $#5/ ,95,./ -0/ :0/ W%/ "07-/ 01/ -C5/ *$75/ 7-+A57P/ ,0*$,/ .0+-C7/-C#0+:C/ -C5/ 7$"5/ ,15/ *.*,5/ $%A/ -C5#/ ,0%:/ $#5/ 7+-5A/ 10#/ -C5/ #0,5/ 01/ :+A57P/ (0$-"5%/-5#"/ 4$(,-./ R,,/ (5/ $115*-5A/ 1/ -C5/ #0,5/ 01/ $%A/ *+,-+#$,/ J5#10#"5#7M/ ;5$%RC,5/ -C5/J#015770%$,7/7/%0-/#5*0:%75A/$7/$%/5775%-$,/ ,0*$,/R0"5%/$#5/01-5%/5%-#+7-5A/-0/C$%A,5/"5"(5#/01/-C5/0#:$%7$-0%M *0""+%-./ 15$7-7P/ C0+75955J%:/ $%A/ -C5/ J#0A+*-0%/01/C$%A*#$1-7M 41
  • 52. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 4?@%XBA>% a1h+X$&(;-"-1(G&Y13#*1#- E;+#$(82-I%&:(%M#;(- ;1&+#E+1H(`&B ,-.%c#0&:1%,&%/(#-I(0+ g,BB"E1(:00&F,"-,&# Y#*R%H2**,I(J%e(W0 % S#KK0-2&; $2&R2-%&R(%)2**,L( ]&*1#f0(:00&F,"-,&# 9&+-@(:00&F,"-,&# 4B$13(D130&#f0( 4B$10-(D130&#f0( :00&F,"-,&# :00&F,"-,&# S*(,-*2-(11%,-.% +:#L:,KK(%+*,--2-L #)(:1((2-L%&R(%)2**,L( 2.(-&2Q;2-L%)2**,L(% K,2-&(-,-S( 2110(1 % =)2**,L(%1(S0:2&;@ +*,--2-L%+:#L:,KK(%Q#:% &R(%+:(1(-&,&2#-%#Q%&R(% &R(%)2**,L(%=R(:2&,L(%,-.% .21S011%&R(%%2110(1 )2**,L( &#0:21K%,1+(S&1@ 0&2*21,&2#-%#Q% L#)(:-K(-&%Q0-.1 _-)#*)(.%2- 10SR%,1%R(:2&,L(% 5#0:21K%2-.01&:;%O%,S&2)2&2(1 +:(1(-&,&2#- F2LN%WNC<%JK+#$(:2-L%&R(%$#K(-%,-.%;#0&R1%#Q%/(#-L0+%F#*8%d2**,L(Y%f(Z0 $770*$-0%7/ 10#/ R0"5%/ $%A/ .0+-C7M/ 8C575/ $770*$-0%7/R,,/:45/40*5/-0/-C5/*0""+%-.P/ $%A/5%7+#5/-C$-/-C5#/45R7/$%A/A5$7/$#5/(5%:/ *0%7A5#5A/%/-C5/J,$%%%:/$%A/0J5#$-0%/01/ Q28M//8C5/X0"5%E7/!770*$-0%/7/#57J0%7(,5/ 10#/ -C5/ 045#$,,/ 4,,$:5/ *,5$%,%577/ $%A/ "$%-5%$%*5M/8C7/:#0+J/"$957/95./A5*70%7/ #5,$-5A/ -0/ -C5/ J#575%-$-0%/ 01/ -C5/ 4,,$:5/ $7/ R5,,/ $7/ J,$.%:/ $%/ $A470#./ #0,5/ 0%/ -C5/ +-,7$-0%/ 01/ :045#%"5%-/ 1+%A7M/ 8C5/ `0+-C/ !770*$-0%/ 7/ #57J0%7(,5/ 10#/ J#0:#$""5/ J,$%%%:/ #5,$-5A/ -0/ *+,-+#$,/ J5#10#"$%*57P/ 045#$,,/ 75*+#-./ 01/ -C5/ 4,,$:5/ $%A/ $#5/ $,70/ (5%:/5"J,0.5A/$7/-0+#7-/:+A57M/8C575/-R0/ :#0+J7/ $#5/ $,70/ %40,45A/ %/ *#$1-/ 7$,57P/ 100A/ J#5J$#$-0%P/ $%A/ 5A+*$-0%$,/ J#0:#$""57/ 7+*C/$7/C5#-$:5/J#575%-$-0%7M/ XC,5/-C5#5/$#5/-C5//#5,$-45,./,"-5A/i0(/J#07J5*-7//10#/-C5/R0"5%/$%A/.0+-C7/%/-C5/%-$,/JC$75/01/ -C5/Q28/J#0i5*-P/5%-#5J#5%5+#7CJ/0JJ0#-+%-57/R,,/01-5%/(5/*#5$-5A/10#/-C5"/0%*5/-0+#7-/$##4$,7/ 5%-#5J#5%5+#7CJ/$"0%:/-C5/R0"5%/$%A/.0+-C7M/42
  • 53. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &34?@%XBL>%E;+#$(8;(-&%,-.%5,%G:2-b1%K($%_(-(8,&2#-%#C%M#;(-%E-&8(+8(-(081 2"(D@,#(g,BB"E1 )&**+#,-. [S&2)(%g%J,L(:%&# ^(1(:)(.%g%/R; +,:&2S2+,&(%2-%&#0:21K ,S&2)2&; 2,$*9/H"0%: 5A/D$0/3-C%* 3-C%* X0"5% !770*$-0% [S&2)2&2(1%#QQ(:(.%7; &R(%S#KK0-2&; Q+,-+#$, H0"57-$. D$0/@J$ e+A%: H0+75 F2LN%WN><%345%,-.%$#K,-%2-)#*)(K(-&%2-%5,%9R2-%d2**,L(8C5/R0"5%/%/8$/NC%/J,$.7/$%/$*-45/#0,5/%/-0+#7"M//8C7/C0"57-$./(./;A"M/O./;$./QC$%P/-C5/C5$A/01/5A/D$0/X0"5%/!770*$-0%/01/8$/NC%/d,,$:5M/;0#5045#P/$,,/-C5/0-C5#/C0"57-$.7/-C$-/10,,0R5A/7+-/R5#5/$,70/%-$-5A/(./R0"5%M/W%/$AA-0%P/"$%./.0+%:/,$A57/%/-C5/4,,$:5/$#5/%40,45A/%/-C5/:+A%:/J#015770%M/;5$%RC,5/-C5/"5%/%/-C5/4,,$:5/$#5/"0#5/%40,45A/%/$:#*+,-+#$,/$*-4-57/$%A/$#5/,577/955%/0%/-0+#7"M/8$/ NC%/ 4,,$:5/ C$7/ -R0/ "$i0#/ 5-C%*/ :#0+J7m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
  • 54. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 KJ( `&3*+B"-,#E(:()&**&#(g,0,&#(/+-( #5,$%*5/ 0%/ :045#%"5%-/ C$%A0+-7M/ XC,5/ >1"B,0-,F(2"3E1-0 -/7/-#+5/-C$-/-C5/"0#5/#5*5%-/Q28/J#0i5*-7/ -C$-/ R5#5/ %-$-5A/ (./ %-5#%$-0%$,/ [e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i5$,0+7./ / 15,-/ (./ -C5/ ,0*$,7M/ 80/ 7+#"75P/ %+#-+#%:/ $%/ $%-/ 75*-0%7/01/-C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-./$-/I$90+#$/ C$%A0+-/ "5%-$,-./ 7/ $%/ 5775%-$,/ -$79/ 10#/ RC5%/ -C5/ RC$,5/ R$-*C%:/ %A+7-#./ -C5#5/ -C5/0#:$%7$-0%/-0/+%A5#-$95/#:C-/1#0"/-C5/ R$7/ %/ -7/ %1$%*.P/ RC*C/ #57+,-5A/ %/ -C5/ (5:%%%:/ 01/ -C5/ Q28/ J#0i5*-/ -0/ 5%7+#5/ -7/ (+#%%:/01/-0+#7-/*0$*C57/a#515#/@-5J/T]20c/ 7+7-$%$(,-.M TM=bM ]2-2K0K%S#-&:270&2#-%#Q ^]%I??%O%1R,:(%0-2& A4D<P 5,0&Q"B", / H$4%:/10#"+,$-5A/-C5/*0""0%/470%P/-C5/ _-S#K( )&**+#,-. /&,8(R#*.(:1 0#:$%7$-0%/7C0+,A/-C5%/75-/#5$,7-*/-$#:5-7P/ `+#$,#E(C3&*(7G40i( JG+(-.2&0:( G&Y13#*1#-(:E1#F,10 -$9%:/ %-0/ *0%7A5#$-0%/ 1$*-0#7/ 7+*C/ $7/ 5,F3&()31$,-(i(P&"# 8#F&*1(C3&*(2&+3,0* -C5/ *0""+%-.E7/ ,545,/ 01/ 5A+*$-0%P/ 79,,7/ :F-,Y,-10 D13*"#1#-(i 7&#(X(H13*"#1#- 0-"CCf0(0"B"3. $%A/ -#$%%:/ :$J7M/ O0*$,/ 5cJ5*-$-0%7/ $#5/ !&*10-". 5",#-1#"#F1 01-5%/+%#5$,7-*$,,./C:C/R-C/-C5/$A45%-/01/ /&"- ;13Y,F10 -0+#7"/ a#515#/ @-5J/ =]20c/ =M=bP/ -C5#510#5/ -/ 2&+3,0-(`"F,B,-,10 =1Y1B&H*1#- )+B-+3"B 7/*#+*$,/-C$-/-C5/-$#:5-7/75-/$#5/"0A57-/$%A/ D13C&3*"#F1 %*#5"5%-$,/%/%$-+#5/$7/R5,,/$7/"5$7+#$(,5/ )"-13,#E ae+7/ $%A/ ;70R$,$bM/ W%/ $AA-0%P/ -C5/ G+,$,#E -$#:5-7/ 7C0+,A/ %0-/ 0%,./ %*,+A5/ "0%5-$#./ F2LN%WNA<%F2-,-S2,*%]#.(*%#Q%be9JX -0/X0#97C55-/ZM=f/H0R/-0/)0#"+,$-5/d70%bM MJ( 7+3-+3,#E(:#(:#-,(!"#$&+-(51#-"B,-. NJ( <0-"%B,0@,#E(:()&**+#,-.(`+#$ ( V%5/01/-C5/*0""0%/15$-+#57/$"0%:/-C5/*$75/ / !-/-C5/5$#,57-/-"5/J077(,5P/-C5/0#:$%7$-0%/ 7-+A57/ 7/ -C5#/ %A5J5%A5%*5/ $%A/ ,$*9/ 01/ 7C0+,A/75-/+J/$/*0""+%-./1+%A/-0/"$%$:5/44
  • 55. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3-C5/%*0"5/$%A/5cJ5%A-+#5/#5,$-5A/-0/-C5/Q28/J#0i5*-7M/8C7/7C0+,A/J#515#$(,./(5/%/-C5/10#"/01/$/#540,4%:/1+%A/%/RC*C/-C5/,0*$,7/*0+,A/$,70/0(-$%/ "*#0/*#5A-/$-/,0R/%-5#57-/-0/7-$#-/7"$,,/(+7%57757M/W%/$AA-0%P/$/7"$,,/J5#*5%-$:5/01/$%./%*0"5/A5#45A/1#0"/-0+#7"/J#0i5*-7/$%A/ $*-4-57/ 7C0+,A/ (5/ *C$%%5,,5A/ -0/ -C5/ *0""+%-./ 1+%A/ -0/ (5/ +75A/ 10#/ 70*0U5*0%0"*/4?@%XBT>%/,0-I%U-IR*0-I%V.W#b1%3#;;0-2&P%Y0-.RC0/$#5/"07-,./.0+-C7/$%A/*C,A#5%/1#0"/-C5/7+##0+%A%:/4,,$:57M/W%-5#57-5A/*$%AA$-57/C$45/-0/7-/10#/$%/5%-#$%*5/-57-/RC5#5/-C5#/$(,-./$%A/%-5#57-/%/"+7*/R,,/ (5/ -57-5AM/ 8C5/ J$#5%-7/ 01/ -C575/ *$%AA$-57/ R,,/ (5/ %-5#45R5A/ $7/ R5,,/ -0/ 9%0R/ -C5#/,545,/01/*0""-"5%-/-0/@!6M/8C7/7/-0/J#545%-/J$#5%-7/1#0"/75%A%:/-C5#/*C,A/i+7-/-0/5$#%/"0%5./ 1#0"/ -C5/ 7*C0,$#7CJ/ 7*C5"5M/ 8C5/ 7*C0,$#7CJ/ 7/ #545R5A/ ($75A/ 0%/ -C5/ 7-+A5%-E7/J5#10#"$%*5/$%A/$/J5#10#"$%*5/(0%+7/7/$,70/$R$#A5A/-0/5c*5,,5%-/7-+A5%-7M/8C5/7*C0,$#7CJ/R,,/(5/7J,-/%-0/<?fT?m/%/RC*C/T?o/R,,/(5/95J-/$7/7$4%:7/10#/-C5#/1+-+#5/$%A/<?o/R,,/(5/:45%/-0/-C5/J$#5%-7/10#/-C5#/*C,AE7/7*C00,%:/5cJ5%A-+#5M/@5%0#7/7-+A5%-7/$(045/=^/.5$#7/0,A/$#5/5%*0+#$:5A/-0/(5*0"5/-C5/*0%-#$*-/7-$11/01/@!6M/80A$.P/@!6/C$7/T<?/*0%-#$*-/7-$11M/8C#55/.5$#7/$:0P/-C5/$*$A5"./0%,./C$A/=>?/7-+A5%-7/RC*C/%*#5$75A/-0/GT</7-+A5%-7/%/T??<M ;"+#E(:#EB+#E(6$h&f0(:F"$1*. e-*;%&R#1(%Q:#K%V%&#%IA%;(,:1% _-&(:(1&(.%S,-.2.,&(1%R,)(% #*.%,:(%(*2L27*(%&#%&,8(%&R(% <#-3"#F1(210- &#%12&%Q#:%(-&:,-S(%&(1&N%5R(% (-&:,-S(%&(1& +,:(-&1%$2**%7(%2-&(:)2($(.% ,1%$(** [**%1&0.(-&%$2**%7(%#-% +:#7,&2#-%Q#:%D%K#-&R1%7(Q#:(% D3&%"-,&#()B"00 7(2-L%(-&2&*(.%Q#:%1SR#*,:1R2+ B+%0# ;5A+" 3cJ5#- J-&2&*(.%&#%^1N%C?Y???%O%$((8% J-&2&*(.%&#%^1N%A?Y???%O%$((8% J-&2&*(.%&#%^1N%I??Y???%B% #:%^1N%V??Y???%O%K#-&R%#Q% #:%^1N%VE?Y???%O%K#-&R%#Q% ^1N%IC?Y???%O%K#-&R%#Q% 1R#*,:1R2+ 1R#*,:1R2+ 1R#*,:1R2+ F2LN%WNE<%/[j1%[S,.(K;%/&:0S&0:( 45
  • 56. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 )7@I=5%;6%D;49FE55A% +*84(5665[ D;49FE55A%YM& S;4@B=7AC:?%7%+;@@;:%TCFC;: 2@1( C&BB&Q,#E( "31( 0&*1( e+10-,&#0( $10,E#1$( -&( @1BH( C&3*+B"-1( "( F&**&#(Y,0,&#(C&3(-@1()/2(&3E"#,0"-,&#[X( IJ( 6#$130-"#$(-@1(&3E"#,0"-,&# -M/3775%-$,/k+57-0%7/-0/(5/$%7R5#5A/%*,+A5/-C5/10,,0R%:f $M/ XC$-/7/-C5/J+#J075/01/-C5/0#:$%7$-0%P/RC./C$7/-/(55%/75-U +JY (M//XC$-/4$,+5/A057/-C5/0#:$%7$-0%/J#04A5/-0/70*5-.P/RC$-/$#5] R5#5/-C5/4$,+57/01/-C5/10+%A5#7Y *M/ XC$-/ 7/ -C5/ *C$#$*-5#/ 01/ -C5/ %A+7-#./ ,95/ %/ RC*C/ -C5/ :045#%"5%-/7+JJ0#-/,545,7 AM/ XC$-/A057/-/-$95/10#/-C5/0#:$%7$-0%/-0/(5/7+**5771+,Y 5M/ XC0/ $#5/ -C5/ *#-*$,/ 7-$95C0,A5#7/ a%7A5/ $%A/ 0+-7A5/ -C5/ 0#:$%7$-0%bY 1M/ XC$-/ $#5/ -C5/ %-5#57-7/ $%A/ 5cJ5*-$-0%7/ 01/ -C5/ A115#5%-/ 7-$95C0,A5#7Y )&#$+F-("(Y,0,&#("+$,- / 8C7/7-5J/%40,457/$77577%:/-C5/*+##5%-/A#5*-0%/$%A/"0"5%-+"/ 01/-C5/0#:$%7$-0%M/I5./k+57-0%7/-0/(5/$%7R5#5A/%*,+A5f $M/ D057/-C5/0#:$%7$-0%/$,#5$A./C$45/$/*,5$#,./7-$-5A/470%Y (M/ XC$-/7/-C5/0#:$%7$-0%E7/*+##5%-/A#5*-0%Y *M/ D0/ -C5/ 95./ ,5$A5#7/ 01/ -C5/ 0#:$%7$-0%/ 9%0R/ RC5#5/ -C5/ 0#:$%7$-0%/7/C5$A%:/$%A/$:#55/0%/-C5/A#5*-0%Y AM/ D0/ -C5/ 0#:$%7$-0%E7/ 7-#+*-+#57P/ J#0*57757P/ J5#70%%5,P/ %*5%-457P/ $%A/ %10#"$-0%/ 7.7-5"7/ 7+JJ0#-/ -C5/ *+##5%-/ A#5*-0%Y 2"3E1-(-@1(Y,0,&# / 8C7/7-5J/%40,457/7-$#-%:/-0/%$##0R/%/0%/$/470%M/@0"5/01/-C5/ 95./k+57-0%7/-C$-/7C0+,A/(5/$AA#5775A/A+#%:/-C7/7-5J/$#5/-C5/ 10,,0R%:f $M/ XC$-/$#5/-C5/(0+%A$#57/0#/*0%7-#$%-7/-0/-C5/470%Y (M//XC$-/*#-*$,/77+57/"+7-/(5/$AA#5775A/%/-C5/470%Y46
  • 57. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3;1-(-@1(Y,0,&#(F&#-1Z-/ 8C7/ 7/ RC5#5/ .0+/ ,009/ -0/ -C5/ 1+-+#5P/ $%A/ RC5#5/ -C5/ J#0*577/ 01/ 7/$/A57#$(,5/1+-+#5/10#/-C5/0#:$%7$-0%M/80/*#$1-/-C$-/470%/.0+/ ":C-/,009/,95M/ $M/ Q$-5:0#75/ 1+-+#5/ A545,0J"5%-7/ %/ -C5/ 5%4#0%"5%-/ RC*C/ ":C-/$115*-/.0+#/470%M (M/ O7-/.0+#/5cJ5*-$-0%7/10#/-C5/1+-+#5/%/5$*C/*$-5:0#.M *M/ D5-5#"%5/RC*C/01/-C575/5cJ5*-$-0%7/7/"07-/,95,./-0/0**+#M AM/ !77:%/$/J#0($(,-./01/0**+##5%*5/-0/5$*C/5cJ5*-$-0%M=1Y1B&H(C+-+31(0F1#"3,&0/ H$4%:/A5-5#"%5AP/$7/R5,,/$7/J077(,5P/-C075/5cJ5*-$-0%7/"07-/ ,95,./ -0/ 0**+#P/ $%A/ -C075/ R-C/ -C5/ "07-/ "J$*-/ 0%/ .0+#/ 470%P/ *0"(%5/-C075/5cJ5*-$-0%7/%-0/$/15R/(#51/7*5%$#07/-0/%*,+A5/ -C5/#$%:5/01/J077(,5/1+-+#57/.0+/$%-*J$-5M//G1#13"-1("B-13#"-,Y1(Y,0,&#0/ B+7-/$7/-C5#5/$#5/7545#$,/$,-5#%$-45/1+-+#57/10#/-C5/5%4#0%"5%-P/ -C5#5/ $#5/ 7545#$,/ A#5*-0%7/ -C5/ 0#:$%7$-0%/ ":C-/ -$95/ %/ -C5/ -C075/A115#5%-/A#5*-0%7M/D0/%0-/54$,+$-5/.0+#/J077(,5/470%7/ $-/-C7/J0%-P/(+-/+75/$/#5,$-45,./+%*0%7-#$%5A/$JJ#0$*CM// H5#5E7/-C5/A5*70%/J0%-/RC5#5/.0+/75,5*-/-C5/(57-/J077(,5/470%/ 10#/.0+#/0#:$%7$-0%M/80/A0/-C7/n $M/ )#7-/ ,009/ $-/ -C5/ J#0J5#-57/ 01/ $/ :00A/ 470%P/ $%A/ RC$-/ -/ -$957/ 10#/ $/ 470%/ -0/ 7+**55A/ a%*,+A%:/ *0%77-5%*./ R-C/ -C5/ 0#:$%7$-0%E7/*+,-+#5/$%A/4$,+57bM/ (M/ [5c-P/*0"J$#5/-C5/470%/.0+E45/:5%5#$-5A/R-C/-C5/$,-5#%$-45/ 7*5%$#07P/ $%A/ A5-5#"%5/ RC*C/ 01/ -C5/ J077(,5/ 470%7/ R,,/ $JJ,./-0/-C5/(#0$A57-/#$%:5/01/7*5%$#07M:00A/470%P/7/*0"J$-(,5/R-C/-C5/0#:$%7$-0%E7/*+,-+#5/$%A4$,+57P/$%A/$JJ,57/-0/$/(#0$A/#$%:5/01/$,-5#%$-45/7*5%$#07aJ077(,5/1+-+#57bM [.,+&(.%Q:#K%<%R&&+<OO$$$N2-&:,S(-N#:L%V??V 47
  • 58. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 )B@@74G%;6%)A5I%Y $2-#*)Q%!#2.-+$%+1+R/% % % %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%$*+O ;2:G<(I([()&**+#,-.(43E"#,0"-,&#(,#(8#,-,"B(D@"01 &C()/2 $M/ D#$R%:/70,5,./1#0"/-C5/-$,5%-7/R-C%/-C5/,0*$, / *0""+%-. ;2:G<(K([()&**+#,-.(43E"#,0"-,&#(:0()/2(D3&h1F- 5"-+310 / *0""+%-./7-#+*-+#5/ / *./K$*$1%#2R/)%2S%+($%2#,"K*)"$*2K% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%$*+O IJ( <*H&Q13,#E(Q&*1#("#$(.&+-@ *M/ D57:%$-0%/01/#0,57/$%A/-.J5/01/$*-4-57/01/5$*C / (+#5$+ KJ( `&3*+B"-,#E("(F&**&#(Y,0,&#(%+-(31"B,0-,F(-"3E1-0 $M/N#04A5/-C5/A#5*-0%/-0/:+A5/-C5/*0""+%-./ (M/W%10#"/-C5/,0*$,7/$(0+-/-C5/"J$*-/01/-0+#7" *M/ )0#"+,$-5A/-C5/*0""0%/470% <Z"*HB1(&C(F&**&#(Y,0,&# !&#%+8(1(8)(%&:(%0-2f0(%90*&08,*%:(82&,I(%#C%&:(%)2**,I(%=P 2;+*(;(-&2-I%&:(%,.,+&2)(%8(01(%#C%&8,.2&2#-,*%=02*.2-I1 9#;;0-2&P%1&809&08(J%),*0(1%,-.%*#9,*%$,P%#C%*2C(6B AM/@5-//#5$,7-*/-$#:5-7/a*0%7A5#/1$*-0#7/7+*C/$7/,545,/01 / 5A+*$-0%P/79,,7/$%A/-#$%%:/:$J7b MJ( 7+3-+3,#E("#("#-,(@"#$&+-(*1#-"B,-. $M/3%*0+#$:5/75,1/C5,J/75%75/01/0R%5#7CJ NJ( <0-"%B,0@,#E("(F&**+#,-.(C+#$ $M/@5-+J/-C5/*0""+%-./1+%A/a-0/"$%$:5/-C5/%*0"5 / l/5cJ5%A-+#5b (M/Q#5$-5//#540,4%:/1+%A/10#/*0""+%-./ *M/Q#5$-5/"*#0*#5A-/1$*,-57 Y#8%;#8(%8(C(8(-9(1J%+*(,1(%)212&%&:(%C#**#$2-I%$(=12&(>[48
  • 59. Handbook on Community Based Tourism
  • 60. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 !7/-C5/Q28/J#0i5*-/540,457/%-0/$/*0"J,5c/(+7%577/5%-5#J#75P/ )A5I% 5cJ$%A%:/-C5/-$#:5-/"$#95-/75:"5%-7/7/"J5#$-45M/!-/-C7/ . 5 W5 =;I % ! 7 4 A : 5 4 F E C I i+%*-+#5P/Q28/R0+,A/C$45/#5$*C5A/-C5/*#077#0$A7/%/RC*C/ -C5/%5c-/J$-C/7/-0/(+,A/0%/-7/*0"J5--45%577M/Q5%-#$,/-0/-7/ 5110#-7/%/5%C$%*%:/*0"J5--45%577/7/-C5/57-$(,7C"5%-/01/ J$#-%5#7CJ7/R-C/95./7-$95C0,A5#7M 5R(%+,:&-(:1R2+%S,-%&,8(%W%Q#:K1Y%-,K(*;< 80+#7" W%A+7-#. e045#%"5%- !:5%*57 D:>27<>;!8D [eV7 6%45#7-57 F2LN%CNI<%5R(%Q#:K1%#Q%+,:&-(:1R2+ &M%%!74A:54FECI%DCAE%K,2F% / N$#-%5#7CJ/ R-C/ %-5#%$-0%$,/ $%A/ ,0*$,/ [eV7/ R,,/ %*#5$75/ -C5/ *0""+%-.E7/ *$J$*-./ %/ +%A5#-$9%:/*0%75#4$-0%/J#0i5*-7/%/RC*C/-0+#7"/7/+75A/$7/-00,/a0#/"5$%7/-0/$%/5%AbM/)0#/ %7-$%*5P/-C5/Q$%$A$%/W%-5#%$-0%$,/D545,0J"5%-/!+-C0#-./aQWD!b/J#04A57/1+%A%:/10#/-C5/ Q28/J#0i5*-/%/8$/NC%P/R-C/-C5/$"/01/J#575#4%:/-C5/+%k+5/(+-/-C#5$-5%5A/*+,-+#5/01/-C5/5A/ D$0/5-C%*/*0""+%-.M/50
  • 61. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3 4?@%ZBA>% 3DU%,-.%345%.()(*#+;(-&%2-%5,%G:2-% I1&%;(,: 6;=(VOdTTT H2**,I( 6;=(UTdTTT V-.%;(,: 8C5/ Q$%$A$%/ W%-5#%$-0%$,/ D545,0J"5%-/ 21&:270&2#-%#Q%C%;(,:1%Q0-.2-L !:5%*./aQWD!b/J#04A5A/-C5/%-$,/1+%A/10#/ `+#$,#E(C3&* 6;=(ITTdTTT D:.%;(,: 8C5/ J#0i5*-/ R$7/ %-$-5A/ %/ T??TP/ R-C/ -C5/ )8=: $"/ 01/ J#575#4%:/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ *+,-+#5/ $%A/ -0/ +75/Q28/$7/$/45C*,5/-0/#5A+*5/J045#-.M/8C5/ 6;=(ITTdTTT W&R%;(,: J#0:#$""5P/ 9%0R%/ $7/ -C5/ Q0""+%-./ Q0,,5:5/ N$#-%5#7CJ/ N#0:#$"/ aQQNNb/ 7/ "$%$:5A/ (./ -C5/ !770*$-0%/ 01/ Q$%$A$%/ C&R%;(,: 6;=(MOdTTT Q0""+%-./ Q0,,5:57M/ V45#$,,/ QWD!/ C$A/ J#04A5A/6@qZ??P???/10#/-C5/J#0i5*-M 4?@%ZBL>% 5:(%K,&08(%3#-1(8),-9P%N5K3O%,-.%3#;;0-2&P%4,1(.%E9#&#0821;% 2-%],1:2:,2 O$7CC$/H0"57-$.P/,0*$-5A/%/[$%.$0/d,,$:5P/%5$#/-C5/O$7C/O$95/%/ %0#-CR57-/`+%%$%P/ QC%$/ 7/ $/ *0""+%-./ ($75A/ 5*0-0+#7"/ J#0i5*-/ *0"J$%./ 7/ =??o/ 0R%5A/ (./ -C5/ ,0*$,/ *0""+%-.M/ 8C5/ J#0i5*-/ 7/ %/ *0,,$(0#$-0%/R-C/8C5/[$-+#5/Q0%75#4$%*./a8[QbP/$%/[eV/RC075/5`3%Q0-.(.%&R(% $"/7/-0/J#0-5*-/-C5/#*C/%$-+#$,/(0A45#7-./$%A/,0*$,/*0""+%-57M/.()(*#+K(-&%#Q%X,1R2R,2%"#K(1&,;%2-%X2Z2,-LY%3R2-, %40,45A/%/*0%75#4$-0%/R0#9/%/%0#-CR57-/`+%%$%/N#04%*5M/ 8C5/$777-$%*5/$%A/7+JJ0#-/:45%/(./8[Q/$#5/$7/10,,0R7m `+$%/;2b 79,,7P/(+7%577/"$%$:5"5%-/$%A/3%:,7C/,$%:+$:5/*0+#757M/// 51
  • 62. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 0M%%!74A:54FECI%DCAE%-:CW54FCAC5F / N$#-%5#7CJ/R-C/+%45#7-57/R,,/5A+*$-5/-C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-./0%/-C5/$JJ#0J#$-5/1#$"5R0#9/ -0/A545,0J/*0""+%-./($75A/J#0i5*-7/$%A/5k+J/-C5/0#:$%7$-0%/R-C/-C5/-00,7/$%A/$JJ#0$*C57/ -0/"J#045/-C5/k+$,-./01/-C5/-0+#7-/5cJ5#5%*5M/6%45#7-57/R,,/$,70/(#%:/R-C/-C5"/#575$#*C/ 5cJ5#-75/ -0/ $%$,.75/ *C$%:%:/ -0+#7-/ A5"$%A/ $%A/ -#$%5#7/ -0/ *0%A+*-/ *$J$*-./ (+,A%:/ J#0:#$""57P/RC*C/C$A/(55%/+751+,/10#//-C5/A545,0J"5%-/01/5-C%*/-0+#7"/$-/Q28/7-57/7+*C/$7/ 8$/NC%M 4?@%ZBT>% 3,+,92&P%402*.2-I%2-%G,8&-(81:2+%$2&:%V-2)(812&2(1 -C5/*$J$*-./(+,A%:/01/-C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-.P/%$"5,./H$%0/VJ5%/6%45#7-./aHV6bP/Q$J,$%0/ Q0,,5:5/$%A/[0#-C/W7,$%A/Q0,,5:5M/8C5/7-$11/$%A/-C5/7-+A5%-7/1#0"/-C5/Q$%$A$%/$%A/d5-%$"575/ $*$A5"*/ %7--+-0%7/ R0#95A/ -0:5-C5#/ -0/ A545,0J/ "0A+,57/ $%A/ A5,45#/ -#$%%:/ -0/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ *0""+%-./%/8$/NC%/d,,$:5M/8C5/%-5#%$-0%$,/%7--+-0%7/R-C/$/-5$"/01/GU/K/J5#70%7/47-5A/ -C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-./$%%+$,,./10#/$/A+#$-0%/01/>/R5597P/RC,5//HV6E7/7-$11/$%A/7-+A5%-7/-#$%5A/ -C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-./0%/$%/$45#$:5/01/ZUL/-"57/$/.5$#M/8C5/"0A+,57/-$+:C-/-0/-C5/*0""+%-./ $#5f )"#"$,"# g,1-#"*101 8#0-,-+-,&#0 8#0-,-+-,&#0 ()(*#+%]#.0*(1%g (*2)(:%5:,2-2-L /////$R$#5%577/ / HWd]!WD@/$R$#5%577 / D545,0J"5%- F2LN%CND<%3#**,7#:,&2#-%7(&$((-%2-1&2&0&2#-1 &#%+:(+,:(%,-.%.(*2)(:%&:,2-2-L%K#.0*(1 8C5/ J+#J075/ 01/ -C5/ *$J$*-./ (+,A%:/ $%A/ -#$%%:/ 7/ -0/ 5A+*$-5/ $%A/ "J$#-/ -C5/ %5*577$#./ 9%0R,5A:5/$%A/79,,7/-0/-C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-./R-C/-C5/C0J5/-C$-/-C5/Q28/R,,/(5/A545,0J5A/%/ Q+,-+#$,/$%A/80+#7"/H0+75P/$/0%5/7-0J/70+45%#/*5%-#5M/257A57/-C$-/HV6/$,70/C5,J5A/%/-C5/ J#5J$#$-0%/01/-C5/%5*577$#./J$J5#/R0#9/#5k+#5A/-0/75*+#5/1+%A%:/1#0"/:045#%"5%-/$:5%*57M/ /52
  • 63. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3LM%%!74A:54FECI%DCAE%,;W54:@5:A%"?5:8C5F/ N$#-%5#7CJ/ R-C/ :045#%"5%-/ $:5%*57/ "$./ 1$,,/ %-0/ -C5/ gC$%A0+-h/ 0#/ g7+(7A./ -#$J7h/ 1/ -C5/ 10*+7/7/J,$*5A/0%/J#0A+*%:/#57+,-7/$%A/%0-/5"J0R5#"5%-M/)0#/7+*C/J$#-%5#7CJ7/-0/(5/5115*-45P/ 7-$-0%5A/0%/7-5/-0/J#04A5/*0%7+,-$%*./75#4*5/-0/-C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-.M/8C5/e+7/Q28/J#0i5*-/7/ -C5/%*5J-0%/01/-C5/J#0i5*-M/8C5/95./-0/-7/7+**577/7/-C5/J$-5%*5/$%A/J5#7545#$%*5/%/-C5/J$#-/01/ 4?@%ZBX>% 4?@%ZBZ>% _0212%[%G,8&-(81:2+%=(&$((-%3#;;0-2&P% _#)(8-;(-&%D-2&2,&2)(1 ,-.%_#)(8-;(-&%UI(-92(1 8C7/@50+%:5+J/4,,$:5/7/A57:%$-5A/$7/$/)0,9/ !/C07-/01//:045#%"5%-/$:5%*57/C$45/(55%/ d,,$:5/(5*$+75/01/-7/+%k+5/*+,-+#$,/C5#-$:5M/ A#5*-,./ %40,45A/ %/ -C5/ A545,0J"5%-/ 8C5/4,,$:5/*0%77-7/01/$#0+%A/>P???/-C$-*C5A/ 01/ -C5/ Q28/ J#0i5*-/ $-/ e+7/ 7+*C/ $7/ -C5/ #001/C0+757/R-C/7-0%5/$%A/*,$./R$,,7/RC5#5/ D5J$#-"5%-/01/80+#7"/aDV8bP/N#04%*$,/ 4,,$:5#7/7-,,/,45/%/-C5"P/$,-C0+:C/70"5/C$45/ $AA5A/ "0A5#%/ $"5%-57M/ 8C5/ +%k+5%577/ 01/ -C5/ -C$-*C5A/ #001/ $%A/ -C5/ C0+75E7/ -#$A-0%$,/ 8C575/$:5%*57/+75A/$/pC$%A7/0%E/$JJ#0$*C/ $#*C-5*-+#5/$#5/-C5/"$%/J+,,/1$*-0#7/$--#$*-%:/ (./ 107-5#%:/ $/ *,075/ #$JJ0#-/ R-C/ -C5/ -0+#7-7/-0/-C5/4,,$:5M/ *0""+%-./$%A/-C5/,0*$,/-0+#7"/%A+7-#./ 8C5/ :045#%"5%-/ J#04A5/ 1+%A7/ -0/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ J,$.5#7/ 1#0"/ -C5/ %*5J-0%/ 01/ -C5/ J#0i5*-M/ *0""+%-./ -0/ "$%-$%/ -C5/ -C$-*C5A/ #001/ 01/ -C5#/C0+757M/8C5/J+#J075/01/-C7/$777-$%*5/7/-0/ .5$#7/R0#9%:/*,075,./R-C/-C5/*0""+%-./ C5,J/4,,$:57/-0/J#575#45/-C5/0#:%$,/*C$#$*-5#/ -C#0+:C/*$J$*-./(+,A%:/J#0:#$""57P/70/ $%A/ A5%--./ 01/ @50+%:5+J/ )0,9/ d,,$:5M/ "+*C/70/-C$-/C$45/(55%/$**5J-5A/$7/J$#-/01/ !AA-0%$,/ 1+%A7/ $#5/ $,70/ (5%:/ $,,0*$-5A/ 10#/ -C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-./$-/e+"$#$7M// -C5/ #5*0%7-#+*-0%/ -C5/ 4,,$:5/ C0+75E7/ R$,,7/ )/2(8*HB1*1#-"-,&#(D3&F100(8#(G+,0, $%A/ :$-57P/ $%A/ $,70/ #57-0#%:/ 0,A5#/ #0$A7M/!7/ & Q28/!R$#5%577/$%A/!JJ#5*$-0%/Q$"J$:% Q#-5#$/10#/@5,5*-0%/01/-C5/@-5/R$7/ $/A57:%$-5A/C5#-$:5/7-5P/-C5/4,,$:5#7/$#5/%0-/ A545,0J5A/-C#0+:C/J$#-*J$-0#./J#0*577 0 N,0-/@-5/@5,5*-0% J5#"--5A/-0/$#(-#$#,./*C$%:5/-C5/7-#+*-+#$,/0#/ d70% L @-#$-5:*/N,$%%%: ;770% $#*C-5*-+#$,/"$95+J/01/-C5/4,,$:5M/ L?o/Q4,/@0*5-. Y )0#"$-0%/01/2$#$%:$./80+#7"/Q0+%*, V#:$%7$-0%7 Z?o//O0*$,/e045#%"5%-/6%-7 5:7-#$-0%/-0/@5*+#-57/$%A/3c*C$%:5/Q0""770% :J(23",#,#E(i()"H"%,B,-.(/+,B$,#E ] )0#"+,$-0%/01/80+#7"/N0,*57/$%A/V#A%$%*5 / U/$J5,,%: / U/Q+7-0"5#E7/H$%A,%: / U/3%-5#J#75/@9,,7/8#$%%: ^ 3%C$%*5"5%-/01/@+JJ0#-/@5#4*57 / U/80+#/e+A57/8#$%%: / U/2+7%577/N,$%/;$9%: _ )0#"$-0%/$%A/3%C$%*5"5%-/01/)57-4$,7 /J(`"*,B,"3,0"-,&#(2&+30 / U/Q$J$*-%:/X0"5%/%/)00A/H$%A,%: ` 3%C$%*%:/Q$J$(,-57 / U/Q0$7-$,/Q,5$%U+J / U/Q,5$%/$%A/e#55% / U/Q+,-+#$,/@C0R 5R(% f(Z0% 1&,&(% L#)(:-K(-&% L,)(% 2-S(-&2)(1% ,-.% &a N#0"0-0%/01/N+(,*/W%40,45"5%-/$%A/N$#-*J$-0% / U/3%-5#-$%%:/:+57-7 / U/@(#$%/)57-4$, / U/8#$A-0%$,/D$%*5 10++#:&% Q#:% &:,.2#&2#-,*% ,SR2&(S&0:(% +:(1(:),&2#-% ,-.%:(1&#:,&2#-%2-%/(#0-L(0+%F#*8%d2**,L( F2LN%CNW<%345%2K+*(K(-&,&2#-%+:#S(11%2-%a0212 53
  •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i5*-7/%55A/-0/*0%10#"/-0/-C5/#5k+#5"5%-7/01/7+*C/ 0J5#$-0#7/(510#5/$%./10#"/01/J$#-%5#7CJ/*0+,A/(5/57-$(,7C5AM/ 4?@%ZB>% Y##&+82-&b1%7#*(%2-%5,%G:2-%H2**,I( )00-J#%-/7/$/,0*$,/-0+#/0J5#$-0#/($75A/%/H$/[0M/ !7/$/J$#-%5#/01/-C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-./$-/8$/NC%/ d,,$:5P/ )00-J#%-/ *0,,$(0#$-57/ R-C/ -C5/ 4,,$:5/ ,5$A5#7/ -0/ *#5$-5/ $/ Q28/ J#0A+*-/ -C$-/ 7/ $,:%5A/ R-C/-C5/J#%*J,57/01/#57J0%7(,5/-#$45,M/)00-J#%-/ C$A/10#"+,$-5A/$/7.7-5"/-0/5k+$,,./A7-#(+-5/-C5/ ,0*$,/ *0""+%-./ $-/ 8$/ NC%/ 4,,$:5M/ !"0%:/ -7/ (57-/ J#$*-*5/ 7/ -C5/ #0-$-0%/ J,$%/ 10#/ C0"57-$.7/ $%A/ $,70/ -C5/ J077(,-./ 10#/ :+57-7/ -0/ 7-$./ $-/ 0%5/ C0"57-$./ (+-/ -$95/ -C5#/ "5$,7/ $-/ $%0-C5#/ C0"57-$.M/ )00-J#%-/ C$7/ $,70/ (55%/ $*-45,./ %40,45A/ %/ J#0"0-0%/$%A/$*-7/$7/-C5/4,,$:5E7/"5A$-0#/10#/ 5#0:%L02.(1%Q:#K%F##&+:2-&%R,)(%L##.%:(*,&2#-1%,-.% (009%:7/1#0"/-0+#7-7/:45%/-C$-/,$%:+$:5/$%A/ 0-.(:1&,-.2-L%$2&R%&R(%*#S,*%S#KK0-2&;%#Q%5,%9R2- a,$*9/ 01b/ -5*C%0,0:./ $#5/ 70"5/ 01/ -C5/ ,"-$-0%/ 1$*-0#7/ 10#/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ *0""+%-./ -0/ A5$,/ A#5*-,./ :0,"# R-C/-0+#7-7M/ ITj <+3&H1"#0 8C5/ (#5$9A0R%7/ 01/ )00-J#%-E7/ *+7-0"5#7/ -0/ 8$/ IOj :*13,F"#0 NC%/ d,,$:5/ $#5/ !"5#*$%7/ aGGobP/ !+7-#$,$%7/ OOj :+0-3"B,"#0 aT?obP/3+#0J5$%7/a=Gob/$%A/!7$%7/a=?obM/;0#5/ KTj -C$%/^Go/7-$.5A/10#/$/"%"+"/01/=/%:C-/$%A/ -C5/#57-/J#515##5A/A$./47-/0%,.M/ F2LN%CNC<%301&#K(:%7:(,8.#$-%#Q%F##&+:2-&%5:,)(*54
  • 65. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3)B@@74G%;6%)A5I%/&M%%!74A:54FECI%<CAE%K,2F% % % % %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%$*+O$M/ 80/%*#5$75/-C5/*0""+%-.E7/*$J$*-./%/+%A5#-$9%:/ 01/*0%75#4$-0%/J#0i5*-0M%%!74A:54FECI%<CAE%-:CW54FCAC5F$M/ 3A+*$-5/-C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-./0%/-C5/$JJ#0J#$-5/ 1#$"5R0#9/-0/A545,0J/Q28/J#0i5*-7M(M/ 3k+J/-C5/0#:$%7$-0%/R-C/-C5/-00,7/$%A/$JJ#0$*C57/ -0/"J#045/-C5/k+$,-./01/-C5/-0+#7-/5cJ5#5%*5*M/ 2#%:/#575$#*C/5cJ5#-75LM%%!74A:54FECI%<CAE%,;W54:@5:A%"?5:8C5F(M/ ;0%-0#%:/-C5/J#0i5*-/YM%%!74A:54FECI%<CAE%$;B4CF@%*:>BFA4G$M/ )0*+7/0%/"$#95-%:/$%A/J#0"0-0%(M/ 37-$(,7C/%5-R0#9/R-C/7J5*$,7-/-0+#/0J5#$-0#7/$-/-C5/ %-5#%$-0%$,/,545,/7+*C/$7/W%-#5JA/8#$45,//Y#8%;#8(%8(C(8(-9(1J%+*(,1(%)212&%&:(%C#**#$2-I%$(=12&(1>[ JA1 55
  • 66. 5R(%&#+%)2($%#Q%&R(%&:,.2&2#-,*%1-,8(%82*-%01(.%,&%/R02BX2%/-,8(%b2*-%3(:,K2S%9,:8Y%`,-&#0Y%3R2-(1(%5,2+(2N
  • 67. Handbook on Community Based Tourism
  • 68. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 )A5I%] ;-1H(R[/!A0J-/$%/W%-5:#$-5A/!JJ#0$*C " > ;I A% 7 : * : A5 ?4 7 A5 > % " I I 4 ; 7 8 E W%-5:#$-0%/R-C/ W%-5:#$-0%/R-C/0-C5# Q0%75#4$-0%P/@+7-$%$(,5/ 3*0%0"*/@5*-0# D545,0J"5%-/$%A/ 57J0%7(,5/80+#7"/N#0i5*-7 F2LN%>NI<%5R(%S#K+#-(-&1%#Q%/&(+%> @%*5/ -0+#7"/ 7/ $/ 40,$-,5/ (+7%577P/ -/ 7C0+,A/ %0-/ (5/ #5:$#A5A/$7/-C5/J$%$*5$/-0/-C5/5*0%0"*/""$-+#-./01/#+#$,/ *0""+%-57M//[0%5-C5,577P/-0+#7"/$7/$/A545,0J"5%-/*$-$,.7-/ C$7/ J#045%/ -0/ (5/ 5115*-45/ 57J5*$,,./ 1/ -/ 7/ R5,,/ %-5:#$-5A/ %-0/-C5/045#$,,/A545,0J"5%-/7-#$-5:./$%A/$JJ#0$*CM/ 8C5#5/$#5/T/10#"7/01/%-5:#$-0%P/%$"5,.f &M%%*:A5?47AC;:% <CAE% +;:F54W7AC;:b% )BFA7C:7J=5% .5W5=;I@5:A%7:>%#5FI;:FCJ=5%$;B4CF@%!4;c58AF / )0#/ Q28/ J#0i5*-7/ %-$-5A/ (./ [eV7P/ -C5#5/ $#5/ 01-5%/ 7J%/0117/%/-C5/10#"/01/*0%75#4$-0%/J#0i5*-7/RC*C/R,,/ J#04A5/5"J,0."5%-/$7/R5,,/$7/*0%-#(+-5/-0/-C5/045#$,,/ R5,,/ (5%:/ 01/ -C5/ *0""+%-.M/ W%/ 1$*-/ "$%./ 01/ -C5/ [eV/ %-$-5A/ Q28/ J#0i5*-7/ $#5/ 5775%-$,,./ *0%75#4$-0%/ 0#/ 7+7-$%$(,5/ A545,0J"5%-/ J#0i5*-7/ %/ RC*C/ -0+#7"/ 7/ +75A/-0/*0"J5%7$-5/10#/-C5/,077/01/J0-5%-$,/%*0"5/(./%0-/ 15,,%:/$%A/75,,%:/-"(5#/5-*M/8C7/7/54A5%-/%/-C5/*$75/01/ ;70R$,$P/8$UNC%/$%A/O$7CC$/H0"57-$.P/(+-/R,,/0%,./ J#04A5/7C0#-/-0/"5A+"/-5#"/5"J,0."5%-/0JJ0#-+%-57/ 10#/-C5/,0*$,7M/ X(Q&< 5R(%&:,.2&2#-,*%1-,8(%82*-%1&2**%01(.%Q#:% K,82-L%S(:,K2S%+#&&(:;58
  •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cC(-0%/ C$,,/ $%A/ "+75+"P/ $AA%:/ %-5#$*-45/ J0--5#./ *,$7757/ 10#/ -0+#7-7/ $%A/ "J#04%:/ :+A%:/ $%A/ %-5#J#5-$-0%M/ W%/ $AA-0%P/ T/ "0A5#%/ 9,%7/ R5#5/ *0%7-#+*-5A/ -0/ C$%A,5/ (+,9/ J#0A+*-0%/ (+-/ -C5/ 0#:%$,/ 9,%/ 7/ +75A/ $7/ $/ g7C0R/ 9,%hM/ !7/ $/ #57+,-P/ "0#5/ -C$%/ 5#+< T??P???/-0+#7-7/$#5/$--#$*-5A/-0/-C5/*5#$"*/J$#9/ ],1&(:%3:,Q&1K,-%,&%/R02BX2%/-,8(%b2*- $%%+$,,./ $%A/ 0%5/ 01/ QC%575/ 8$J5E7/ *0%*/ *+,-+#$,/ C5#-$:5/ C$7/ (55%/ R5,,/ J#575#45AM/ 8C5/ @%$95/ I,%/ Q5#$"*/ N$#9/ 7/ $/ -57-"0%./ -0/ -C5/ #0,5/ 01/ -0+#7"/ %/ #54-$,7%:/ $/ 7+%75-/ %A+7-#./ (./ "$##.%:/ *0""5#*$,/ $*-4-./ R-C/ *+,-+#$,/ J#575#4$-0%/$%A/*0""+%-./J$#-*J$-0%M0M%%*:A5?47AC;:%<CAE%2AE54%/8;:;@C8%)58A;4F/ !%0-C5#/A"5%70%/01/-C5/Q28/-C$-/7/75,A0"/C:C,:C-5A/7/-7/#0,5/$7/$/g-#$%%:/:#0+%Ah/10#/-C5/,0*$,/ $%A/"$#95-%:/$%A/J#0"0-0%/-5*C%k+57/5-*M/8C5/79,,7/-C$-/-C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-./,5$#%/R,,/J#5J$#5/ -C5"/-0/+%A5#-$95/%0%U-0+#7"/J#0i5*-7/-C$-/$,70/#5k+#5/:00A/0#:$%7$-0%P/70+%A/+%A5#7-$%A%:/01/ (+7%577/$%A/%-5#J5#70%$,/79,,7M 59
  • 70. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 / !,#5$A./-C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-./$-/;70R$,$/C$45/(55%/5%-#+7-5A/-0/(5/-C5/*0%-#$*-0#/10#/-C5/10#57-/ #5C$(,-$-0%/J#0i5*-/(./-C5/:045#%"5%-P/RC*C/"$%$:5A/-0/*#5$-5/5"J,0."5%-/0JJ0#-+%-57/10#/-C5/ ,0*$,/R0"5%/a#515#/-0/@-5J/ZP/20c/ZM=bM/O95R75P/-0+#7-7/(5%:/5%-5#-$%5A/(./-C5/*+,-+#$,/J5#10#"$%*57/ $-/@$+%:/!%:9,+%:/6Ai0/$#5/75,A0"/-0,A/-C$-/-C5/*5%-#5/J#0A+*57/=KPL??/$%:9,+%:/545#./"0%-CP/ RC*C/ $#5/ J#0A+*5A/ $-/ ==/ 7+##0+%A%:/ *,+7-5#7/ a4,,$:57bM/ / ;$%$:%:/ 7+*C/ $/ *0"J,5c/ J#0A+*-0%/ ,%5/%/-$%A5"/R-C/-C5/-0+#7"/$--#$*-0%/$-/@$+%:/!%:9,+%:/6Ai0/#5k+#57/$%/0#:$%7$-0%/-C$-/7/ (+7%577/7$44./R-C/$/70+%A/+%A5#7-$%A%:/01/-C5/7+JJ,./*C$%/%/*+,-+#$,/-0+#7"/a#515#/-0/@-5J/=P/ 20c/=MGbM/W%/80#0%-0P/Q$%$A$/-C5/7+**577/01/-C5/#5-$,/(+7%577/%/@-M/B$*0(7/Q0+%-./R$7/-#::5#5A/(./ -C5/g"$:%5-*/J+,,h/01/-C5/V,A/V#A5#/;5%%0%-5/Q0""+%-./a20c/LMTbM 4#&&#K< ](--#-2&(%$#K,-%1(**2-L%7:(,.%,&%F,:K(:j1%],:8(&%012-L%R#:1(%70LL; 4?@%BL>% ]()(8,I2-I%#-%&:(%?*.%?8.(8%<(--#-2&(b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i0./ -C5/ 5*0%0"*/ 7J%011/ 01/ -C5/ -C#4%:/ -0+#7"/ %A+7-#./(./7+JJ,.%:/C0-5,7/$%A/$**0""0A$-0%/R-C/-C5#/1$#"/J#0A+*5M/XC,5/-C5/;5%%0%-5/ *0""+%-./7-,,/#575%-7/-C5/$---+A5/01/$/7"$,,/"%0#-./01/-0+#7-7/RC0/-#5$-/-C5"/,95/g5cC(-7hP/ -C5./$#5/%0R/$-/5$75/$%A/5%i0./-C5/5*0%0"*/J077(,-57/%/-C5/0-C5#/75*-0#7P/*#5$-5A/(./-0+#7"M60
  • 71. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3)B@@74G%;6%)A5I%]/&M%%*:A5?47AC;:%<CAE%8;:F54W7AC;:b%FBFA7C:7J=5% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%$*+O%%%%%>5W5=;I@5:A%7:>%45FI;:FCJ=5%A;B4CF@%I4;c58AF $M//@J%/0117/%/-C5/10#"/01/*0%75#4$-0%P/7+7-$%$(,5/ / A545,0J"5%-/$%A/#57J0%7(,5/-0+#7" (M/ N#04A5/5"J,0."5%-/0JJ0#-+%-57/10#/,0*$,70M% *:A5?47AC;:%<CAE%;AE54%58;:;@C8%F58A;4F $M/ $/g-#$%%:/:#0+%Ah/10#/-C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-./ (M/ J#5J$#5/,0*$,/*0""+%-./-0/+%A5#-$95/%0%U-0+#7" / J#0i5*-7 *M/ J#04A5/7-$(,5/$%A/(5--5#/J$.%:/i0(7/10#/,0*$,7Y#8%;#8(%8(C(8(-9(1J%+*(,1(%)212&%&:(%C#**#$2-I%$(=12&(1>[ U A$]JA1A0*+"5%-7]"$RJC,$%:5*0-0+#7"J#0J07$,MJA1 61
  • 72. 5R(%+:(1(:),&2#-%#Q%&:,.2&2#-,*%,:SR2&(S&0:(%,&%%/(#-L(0+%F#*8%d2*B*,L(Y%f(Z0%Q0-.(.%7;%&R(%L#)(:-K(-&
  • 73. Handbook on Community Based Tourism
  • 74. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 )A5I%^ ;-1H(V[/N,$%/$%A/D57:%/_+$,-./N#0A+*-7 ! = 7 : % 7 : > % . 5 F C ? :% PB7 =CAG% ! 4 ; > B 8 A F )0#"+,$-0%/01/Q28/!*-0%/N,$% D57-%$-0%/ N#0A+*-/ W%-5#J#5-$-0%/l/ @5#4*5/_+$,-. ]/O57+#5/ D545,0J"5%- Q0""+%*$-0% ;$%$:5"5%- !+-C5%-*-. 3A+*$-0% 3%-5#-$%"5%- 3%i0."5%- ;5"0#$(,5 F2LN%ANI<%5R(%S#K+#-(-&1%#Q%/&(+%A H$4%:/10#"+,$-5A/$/:5%5#$,/1#$"5R0#9/10#/-C5/A545,0J"5%-/ 01/-0+#7"/R-C/-C5/0-C5#/5*0%0"*/75*-0#7P/-C5/%5c-/7-5J/7/ -0/ J,$%/ -C5/ J0-5%-$,/ -0+#7"/ J#0A+*-7/ %/ $/ *0"J#5C5%745/ "$%%5#M/ "+$*2K%& S;4@B=7AC;:%;6%+($%"8AC;:%!=7: 8C7/"$./#5k+#5/-C5/10#"+,$-0%/01/$/Q28/!*-0%/N,$%P/%/RC*C/-C5/*0""+%-./A5*A57/0%/-C5/ 4$#0+7/ $*-0%7/ -C$-/ $#5/ #5k+#5A/ -0/ *#5$-5/ $/ A7-%*-/ -0+#7"/ 5cJ5#5%*5M/ 8C5/ !*-0%/ N,$%P/ R,,/ *$,,5A/*0##A0#7/,5$A%:/-0R$#A7/"$i0#/-0+#7"/$--#$*-0%7/%/-C5/7+##0+%A%:/$#5$7M//W%/-C7/,:C-P/ $JJ#0J#$-5/ -5*C%k+57/ 7+*C/ $7/ -C5/ N#0A+*-/ W%45%-0#./ ;$-#c/ $%A]0#/ N#0A+*-/ Q0"J5--45%577/ W%A5c/*0+,A/(5/+75A/-0/$777-/-C5/54$,+$-0%M 8C5/$"/01/-C5/J#0A+*-/%45%-0#./7/-0/54$,+$-5/-C5/k+$,-./01/-C5/-0+#7"/#570+#*57P/$%A/7+(75k+5%-,.P/ -0/ A5%-1./ *0%*/ $--#$*-0%7/ $%A/ $*-4-57/ -C$-/ *0+,A/ (5/ A545,0J5A/ %-0/ *0#5/ -0+#7"/ J#0A+*-7M/ 2./ -C5/ 7$"5/ -095%P/ #570+#*57/ $%A/ $--#$*-0%7/ R-C/ "0A5#$-5/ $JJ5$,/ R,,/ 0%,./ (5/ A545,0J5A/ $7/ 7+JJ0#-%:/J#0A+*-7M N$#-7/01/-C5/J#0J07$,7/%/-C5/Q28/!*-0%/N,$%/7C0+,A/(5/J#575%-5A/7J$-$,,./+7%:/J,$%7P/"$J7/$%A/ ,,+7-#$-0%7M/@-5/"$JJ%:/*0+,A/(5/*$##5A/0+-/(./%40,4%:/-C5/,0*$,7/-0/J,0-/0+-/-C5/,0*$-0%7/10#/64
  • 75. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &31$*,-57/7+*C/$7/%-5#J#5-45/*5%-#5P/J5#10#"$%*5/7-$:5P/i5--.P/J$#9%:P/-0,5-/5-*M/80/7$45/*07-P/-C5/Q28/0#:$%7$-0%/7C0+,A/$JJ#0$*C/+%45#7-57/$%A/40,+%-55#/0#:$%7$-0%7/-0/,5%A/-C5#/5cJ5#-75/%/ -C5/ J#5J$#$-0%/ 01/ -C5/ !*-0%/ N,$%/ $%A/ -C5/ *0%7-#+*-0%/ 01/ -0+#7-/ 1$*,-57M/ 6%45#7-57/ $#5/$,R$.7/ R,,%:/ -0/ *0%-#(+-5/ -0R$#A7/Q28/ J#0i5*-7/ RC,5/ 40,+%-55#7/ -C#0+:C/ 0#:$%7$-0%7/7+*C/$7/$,5:C/W%-5#%$-0%$,/C$45/$,70/(55%/*0%-#(+-%:/$*-45,./%/-C5/A545,0J"5%-/01/Q28/J#0i5*-7M Components Sub Components 1 2 3 4 5 Uniqueness Iconic Popularity Activities Variety Quality Accessibility & Road access connectivity Public transport Signboard Basic facilities Parking Visitor Information Centre Toilet Food outlet Souvenir outlet Internal signage Interpretation facilities Interpretation centre Exhibition Materials Specific site brochure Accommodation Chalet facilities Camping site Maintenance Physical structure Cleanliness Landscaping Service Quality Front desk Guiding Security K#&(> Marketing & Promotion Brochure %C<%JGS(**(-& Guide book %W<%a##. Website %D<%]#.(:,&( %V<%9##: Total Audit Rate %I<%d(:;%9##: RANKING JG,K+*(%#Q%9:#.0S&%_-)(-&#:;%],&:2G 65
  • 76. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 4?@%dBA>% H#*0-&((8%5#0821;%,&%<21#$,*,2%"#;(1&,P $,5:C/ W%-5#%$-0%$,/ C$7/ (55%/ %40,45A/ %/ 40,+%-55#/ -0+#7"/ $,,/ 045#/ -C5/ R0#,A/ (./ "$9%:/ $##$%:5"5%-/ 10#/ 40,+%-55#/ :#0+J7/ -0/ 7+JJ0#-/ *0""+%-./ $%A/ *0%75#4$-0%/ R0#9M/ ;70R$,$/ H0"57-$./ C$7/ (55%/ #5*54%:/ 40,+%-55#7/ 1#0"/ $,5:C/ W%-5#%$-0%$,/ 10#/ -C5/ J$7-/^/.5$#7M/W%/T??^P/$,5:C/W%-5#%$-0%$,/75%-/ ^Z/1+,,U-"5/40,+%-55#7/-0/R0#9/$-/-C5/8+%:0:/ $%10#57-/ 3*0UQ$"J/ a83Qb/ $-/ ;70R$,$/ RC*C/7/$,"07-/*0"J,5-5AM/D57J-5/ -7/ %$"5P/ -C5/5cJ5#5%*5/7/$*-+$,,./$/-R0/R$./J#0*577/%/ RC*C/40,+%-55#7/$,70/,5$#%7/*0%7-#+*-0%/$%A/ *$#J5%-#./ 79,,7/ 1#0"/ -C5/ ,0*$,7M/ W%/ $AA-0%P/ -C5/40,+%-55#7/$#5/:45%/5cJ07+#5/-0/-C5/,0*$,/ *+,-+#5M ^,*(2LR%_-&(:-,&2#-,*%)#*0-&((:%7(2-L%1R#$-%R#$%&#% +:#+(:*;%01(%,%R,KK(:%7;%,%*#S,* !"0%:/0-C5#7P/-C5/!*-0%/N,$%/7C0+,A/*045#/-C5/10,,0R%:/$7J5*-7f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
  • 77. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &30M%%.5FAC:7AC;:XR5CFB45%Q7:7?5@5:AD57-%$-0%],57+#5/"$%$:5"5%-/7C0+,A/%*,+A5/-C5/J#0470%/01/$A5k+$-5/-0+#7-/%1#$7-#+*-+#5/$%A/1$*,-57P/:00A/%-5#J#5-$-0%/$%A/C:C/,545,/75#4*5/k+$,-./R-C/-C5/$"/01/1$*,-$-%:/75$",577/$%A/5%i0.$(,5/-#$45,M//e00A/ A57-%$-0%/ "$%$:5"5%-/ R,,/ 5%7+#5/ -C$-/ -C5/ 10,,0R%:/ *0%A-0%7/ $#5/ *#5$-5A/ 10#/ -C5/5%i0."5%-/$%A/*0"10#-/01/-0+#7-7f $##$%:%:/10#/-C5/75#4*5/01/ :+A57P/(009%:/-0+#7/$%A/ 10#R$#A/#575#4$-0%7M A5,$./$-/J+(,*/-#$%7J0#-/ -5#"%$,7P/*C5*9/%]*C5*9/0+-/ *0+%-5#P/J#5/(0095A/5c*+#70%7/ $%A/-0+#7P/#00"/75#4*5/5-*M $-/J+(,*/-#$%7J0#-/-5#"%$,7P/ -#$%7J0#-$-0%/45C*,57P/ $**0""0A$-0%/$%A/0-C5#/-0+#7-/ 1$*,-57M 1#0%-/A579P/C0+75955J%:P/#00"/ 75#4*5/$%A/(./-0+#7-/:+A57M 5c-#$/",5h/$---+A5M JG,K+*(%#Q%5#0:21K%3#::2.#: 67
  • 78. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 8C5/$A0J-0%/01/(57-/J#$*-*5/%/A57-%$-0%/"$%$:5"5%-/R,,/C5,J/*#5$-5/$/A7-%*-/J#0A+*-/-C$-/ 0115#7/C:C/k+$,-./-0+#7-/5cJ5#5%*5M/8C5/J#0A+*-/7C0+,A/0115#/-C5/10,,0R%:/5cJ5#5%*5fU "J((:+-@1#-,F,-. 4?@%dBL>% D-&(8,9&2)(%D-&(8+8(&,&2#-%E-:,-9(1%5#0821&%Eg+(82(-9(%[%/:02[]2%/-,R(%Q2*- 8C5/ @C+UO/ @%$95/ I,%/ %*,+A57/ $%/ 5A+*$-0%$,/ *5%-#5/ RC5#5/ 47-0#7/ $#5/ :45%/ -C5/ 0JJ0#-+%-./-0/"$95/-C5#/0R%/J0--5#./+7%:/-C5/-#$A-0%$,/"5-C0AP/+%A5#/-C5/R$-*C1+,/ *,$77/7/10#/(5:%%5#7P/RC0/7J5%A/(5-R55%/0%5/-0/-R0/C0+#7/-0/5cJ5#5%*5/J0--5#./"$9%:/ 10#/ -C5/ 7$95/ 01/ 5%i0."5%-M/ 8C7/ $*-4-./ 7/ %0#"$,,./ 0115#5A/ A+#%:/ R5595%A7/ $%A/ J+(,*/ C0,A$.7M//8C5/75*0%A/J0--5#./*,$77/7/10#/-C075/RC0/C$45/($7*/79,,7/$%A/R$%-/-0/"$7-5#/-C5/ $#-/01/-#$A-0%$,/J0--5#./-C#0+:C/-C5/*$#51+,/7+J5#470%/01/-C5/"$7-5#/*#$1-7"5%M/ @C+U/O/@%$95/I,%/3A+*$-0%$,/Q5%-#5 2.H1(I[/)0#/25:%%5# =IBV%R#0:1%#Q%S*,11@ 2.H1(K[/!A4$%*5/O5$#%5# =C%R#0:1%#Q%&:,2-2-L@ 5R(%*#S,*%+#&&(:;%K,1&(:1% N#5J$#5/-C5/*,$./]/7$%A/"c ,*1#%+(:Q#:K%2-&(:+:(&,&2#-% &#%)212&#:1 ;0+,A%:/-C5/J0--5#. D57:%%:/-C5"57 F2L%ANV 2$9%:/N#0*577 5;+(1%#Q%S*,11(1%&,0LR&% 2-%/R02BX2%/-,8(%b*2-% J.0S,&2#-,*%3(-&:( _+$,-./857-%:68
  • 79. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3%J((<$+F"-,&#"B 4?@%dBT>% <21#$,*,2%"#;(1&,P%[%E.09,&2#-,*%G8#I8,;;(%Y#8% /&0.(-&1%,-.%H#*0-&((81 8C5/ ;70R$,$/ H0"57-$./ 0115#7/ gC$%A7U0%h/ 5A+*$-0%$,/ J#0:#$""57/10#/7-+A5%-7/$%A/40,+%-55#7/RC0/$#5/%-5#57-5A/%/ *0%-#(+-%:/ -0/ 7+7-$%$(,5/ *0%75#4$-0%/ $%A/ 70*0U5*0%0"*/ A545,0J"5%-M/8C5/*0%-5%-/01/-C5/5A+-0+#7"/J#0:#$""5/$#5/ $7/10,,0R7f QCF;<7=7C%3;@5FA7G%/>BA;B4CF@%!4;?47@@5 & W%-#0A+*-0#./10#57-/7$15-./79,,7/$%A/i+%:,5/7+#44$,/*0+#75 0 )0#57-/C$(-$-/#57-0#$-0%/($7*/-#$%%:/*0+#75 L @+JJ0#-/-C5/A545,0J"5%-/01/%$-+#5/%-5#J#5-$-0%/-#$,7/$%A/(+,A%:/R0#9 Y 3c*C$%:5/9%0R,5A:5/$%A/-5*C%0,0:. F2L%AND<%]21#$,*,2%"#K(1&,;%J.0&#0:21K%9:#L:,KK( U/*045#7/$7J5*-7/01/,0*$,/7+#44$,/-5*C%k+57/$%A/5"5#:5%*./ J#0*5A+#57/ $%A/ -5$*C/ -C5/ J$#-*J$%-7/ C0R/ -0/ $40A/ $%./ A$%:5#7/%/-C5/#$%10#57- 7-+A5%-7/ 0#/ 40,+%-55#7/ R-C/ -C5/ 79,,7/ $%A/ 9%0R,5A:5/ 01/!",-.1%#-6%(.0S,&2#-,*%S#0:1(1%Q#:% C0R/-0/A5$,/R-C/77+57/-C5./"$./1$*5/$%A/C0R/-0/"$95/-C5/1&0.(-&1%,-.%)#*0-&((:1 RC0,5/i+%:,5/5cJ5#5%*5/*0"10#-$(,5/$%A/5%i0.$(,5 (+,A%:/ R0#9/ R-C%/ -C5/ 5*0-0+#7"/ 45%-+#57P/ $%A/ 70"5/ ($7*/R,A,15/7+#45.7 0JJ0#-+%-./ 10#/ 7-+A5%-7/ 0#/ 40,+%-55#7/ -0/ -5$*C/ -C5/ ,0*$,/ *0""+%-./ W8/ 79,,7/ $%A/ -C5/ 3%:,7C/ ,$%:+$:5/ RC,7-/ ,5$#%%:/$(0+-/-C5/,0*$,/*+,-+#5M 69
  • 80. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 FJ((<#-13-",#,#E 4?@%dBX>% !4,;=##%UC&(8-##-%G(8C#8;,-9(6%[%U%"2I:*P%E-&(8&,2-2-I%Eg+(82(-9(h 8C5/"$%/$--#$*-0%/$-/@$+%:/!%:9,+%:/6Ai0/7/-C5/545%%:/J5#10#"$%*5/J0J+,$#,./9%0R%/ $7/-C5/g2$"(00/!1-5#%00%/N5#10#"$%*5h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e:SR(1&:,%9(:Q#:K,S( #Q%&R(%,Q&(:-##-%+(:Q#:K,-S(70
  • 81. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3$J((<#h&.*1#- 4?@%dBZ>% 5:(%Q2-,=,&,-I,-%4#,&%38021(%[%4#8-(#%Eg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i0.5A/(./$,,/$:5/:#0+J7M/1J((51*&3"%B1 4?@%dB>% !M:,*(%M,&9:2-I%Eg+(82(-9(%,&%Q,2R#08,6 )0#/ $/ 155/ 01/ [&D/ =Z?]J5#70%P/ -0+#7-7/ $#5/ -$95%/ 0%/ $/ C:C/ 7J55A/ *$-$"$#$%/ -0/ R$-*C/ e$%-/ @J5#"/ XC$,57/ %/ -C5#/ %$-+#$,/C$(-$-/011/-C5/*0$7-/01/I$90+#$M//8C5/(0$-/#A5/1#0"/ -C5/i5--./"$./-$95/+J/-0/>?/"%+-57/$%A/$,0%:/-C5/R$.P/-C5/ 45775,/"0457/,95/$/p*#$A,5EP/$%A/545%/"0-0%/7*9%577/J,,7/ "$./%0-/R0#9/RC5%/-C5/R$457/$#5/C:CM/O0*$-%:/-C5/RC$,57/ 7/i+7-/$/7-$#-/-0/-C7/$R570"5/5cJ5#5%*5P/$%A/0%*5/7:C-5AP/ -C5/ "+""5#/ 01/ 5c*-5"5%-/ -#$%7*5%A7/ %-0/ $/ 1#5%F./ 01/ *$"5#$7/$%A/4A50/*$"7/-#.%:/-0/#5*0#A/-C5/$"$F%:/7*5%5/ RC,5/ (5%:/ -C#0R%/ $,,/ 045#/ -C5/ *$-$"$#$%/ (./ -C5/ 7-#0%:/ UR,*(%1,;1%!a##.7;(6 R$457M/ 8C5/ *,"$c/ 01/ -C5/ g7C0Rh/ 7/ RC5%/ -C5/ RC$,5/ A457/ %-0/-C5/R$-5#/(510#5/-/$JJ5$#7/$/15R/75*0%A7/,$-5#P/(+-/-C7/ -"5/7C0R%:/0%,./-7/-$,/$7/-/7/J0%-5A/J#0+A,./-0/-C5/79.P/ $7/1/-0/R$45/:00A(.5M/!/"5"0#$(,5/5cJ5#5%*5/%A55ArLM%%*:A54I45A7AC;:%7:>%8;@@B:C87AC;:W%-5#J#5-$-0%/$%A/*0""+%*$-0%/*$%/(5/%/$/10#"/01/47+$,/%-5#J#5-$-0%/$%A/0#$,/J#575%-$-0%M/d7+$,/ J#575%-$-0%/ *$%/ (5/ *0""+%*$-5A/ -C#0+:C/ -C5/ 75--%:/ +J/ 01/ $%/ %-5#J#5-45/ *5%-#5/ $%A/%-5#J#5-45/-#$,7M/;5$%RC,5/0#$,/%-5#J#5-$-0%/R,,/#5k+#5/-C5/-#$%%:/01/-C5/,0*$,/.0+-C7/-0/(5/ 71
  • 82. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 #5,$-0%7CJ/(5-R55%/C07-7/$%A/:+57-7M YM%%)54WC85%PB7=CAG 80/5%C$%*5/75#4*5/k+$,-.P/1#0%-/,%5#7/7C0+,A/(5/75%-/10#/-#$%%:/-0/5%C$%*5/-C5#/0J5#$-0%$,P/$%A/ *0""+%*$-0%/79,,7M/8C5/*$J$*-./(+,A%:/$%A/-#$%%:/J#0:#$""57/7C0+,A/%0-/(5/*$##5A/0+-/%/ )B@@74G%;6%)A5I%^ "+$*2K%&%S2#Q-R"$*K,%2S%+($%Q")$/#%!R"K% %%%%$*+O $M//D5-$,/%45%-0#./01/-0+#7"/#570+#*57 (M/ !JJ,./-5*C%k+57/a5M:M/N#0A+*-/W%45%-0#./;$-#c] / N#0A+*-/Q0"J5--45%577/W%A5c *M/ 34$,+$-5/-0+#7"/J#0A+*-7 AM/N#0J07$,/aJ#575%-5A/+7%:/J,$%7P/"$J7/$%A/,,+7-#$-0%7 5M/ !JJ#0$*C/5cJ5#-75/1#0"/+%45#7-57/0#/40,+%-55#7/% / J#5J$#%:/-C5/;$7-5#/N,$% +2K$/K$)%2S%+($%Q"$/#%!R"K%% % % %%%%$*+O IJ((D3&$+F-(=1Y1B&H*1#-((//////// / $M/ D545,0J/$%A/7C0R*$75/*0#5/J#0A+*- / (M/ O%9$:57/R-C/0-C5#/$--#$*-0%7/%/-C5/7+##0+%A%: / / $#5$7 KJ((=10-,#"-,&#iP1,0+31(5"#"E1*1#- / $M/ !A5k+$-5/-0+#7-/%1#$7-#+*-+#5P/1$*,-57P/:00A / / %-5#J#5-$-0%/$%A/C:C/,545,/75#4*5/k+$,-. / (M/ N#04A5/$+-C5%-*/5cJ5#5%*5 / *M/ N#04A5/5A+*$-0%$,/5cJ5#5%*5 / AM/ N#04A5/5%-5#-$%%:/5cJ5#5%*5 / 5M/ 3%i0.$(,5/5cJ5#5%*5 / 1M/ N#04A5/"5"0#$(,5/5cJ5#5%*5 MJ((8#-13H31-"-,&#("#$()&**+#,F"-,&#(//////// / $M/ d7+$,/J#575%-$-0%/j/%-5#J#5-45/-#$,7]*5%-#5/ / (M/ V#$,/J#575%-$-0%/j/R5,,U-#$%5A/:+A57 / *M/ W%-5#$*-45/#5,$-0%7CJ/(5-R55%/C07-/$%A/-0+#7-772
  • 83. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3NJ((;13Y,F1(+"B,-.((///////// $M/ 8#$%%:/10#/1#0%-/,%5#/-0/5%C$%*5/0J5#$-0%$,/$%A/ / *0""+%*$-0%/79,,7/Y#8%;#8(%8(C(8(-9(1J%+*(,1(%)212&%&:(%C#**#$2-I%$(=12&(1>[ 73
  • 84. c#0-L%4*,S8%"K#-L%*,.2(1%701;%+:(+,:2-L%R,-.2S:,Q&1%.0:2-L%&R(2:%*(210:(N
  • 85. Handbook on Community Based Tourism
  • 86. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 )A5I%_ ;-1H(W[/WA5%-1./;$#95-/D5"$%A/$%A D545,0J/;$#95-%:/@-#$-5:. * > 5 : A C 6 G % Q 7 4 9 5 A% . 5 @ 7 : > %7 : > % . 5 W 5 = ; I% :F-,&#(I[ :F-,&#(K[ :F-,&#(M[ :F-,&#(N[ ;$-*C%:/ 6%A5#7-$%A%:/ 3"(#$*%:/WQ8/ gN::.U($*9U Q 7 4 9 5 AC: ? % ) A 4 7 A 5 ? G -C5/N#0A+*-/ -C5/QC$%%5,7/01/ $7/$/N#0"0-0%/ A%:h/0%/ R-C/N0-5%-$,/ D7-#(+-0% 800, -0+#/VJ5#$-0#7/ ;$#95-/ $%A/e#0+%A/ @5:"5%- H$%A,5#7 :F-,&#(O[ :F-,&#(R[ Q28/ O545#$:%:/ 0#:$%7$-0%/-0/ 0%/$R$#A7/ 75-/+J/%/C0+75/ -#$45,/$:5%*. -0/7C$J5/-C5/ (#$%A%: F2LN%ENI<%5R(%S#K+#-(-&1%#Q%/&(+%E E F 0 % 5 0 > % 9 1 = 5 > % ; 5 G% W%/ "$%./ Q28/ J#0i5*-7P/ 57J5*$,,./ -C075/ %-$-5A/ (./ G = 7 > 1 = B H > 3 % B 1 0 6 ? H 1 3 7% :045#%"5%-/ $:5%*57P/ -00/ "+*C/ 5"JC$77/ 7/ :45%/ -0/ I % 9 ; 2 9 ? : 3 > 7 % B 3 4 0 1 3% J#0"0-0%/ $-/ -C5/ 5cJ5%75/ 01/ 5115*-45/ "$#95-%:M/ !7/ 7+*CP/ > ? 3 % > ; 1 A 3 > % 2 ; 1 J 3 > 7% (#0*C+#57/ $%A/ J$"JC,5-7/ $#5/ #5:+,$#,./ J#%-5AP/ $%A/ "0#5/ ; 1 3 % = G 3 5 > = 4 = 3 G % ; 5 G% 01-5%/-C$%/%0-P/A7-#(+-5A/-0/-C5/R#0%:/-$#:5-/"$#95-7M 2 ; 1 J 3 > = 5 A % 7 > 1 ; > 3 A = 3 7% 9H>%=5%9:;63K 8C5/"$#95-%:/7-#$-5:./10#/Q28/7C0+,A/(5/10#"+,$-5A/($75A/ 0%/-C5/10,,0R%:/J#%*J,57/f =M/;$-*C%:/-C5/J#0A+*-/R-C/-C5/J0-5%-$,/"$#95-/75:"5%-7M/ TM/6%A5#7-$%A%:/-C5/*C$%%5,7/01/A7-#(+-0% >M/3"(#$*%:/WQ8/$7/$/J#0"0-0%/-00,M ZM/gN::.U($*9U#A%:h/ 0%/ -0+#/ 0J5#$-0#7/ $%A/ :#0+%A/ C$%A,5#7 GM/@5--%:/+J/$%/%/C0+75/-#$45,/$:5%*. "+$*2K%& Q7A8EC:?%AE5%!4;>B8A%<CAE%AE5%!;A5:AC7=%Q7495A%)5?@5:A 2$75A/0%/-7/6@NP/-C5/Q28/0#:$%7$-0%/7C0+,A/A5-5#"%5/RC0/R,,/(5/$--#$*-5A/-0/-7/J#0A+*-M/!/ J#0A+*-/-C$-/7/#*C/%/5A+*$-0%$,/*0%-5%-/7C0+,A/$JJ5$,/-0/7-+A5%-7/RC,5/$%0-C5#/J#0A+*-/-C$-/ 0115#7/$A45%-+#5/7C0+,A/$--#$*-/gC$#A/5*0-0+#7-7hM/W%/-C5/*$75/01/Q28/J#0i5*-7/%-$-5A/(./[eV7P/ -C5/ *0%75#4$-0%]7+7-$%$(,5/ A545,0J"5%-/ 5,5"5%-7/ 01/ -C5/ J#0i5*-/ 7C0+,A/ $--#$*-/ -C5/ 70U*$,,5A/ :#55%/-0+#7-7M76
  • 87. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3 4?@%iBA>% Q-#$%5:(%<,8R(&%/(I;(-&%D-%],1:2:,2%"#;(1&,P )W87/ $#5/ -C5/ "$%/ "$#95-/ 75:"5%-/ 75#45A/ (./ -C5/ O$7CC$/ H0"57-$.//%/Oi$%:P/($*9J$*95#7/*0"J#75/-C5/(+,9/01/-C5/ )W87P/RC0/$#5/955%/-0/5cJ5#5%*5/-C5/,0*$,/*+,-+#5/$%A/R$./ 01/ ,15M/ H0R545#P/ -/ 7/ %0-/ 0%,./ $/ 0%5/ R$./ #5,$-0%7CJ/ $7/ -C5/($*9J$*95#7/$#5/01-5%/C#5A/-0/-5$*C/3%:,7C/-0/-C5/,0*$,/ *0""+%-./ %/ 5c*C$%:5/ 10#/ $/ (5A/ $%A/ "5$,7M/ @%*5/ K?o/ 01/ [K(:2S,-%&#0:21&1%1&,;2-L%,&% 47-0#7/-0/O$7CC$/$#5/X57-5#%5#7P/-/7/$/75%7(,5/"045/(./ X,1R2R,2%R#K(1&,;%&#%*(,:-% S0*&0:(%,-.%&(,SR%J-L*21R%&#% SR2*.:(-%2-%&R(%1SR##* ,$%:+$:57M"+$*2K%0-:>54FA7:>C:?%AE5%+E7::5=F%;6%.CFA4CJBAC;:Q28/J#0i5*-7/7+*C/$7/-C5/Oi$%:/0#/H$/[0/R,,/%0-/(5/70,A/(./"$%7-#5$"/-0+#/0J5#$-0#7M/8C5#510#5/-/7/%0-/R0#-C/-C5/5110#-/%0#/"0%5./-0/75,,/7+*C/J$*9$:57/$-/-C5/"$i0#/-0+#7"/7C0R7/7+*C/$7/W82/25#,%/0#/-C5/X0#,A/8#$45,/;$#-/aX8;b/%/O0%A0%P/RC*C/*$-5#/10#/-C5/"$77/-0+#7"/75:"5%-MW%7-5$A/ -C5./ 7C0+,A/ ,545#$:5/ 0%/ -C5/ %5-R0#9%:/ R-C%/ -C5/ g:#55%/ -0+#7"h/ 0#/ g#57J0%7(,5/-0+#7"h/*#*+-/-C#0+:C/-C5#/$770*$-0%/R-C/[eV7/$%A/7J5*$,7-/-0+#/0J5#$-0#7M/Q0%10#"%:/-0/ -C5/ J#%*J,57/ 01/ 57J0%7(,5/ 80+#7"P/ 10#/ %7-$%*5P/ R,,/ %*#5$75/ -C5/ J#0A+*-E7/ $JJ5$,/ -0/ -C7/"$#95-/75:"5%-/:45%/-C$-/[eV7/$%A/7J5*$,7-/-0+#/0J5#$-0#7/7+*C/$7/W%-#5JA/8#$45,/R,,/(5/-C5/:#0+%A/C$%A,5#7/10#/7+*C/J#0A+*-7M/"+$*2K%L/@J478C:?%*+$%7F%7%!4;@;AC;:%$;;=2#0*C+#57/$%A/J$"JC,5-7/R,,/$,R$.7/5%A/+J/%/-C5/A+7-(%P/$%A/R,,/0%,./"$95/-C5/J#%-5#7/#*CM/8C5/+75/01/R5(7-5P/J0#-$,P/J0A*$7-P/)$*5(009P/-#$45,/(,0:/$#5/"0#5/5115*-45/$7/J#0"0-0%/-00,7/10#/Q28/J#0i5*-7M/W%/45R/01/-C7P/-C5/Q28/0#:$%7$-0%7/7C0+,A/%457-/%/75--%:/+J/-C5/C$#AR$#5/a*0"J+-5#7/$%A/W%-5#%5-/*0%%5*-0%b/$%A/701-R$#5/a-#$%%:/,0*$,/.0+-C7b/-0/*$##./0+-/5/(009%:/$%A/5/J#0"0-0%/5-*M"+$*2K%YU!C??GZ(789Z#C>C:?V%2:%$;B4%2I547A;4F%":>%,4;B:>%37:>=54F!7/$/Q28/J#0i5*-/"$-+#57/$%A/(5:%/-0/$--#$*-/$/7-5$A./7-#5$"/01/47-0#7P/-0+#/0J5#$-0#7/$%A/:#0+%A/C$%A,5#7/$#5/(0+%A/-0/0115#/-C5#/75#4*57/-0/%*,+A5/-C5/J#0A+*-/%/-C5#/-0+#/J$*9$:57M/8C7/7/$%/ 77
  • 88. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 0JJ0#-+%-./-C$-/7C0+,A/%0-/(5/"775A/:45%/-C$-/-C5/-0+#/0J5#$-0#7/$%A/:#0+%A/C$%A,5#7/C$45/ 5c*5,,5%-/%5-R0#9%:/R-C/-C5#/%-5#%$-0%$,/*0+%-5#J$#-7M/2./A0%:/70P/-C5/Q28/0#:$%7$-0%/*$%/ -C5%/ 10*+7/ -7/ $--5%-0%/ 0%/ -C5/ 045#$,,/ "$%$:5"5%-/ $%A/ J#0A+*-/ A545,0J"5%-/ 9%0R%:/ -C$-/ -7/ J$#-%5#7/R,,/-$95/*$#5/01/-C5/"$#95-%:/$%A/J#0"0-0%M/8C5/0%,./R0##./7/-C$-/-C5/A7-#(+-0%/ J$7-P/-C5#5/$#5/-0+#/0J5#$-0#7/RC0/545%/#570#-5A/-0/+%5-C*$,/J#$*-*5/,95/7:%%:/$%/;V6/R-C/$/ Q28/0#:$%7$-0%/-0/(5/-C5/70,5/J#0"0-5#/01/-7/J#0A+*-M/8C7/A$%:5#/*$%/(5/$40A5A/(./$/*#5$-%:/$/ gJ00,/01/J$#-%5#7h/-0/J#545%-/"0%0J0,./$%A/-0/*#5$-5/*0"J5--0%/$"0%:/-C5/J$#-%5#7M/ "+$*2K% +($%24?7:CF7AC;:%A;%)5A%-I%*:%3;BF5%$47W5=%"?5:8G V%*5/-C5/*0""+%-./C$7/J#0:#5775A/%/-5#"7/01/-7/"$%$:5"5%-P/%-5#J#5-$-0%/$%A/*0""+%*$-0%/ 79,,7P/-/"$./R$%-/-0/75-/+J/-7/0R%/-#$45,/$:5%*.M/8C7/J#0:#5770%/7/%54-$(,5/(5*$+75/-C5/,0*$,/ .0+-C7/R,,/700%/(5/A7,,+70%5A/1/-C5#5/7/%0/0JJ0#-+%-./-0/"045/0%/$,0%:/$/*$#55#/J$-C/a#515#/ 20c/<MTbM/@5--%:/$%/%/C0+75/-#$45,/$:5%*./R,,/5%7+#5/7+7-$%$(,-./%/-5#"7/01/,0*$,/*0%-#0,/(57A57/ %+#-+#%:/-C5/7J#-/01/5%-#5J#5%5+#7CJ/$"0%:/-C5/.0+-C7/a#515#/20c/<M>bM 4?@%iBL>% Y8#;%5#08%_02.(%&#%3E? I$+$C/ [:0J0#$/ 7-$#-5A/ C7/ *$#55#/ R-C/ XC$,5/ X$-*CP/ -C5/ *0"J$%./ -C$-/ 0J5#$-57/ -C5/ RC$,5/ R$-*C%:/ %A+7-#./ $-/ I$90+#$P/$7/$/-0+#/:+A5M/D57J-5/RC$-/C5/C+"(,./A57*#(5A/ $7/C7/g7C./J5#70%$,-.hP/I$+$C/"$%$:5A/-0/#75/-0/-C5/C:C57-/ A,:5%*5/$%A/-C5/C:C/k+$,-./$%A/J#015770%$,7"/01/C7/R0#9M/ 8C5/-0+#7"/%A+7-#./$-/I$90+#$/$,,0R7/0+-7-$%A%:/-$,5%-7/ -0/"045/+J/-C5/*$#55#/J$-CP/RC*C/7/*#+*$,/10#/-C5/,0%:/-5#"/ 7+7-$%$(,-./01/Q28/J#0i5*-7M/6%10#-+%$-5,.P/-C5/"$i0#-./01/ -C075/ 5"J,0.5A/ %/ Q28/ J#0i5*-7/ %/ A545,0J%:/ *0+%-#57/ $#5/ 53J(A"+"@,(7E"H&3" 7-+*9/ %/ -C5#/ J07-0%7P/ RC*C/ R,,/ ,5$A/ -0/ #575%-"5%-/ $%A/ 3Je%#Q%UR,*(%U,&SR A7,,+70%"5%-M78
  • 89. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &34?@%iBT>%/(&%V+%3#;;0-2&P%[%?$-(.%E9#&#0821;%3#;+,-P5*0-0+#7"/ *0"J$%./ 7+JJ0#-5A/ (./ 8C5/ [$-+#5/ Q0%75#4$%*./a8[Qb/ $%A/ :045#%"5%-/ $:5%*57/ -0/ C5,J/ J#575#45/ "%0#-./*+,-+#57/$%A/J#0"0-5/7+7-$%$(,5/-0+#7"/%/J$#-7/01/-C5/`+%%$%/J#04%*5/ -C#5$-5%5A/ (./ 045#A545,0J"5%-M/ 8C7/ *0"J$%./ 7/7C$#5C0,A5#7P/ $,,/ ,0*$,/ [$c/ 1$",57/ 1#0"/ -C5/ [$%.$0/ d,,$:5/%/ O$7CC$/ O$95P/ Oi$%:M/ 8C5/ 75--%:/ +J/ 01/ -C5/ *0"J$%./ C$7/J#04A5A/%5R/i0(7/$%A/(5--5#/%*0"5/10#/-C5/,0*$,/[$c/$%A/`/$7/:+A57M/8C5/*0"J$%./$,70/0J5#$-57/$%A/"$%$:57/-C5/O$7CC$/Q0""+%-./D545,0J"5%-/)+%AM/ P,B.(L@"#E ],-,L(:%#Q%3#KK0-2&;%#$-(.% &#0:%S#K+,-; @+JJ0#-5A/(./8C5/ [$-+#5/Q0%75#4$%*./ P,h,"#E(k,#-+&(<F&-&+3,0*()&*H"#. a8[Qb/$%A/ lC"3*13(F&&3H13"-,Y1(-3"Y1B("E1#F.m :045#%"5%-/$:5%*57 VR%5A/(./TZ/7C$#5C0,A5#7/ 1#0"/[$%.$0/d,,$:5/a[$c/ 1$",57b 8[Q/7+JJ0#-7/-#$%%:/ ;$%$:5#/aO,./&C$%:b J#0:#$""57/7+*C/$7/%$-+#5/ a3%:,7C/@J5$9%:/:+A5/]/%-5#J#5-5# :+A%:P/C07J-$,-./75#4*57P/ 1#0"/[$c/*0""+%-.b (+7%577/"$%$:5"5%-/$%A/ 3%:,7C/,$%:+$:5 O0*$,/8#$%5A ;$%$:5"5%-/85$" e+A57 H0"57-$. a$A"%7-#$-0%/l/ aZ/J5#"$%5%-/7-$11 VJ5#$-0#/]/N#04A5# "$#95-%:b 1#0"/[$c/l/`/ *0""+%-.b F2L%ENV<%e:L,-21,&2#-%3R,:&%#Q%X2Z2,-L%k2-&0#%JS#&#0:21K%3#K+,-; 79
  • 90. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 "+$*2K%] -C5/ J07-45/ 4$,+57/ 01/ -C5/ Q28/ J#0i5*-7/ -0/ -0+#7-7/ 7+*C/ $7/ -C5#/ *0""-"5%-/ -0/ 5%4#0%"5%-$,/ J#0-5*-0%P/ J#575#4$-0%/ 01/ ,0*$,/ C5#-$:5/ 5-*M/ O95R75P/ $R$#A7/ R0%/ (./ -C5/ *0""+%-./ 7+*C/ $7/ -C5/57J0%7(,5/80+#7"/!R$#A/R,,/A115#5%-$-5/-C5/J#0A+*-/1#0"/-C5/#+%/01/-C5/",,/0J5#$-0%7M/ W%/-+#%P/-C575/J07-45/"577$:57/R,,/C5,J/7C$J5/-C5/(#$%A%:/01/-C5/J#0A+*-/R-C/g(+./%h/1#0"/ 4?@%iBX>% !D%M,*R(.%&:(%Q0R0%c,*,-W2%8(,;&2;(%5#086 I+9+/ `$,$%i/ D#5$"-"5/ X$,97/ C$7/ R0%/ </ $R$#A7/ 10#/ -7/ 0+-7-$%A%:/ $*C545"5%-/ %/ A545,0J%:/ *0%*/ -0+#7"/ J#0A+*-7/ 7+*C/ $7/ -C5/ !(0#:%$,/ e+A5A/ $%10#57-/ X$,97/ 01/ ;077"$%/ e0#:5/ N$#9M/ / 8C5/ J#0A+*-/ 7/ $%A/ !**#5A-5A/ 80+#7"/ 2+7%577/ !+7-#$,$/ $%A/ %/ T??</ R$7/ -C5/ R%%5#/ 01/ -C5/ 80+#7"/ 8#0J*$,/ [0#-C/ _+55%7,$%A/ H5#-$:5P/ Q+,-+#$,/$%A/W%A:5%0+7/80+#7"/!R$#AM//W-/ :045#%"5%-E7/57J5*-%:/V+#/Q+,-+#5/aVQb/ J#0:#$""5M/ 8C7/ %A#5*-,./ %*#5$75A/ -C5/ 47(,-./ 01/ -C5/ J#0A+*-/ $-/ -C5/ %$-0%$,/ $%A/ %-5#%$-0%$,/,545,7/-C$-/#57+,-5A/%/$/7+AA5%/ N#57A5%-P/2,,/Q,%-0%/$%A/*5,5(#-57/7+*C/$7/ 2#A:5-/)0%A$M/ e-(%#Q%&R(%,$,:.1%$#-%7;%b080%c,*,-Z2 :(,K&2K(%2-%V??E80
  • 91. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3)B@@74G%;6%)A5I%_"+$*2K%&%Q"$+3*K,%$3/%!#2.-+$%D*$3%$3/%%%%%%%%%%%$*+O%!2$/K$*"R%Q"#O/$%)/,Q/K$)$M/ D5-5#"%5/-C5/J0-5%-$,/"$#95-/75:"5%-7(M/ ;$-*C/J#0A+*-/$%A/"$#95-/75:"5%-7"+$*2K%0%-K./#)$"K.*K,%$3/%+3"KK/R)%2S%%%%%%%%%%$*+O%.*)$#*(-$*2K% % % %$M/ WA5%-1./-C5/*C$%%5,/01/A7-#(+-0%/(M/ [5-R0#9/R-C%/g:#55%/-0+#7"h/$%A/g#57J0%7(,5/////-0+#7"/0J5#$-0#7"+$*2K%L%/Q(#"+*K,%*+$%")%"%!#2Q2$*2K%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%$*+O$22R$M/ Q$##./0+-/5U(009%:]0%,%5/#575#4$-0%(M/ Q$##./0+-/5UJ#0"0-0%*M/ 2+,A/0R%/R5(7-5P/(,0:P/10#+"/5-*MAM/W%457-/%/75--%:/+J/C$#AR$#5/a*0"J+-5#/$%A/%-5#%5-/ *0%%5*-0%b5M/ W%457-/%/75--%:/+J/701-R$#5/a-#$%%:/,0*$,/.0+-C7b"+$*2K%Y%U!*,,1Z("+OZ%#*.*K,V%2K%$2-#%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%$*+O2!/#"$2#)%"K.%,#2-K.%3"K.R/#)$M/ WA5%-1./J0-5%-$,/-0+#/0J5#$-0#7/$%A/:#0+%A/C$%A,5#7(M/ [5-R0#9/R-C/%-5#%$-0%$,/*0+%-5#J$#-7/7+*C/$7// W%-#5JA/8#$45,"+$*2K%%)/$$*K,%-!%"K%*K%32-)/%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%$*+O$#"T/R%",/K+1% / //////////////////////////////////////////$M/ @5-/+J/%/C0+75/-#$45,/$:5%*./(M/ [+#-+#5/-C5/7J#-/01/5%-#5J#5%5+#7CJ/$"0%:/.0+-C7"+$*2K%]%R/T/#",*K,%2K%"D"#.)%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%$*+O+/#$*S*+"$*2K%$2%)3"!/%$3/%(#"K.*K,% / /////////////////////$M/ W"J#045/k+$,-./01/J#0A+*-/-0/R%/$R$#A7 81
  • 92. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 Y#8%;#8(%8(C(8(-9(1J%+*(,1(%)212&%&:(%C#**#$2-I%$(=12&(1>[ A545,0J"5%-MJA182
  • 93. Handbook on Community Based Tourism
  • 94. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 )A5I%` ;-1H(U[(W"J,5"5%-/$%A/;0%-0# N5#10#"$%*5 * @ I = 5 @ 5 : A % 7 : >% Q ;: CA;4 % ! 5 4 6 ; 4 @ 7 : 8 5 :F-,&#(I[/Q0%7-+*-0%/01/ 80+#7-/)$*,-57/U/e5--%:/-C5/ :F-,&#(K[(5:+,$# Q0""+%-./%40,45A/%/-C5/ ;0%-0#%:/01/N5#10#"$%*5 W"J,5"5%-$-0% F2LN%TNI<%5R(%S#K+#-(-&1%#Q%/&(+%T "+$*2K%&% +;@@B:CAG%*:W;=W5>%*:%AE5%*@I=5@5:A7AC;: N#0i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k+#5/%5R/79,,7/0#/5%C$%*5/-C5#/ 5c7-%:/79,,7/(./(5%:/%40,45A/%/-C5/*0%7-#+*-0%/J#0*577/ 1#0"/-C5/(5:%%%:/+%-,/*0"J,5-0%M/ 8C7/$JJ#0$*C/7/7+**5771+,,./$JJ,5A/$-/;70R$,$/H0"57-$./ $%A/ -C5/ $*C545"5%-/ 7C0+,A/ %0-/ (5/ "5$7+#5A/ %/ -5#"7/ 01/ JC.7*$,/ A545,0J"5%-/ M5M/ $/ "$i0#/ -0+#7-/ 1$*,-.P/ -C5/ 3*0/ Q$"JP/(+-/-C5/7-#0%:5#/75%75/01/0R%5#7CJ/$%A/*0""+%-./ 7J#-/-C$-/R$7/*+,-4$-5A/-C#0+:C0+-/-C5/*0""+%-.E7/A#5*-/ %40,45"5%-/%/-C5/*0%7-#+*-0%/J#0*577/84
  • 95. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3X#S,*%L02.(%,&%]21#$,*,2%"#K(1&,;%(G+*,2-2-LQ#:(1&%:(1&#:,&2#-%+:#L:,KK(%&#%%)212&#:1N 85
  • 96. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3 4?@%jBA>% #%D&%c#081(*C%E9#[3,;+ 8C5/ A5$/ 10#/ -C5/ $%10#57-/ 3*0UQ$"J/ R$7/ "00-5A/ %/ =KK^/ (+-/ -C5/ $JJ,*$-0%/ R$7/ 0%,./ :45%/ $JJ#04$,/ (./ -C5/ I%$($-$%:$%/ )0#57-/ D5J$#-"5%-/ %/ T??ZM/ 8C5/ ,0*$,/ *00J5#$-45P/ IVN3OP/ R$7/ :45%/ -C5/ i0(/ 01/ *0%7-#+*-%:/ -C5/ 3*0UQ$"JP/ RC0/ -C5%/ C#5A/ -C5/ ,0*$,7/ $7/ R0#95#7M/ 8C5/ *0"J,5-0%/ 01/ -C5/ 3*0UQ$"J/ 7/ 5cJ5*-5A/ -0/ (5/ %/ ,$-5/ T??KM/ !,-C0+:C/ -C5/ *0%7-#+*-0%/ J5#0A/ -009/ $/ ,0%:5#/ -"5/ *0"J$#5A/ -0/ -C5/ *0%45%-0%$,/ $JJ#0$*CP/ -C5/ *0%7-#+*-0%/ J#0*577/ (#0+:C-/ -C5/ ,0*$,7/ -0:5-C5#/ $%A/ 7-#5%:-C5%5A/ -C5#/ *$"$#$A5#5/ $%A/ 75%75/ 01/ 0R%5#7CJM/ X-C/ -C5/ C5,J/ 01/ :045#%"5%-/ $:5%*57/ $%A/ 10#"5#/ ,0::5#7/ 50-L#L%^,2-Q#:(1&%JS#B3,K+%2- -+#%5A/ *0%75#4$-0%7-7P/ -C5/ *0""+%-./ R$7/ ]21#$,*,2%"#K(1&,; "5-*+,0+7/ %/ -7/ J,$%%%:/ -0/ -C5/ 5c-5%-/ 01/ A5%-1.%:/-#557/-C$-/%55A/-0/(5/J#575#45AM/8C5/ J#0i5*-/ $,70/ $,,0R7/ 40,+%-55#7/ 1#0"/ *0+%-#57/ 7+*C/$7/e5#"$%./$%A/6%-5A/I%:A0"/-0/(5/ J$#-/01/-C5/*0%7-#+*-0%/-5$"M// "+$*2K%0% #5?B=74%Q;:CA;4C:?%26%!546;4@7:85 80/ 5%7+#5/ -C5/ 7+7-$%$(,-./ 01/ Q28/ J#0i5*-7P/ "0%-0#%:/ 7C0+,A/ (5/ %-5:#$-5A/ %-0/ -C5/ RC0,5/ J,$%%%:/$%A/"J,5"5%-$-0%/J#0*577M/!,,/-00/01-5%P/"0%-0#%:/7/75,A0"/*$##5A/0+-/"$9%:/-/ W-/7/5775%-$,/-C$-/"0%-0#%:/A057/%0-/0%,./"5$7+#5/-C5/7+**577/$%A/:$J7/%/-5#"7/01/"0%5-$#./ 4$,+5/(+-/$,70/%*,+A5/%0%U"0%5-$#./:$%7/7+*C/$7/J#A5/%/-C5/,0*$,/*0""+%-.P/75%75/01/0R%5#7CJP/ %*#5$75/75,1U57-55"/$%A/5-*M/W%/"07-/01/-C5/*$75/7-+A57P/-/7/-C5/%0%U"0%5-$#./:$%7/-C$-/$#5/4$,+5A/86
  • 97. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3!" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3 D;49FE55A%`M& Q;:CA;4C:?%*:>C87A;4F%A;%Q57FB45%+($%!546;4@7:85 / 8C5/10,,0R%:/$#5/70"5/"0%-0#%:/%A*$-0#7/10#/*0""+%-./($75A/ -0+#7"fU 3115*-7/01/-0+#7"/0%/ o/01/,0*$,7/RC0/(5,545/-C$-/-0+#7"/ *0""+%-. C$7/%*#5$75A/-C5#f o/01/,0*$,7/RC0/(5,545/-C$-/-0+#7"/ C$7/J07-45,./*C$%:5A/-C5#/,157-.,5/ ]/7+##0+%A%: O0*$,/*0""+%-./ o/01/:00A7/$%A/75#4*57/7+JJ,5A/(./ J$#-*J$-0% ,0*$,/*0""+%-. 3"J,0."5%-/01/,0*$,/*0""+%-./ %/-0+#7"/0J5#$-0%7/a%+"(5#7/]/ %*0"5/,545,b N#0A+*-/_+$,-. R-C/-C5/5%4#0%"5%-$,/]/*+,-+#$,/ 5cJ5#5%*57 !*C54%:/5k+-$(,5/ 8C5/$"0+%-/01/1+%A%:/$*k+#5A/(./ A7-#(+-0%/01/-0+#7"/ -C5/*0""+%-./10#f *0""+%-. [+"(5#/$%A/-.J5/01/A545,0J"5%-/ 87
  • 98. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3 J#0:#$""57/:45%/-0/-C5/ ,0*$,/*0""+%-./a5A+*$-0%P/ -#$%%:P/C5$,-CP/%$-+#$,/#570+#*5/ "$%$:5"5%-P/*0%75#4$-0%P/5-*Mb N#015770%$,/$%A/J5#70%$,/ o/01/,0*$,7/RC0/$#5/C$JJ./R-C/ A545,0J"5%- -C5#/*$#55#/J$-C/%/-0+#7" )#5k+5%*./01/-#$%%:/J#0:#$""57/ $%A/,545,/01/J$#-*J$-0% VJ5#$-0%/$%A/7+JJ0#-/ [+"(5#/01/J$#-*J$%-7/"$9%:/+75/ 01/*0""+%-./($75A/ 01/%*5%-457/0#/J#0:#$""57/10#/ 5%-5#J#757 @;37 [+"(5#/01/J$#-*J$%-7/%40,45A/ %/-0+#7"/#5,$-5A/(+7%57757/a5M:M/ $**0""0A$-0%/J#04A5#7P/*$-5#%:P/ -0+#/:+A%:P/-#$%7J0#-$-0%P/-0+#/ 0J5#$-0%/$%A/5-*Mb 3%4#0%"5%-$,/ 8#$%%:/01/J$#-*J$%-7/0%/ "$%$:5"5%-/7.7-5"7/$%A/ 5%4#0%"5%-$,/77+57/ 5%4#0%"5%-/%-$-457 !JJ,*$-0%/01/5%4#0%"5%-$,,./ 1#5%A,./-5*C%0,0:57/$%A/ -5*C%k+57/ao/01/J$#-*J$%-7b A54*57 J,$7-*88
  • 99. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3!" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3 )7@I=5%;6%D;49FE55A%!"#$%&#()*+,(-$.$#/$.(0./1*2/&/2( -+.2+*&/3,4(56667 D;49FE55A%`M0%.5W5=;IC:?%7%Q;:CA;4C:?%!=7: 8C5/10,,0R%:/$#5/-C5/7-5J7/%/A545,0J%:/$/"0%-0#%:/J,$%/10#/Q28/ 0#:$%7$-0%fU/ IJ(=1Y1B&H(5&#,-&3,#E(4%h1F-,Y10 J#0:#$""5/ $%A/ *$%/ $,70/ C5,J/ $*C545/ -C5/ :0$,7/ 0+-,%5A/ %/ $/ -0+#7"/J,$%M U// 25,0R/ 7/ -C5/ ,7-/ 01/ 70"5/ 5c$"J,57/ "0%-0#%:/ 0(i5*-457/ -C$-/ *0+,A/(5/+75A/$-/-C5/*0""+%-./,545,f #5:$#A%:/"0%-0#%:M *0""+%-./ C0,7-*$,,./ -0/ %*,+A5/ -C5/ 70*0U*+,-+#$,P/ 5*0%0"*P/5*0,0:*$,/$%A/JC.7*$,/$7J5*-7/01/-C5/*0""+%-.M ,0*$,/J50J,5M KJ(=1-13*,#1(/&+#$"3,10(&C(-@1(:31"(-&(%1(5&#,-&31$ U// !1-5#/A5*A%:/RC$-/7/-0/(5/$*C545A/-C#0+:C/-C5/"0%-0#%:/ J#0:#$""5P/ -C5/ ,"-7/ 01/ -C5/ $#5$/ -0/ (5/ "0%-0#5A/ "+7-/ (5/ 57-$(,7C5AM U/ 8C575/ ,"-7/ R,,/ %*,+A5/ -C5/ JC.7*$,/ (0+%A$#57/ 01/ -C5/ *0""+%-.P/$%./5*07.7-5"7/0#/7J5*$,/$#5$7/*0%-$%5A/R-C%/ -P/*0""+%-./$A"%7-#$-45/,"-7/$%A/$%./0-C5#/1$*-0#7/-C$-/ A5-5#"%5/-C575/(0+%A$#57M MJ(8$1#-,C.()&**+#,-.(:--3,%+-10 *0%7A5#/-C5/$--#(+-57/0#/$775-7/R-C%/-C5/*0""+%-./RC*C/ -C5/*0""+%-./"$95/-/7J5*$,/0#/RC*C/*0%75#45/0#/J#0-5*-M U// 8C7/7/$/J0-5%-$,,./,$#:5/,7-/$7/-C5#5/$#5/J#0($(,./"$%./-C%:7/ -C$-/$/*0""+%-./R$%-7/-0/J#0-5*-M U// W-/7/%5*577$#./-0/A5%-1./15$-+#57/%/-C5/*0""+%-./-C$-/-0+#7-7/ R,,/45R/$7/$--#$*-0%7/$%A/*0%7A5#/*0%75#4%:/0#/J#0-5*-%:/ -C5"M U/ 8C7/ ,7-/ *0+,A/ $,70/ %*,+A5/ 7+*C/ -C%:7/ $7/ 7J5*$,/ 157-4$,7P/ 89
  • 100. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3 #5,:0+7/*5#5"0%57/0#/+%k+5/,0*$,/*+7-0"7/-C$-/$#5/4$,+$(,5/ -0/(0-C/-0+#7-7/$%A/*0""+%-./"5"(5#7M U// XC,5/-C5/,7-/01/4$,+$(,5/$--#(+-57/0#/15$-+#57/7/(5%:/"$A5P/ $%./10#*57/RC*C/*0+,A/$115*-/-C5"/7C0+,A/(5/%0-5AM NJ(8$1#-,C.(D&-1#-,"B(8*H"F-0 U// e5%5#$,,./ -C5/ "J$*-7/ 01/ -0+#7"/ 1$,,/ %-0/ -C#55/ *$-5:0#57f/ 70*0U*+,-+#$,P/5*0%0"*/$%A/5*0,0:*$,/0#/JC.7*$,M U// 3$*C/ *0""+%-./ 7C0+,A/ A5-5#"%5/ RC*C/ 0%57/ $#5/ ,95,./ -0/ $JJ,.P/:45%/-C5/*0""+%-.E7/$#5$P/J0J+,$-0%/$%A/-C5/-.J5/01/ -0+#7"/-/0115#7M "$./*$+75fU $#-51$*-7M U// 8C5#5/*$%/(5/%+"5#0+7/%5:$-45/"J$*-7/01/-0+#7"/1/-C5// *0""+%-./5cJ5#5%*57/#$JA/0#/,0%:/-5#"/*C$%:5M/ OJ(D3,&3,-,?1(8*H"F-0 U// !/75-/01/*#-5#$/*$%/(5/+75A/-0/A5*A5/RC*C/"J$*-7/%55A/-0/(5/ U/ 8C#55/ 5c$"J,57/ 01/ J0-5%-$,/ *#-5#$/ -C$-/ *0+,A/ $JJ,./ $-/ -C5/ *0""+%-./,545,/$#5/5cJ,$%5A/(5,0RfU $M/ )@"#F1( &C( &FF+33,#E/ j/ 8C5/ J077(,-./ -C$-/ $%/ "J$*-/ R,,/ #57+,-/1#0"/-0+#7"M (M/ D&-1#-,"B( $1E311( &3( C31e+1#F.( &C( ,*H"F-( j/ W1/ -C5#5/ 7/ $/ J077(,-./ 01/ $%/ "J$*-P/ -7/ 75#0+7%577/ 7C0+,A/ $,70/ (5/ A5-5#"%5AM *M/<"01(&C(*&#,-&3,#E90
  • 101. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3!" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3 *#-5#$M U// 8C5/"J$*-7/*$%/-C5%/(5/J#0#-F5A/$**0#A%:/-0/RC*C/0%57/ 755"/-C5/"07-/"J0#-$%-/($75A/0%/-C5/*0"(%$-0%/01/*#-5#$M RJ(8$1#-,C.(D&-1#-,"B(8#$,F"-&30 U// 8C5/%5c-/7-5J/7/-0/A5*A5/RC*C/%A*$-0#7/*$%/(57-/"5$7+#5/ -C575/"J$*-7M U/ W%A*$-0#7/C$45/-0/(5/75,5*-5A/70/-C$-/-C5./$#5/*#5A(,5P/ U// Q0%7A5#/-C5/10,,0R%:/RC5%/A5*A%:/RC*C/%A*$-0#7/-0/ "0%-0#fU VJ()&BB1F-(="-" U// V%*5/-C5/%A*$-0#7/C$45/(55%/75,5*-5AP/-C5/%5c-/7-5J/7/-0/ A5*A5/0%/-C5/"07-/$JJ#0J#$-5/"5-C0A7/01/*0,,5*-%:/-C5/A$-$M U// H0R545#P/1/%0/A$-$/7/$4$,$(,5P/-/7/(57-/-0/*0%7+,-/$/ J#015770%$,/0%/C0R/-0/"0%-0#/-C5/%A*$-0#M [.,+&(.%Q:#K<%3,-,.2,-%-2)(:12&2(1%3#-1#:&20KY%V??? U// D$-$/:$-C5#5A/045#/$/,0%:/-"5/7/5775%-$,/10#/54$,+$-%:/ *5#-$%/"J$*-7M U// H0R/01-5%/A$-$/R,,/%55A/-0/(5/*0,,5*-5A/A5J5%A7/0%/-C5/ %A*$-0#/j/-/"$./(5/75$70%$,P/$%%+$,/0#/"0#5/01-5%M WJ(<Y"B+"-1(-@1(5&#,-&3,#E(="-" U// 34$,+$-0%/01/-C5/"0%-0#%:/A$-$/7C0+,A/C5,J/-0/$77577/ 1/$/*0""+%-.E7/-0+#7"/:0$,7/$%A/0(i5*-457/$#5/(5%:/ $**0"J,7C5AP/$%A/$77577/-C5/"J$*-7/01/-0+#7"/$*-4-57/0%/ -C5/A57-%$-0%E7/#570+#*57M U// !%/54$,+$-0%/%55A7/-0/(5/A0%5/R-C%/-C5/045#$,,/5*0%0"*P/ 5%4#0%"5%-$,P/J0,-*$,P/70*$,/$%A/*+,-+#$,/*0%-5c-/01/-C5/ *0""+%-.M 91
  • 102. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3 )B@@74G%;6%)A5I%` / "+$*2K%&%+2K)$#-+$*2K%2S%$2-#*)$%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%$*+O% S"+*R*$*/)%,/$$*K,%$3/%+2QQ-K*$1 *KT2RT/.%*K%$3/%*Q!R/Q/K$"$*2K $M/ @5*+#5A/-C5/1+%A7/-0/*0%7-#+*-/-0+#7-/1$*,-57 (M/ W%40,45A/0#/5"J0R5#5A/*0""+%-./%/-C5 / *0%7-#+*-0%/01/-0+#7-/1$*,-57 *M/ O0*$,/*0""+%-./R,,/5%C$%*5/-C5/5c7-%:/79,,7/$%A / $*k+#5/-C5/%5R/79,,7 "+$*2K%0%#/,-R"#%Q2K*$2#*K,%2S%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%$*+O% !/#S2#Q"K+/% % % % $M/ Q#5$-5/%A*$-0#/-0/"0%-0#/-C5/J5#10#"$%*5/01/Q28/ Y#8%;#8(%8(C(8(-9(1J%+*(,1(%)212&%&:(%C#**#$2-I%$(=12&(1>[ N+(,*$-0%7]!oT?-00,9-oT?10#oT?"0%-0#%:oT?$%AoT? "$%$:%:oT?*0""+%-.U($75AoT?-0+#7"MJA1/ A0*7]*7AoT?^oT?e8&MJA1 D0*+"5%-7]X0#9%:oT?N$J5#oT?d$,+5oT?QC$%oT? W"J$*-oT?!77577"5%-MJA1/92
  • 103. X#S,**;%+:#.0S(.%1#0)(-2:1%,&%/,0-L%[-L8*0-L%.Z#
  • 104. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 +;:8=BFC;: Q0""+%-./ 2$75A/ 80+#7"/ 7/ %*#5$7%:,./ (5*0"%:/ J0J+,$#/ $7/ $/ J#0/J00#/A545,0J"5%-/-00,M/25.0%A/-C5/+7+$,/#C5-0#*P/$/C07-/01/Q28/ Q0""+%-./ 2$75A/ 3*0-0+#7"/ [5-R0#9/ aQQ23[b/ $%A/ -C5/ 8C$,$%A/ -C5/%*#5$7%:/(+./%/$"0%:/,0*$,/*0""+%-57/$%A/%A+7-#./J,$.5#7M/ 8C575/ %5-R0#97/ 1+%*-0%/ $7/ $/ 75,1/ C5,J/ $%A/ %10#"$-0%]5cJ5#5%*5/ 5c*C$%:5/ (0A./ -C$-/ +7+$,,./ :5-7/ 7+JJ0#-/ 1#0"/ %-5#%$-0%$,/ A0%0#/ $:5%*57M/D57J-5/-C7P/"$%./J#04%*$,/$%A/,0*$,/:045#%"5%-/$:5%*57/ C$45/ $/ ,"-5A/ +%A5#7-$%A%:/ 01/ -C5/ J#0*577/ -C$-/ $/ *0""+%-./ C$7/ -0/ :0/ -C#0+:C/ -0/ 5"(#$*5/ -0+#7"/ $7/ $/ -00,/ 10#/ 5*0%0"*P/ 70*$,/ $%A/ J7.*C0,0:*$,/5"J0R5#"5%-M J#04A%:/$/7-5J/(./7-5J/$JJ#0$*C/-0/A545,0J%:/Q28M/W-/7/$*9%0R,5A:5A/ -C$-/ 7545#$,/ C$%A(0097/ $%A/ "$%+$,7/ 0%/ Q28/ 5c7-/ RC*C/ *0+,A/ (5/ 5$7,./A0R%,0$A5A/1#0"/-C5/W%-5#%5-M/H0R545#/-C5./$#5/"07-,./:5%5#*/ %/ %$-+#5M/ 8C5/ 7-5J/ (./ 7-5J/ :+A5/ %/ -C7/ C$%A(009/ 7/ J#575%-5A/ %/ $/ 7"J,5/$%A/+75#/1#5%A,./"$%%5#M/;0#5/"J0#-$%-,./-C5/7-5J7/$#5/($75A/ ;$%$:5#7/ RC0/ R0+,A/ ,95/ -0/ C$45/ "0#5/ %10#"$-0%/ $%A/ $/ (5--5#/ +%A5#7-$%A%:/ 01/ 7+*C/ (57-/ J#$*-*5/ *0+,A/ A#5*-,./ *0%-$*-/ -C5/ 95./ J5#70%7/%/*C$#:5/01/-C575/Q28/J#0i5*-7/:45%/-C$-/-C5/*0%-$*-7/A5-$,7/ $#5/ %*,+A5A/ %/ -C5/ C$%A(009M/ W%/ $AA-0%P/ #515#5%*57/ -0/ 57-$(,7C5A/ R5(/7-57/0%/Q28/$#5/%*,+A5A/$-/-C5/5%A/01/5$*C/7-5JM/ W-/7C0+,A/(5/#5"5"(5#5A/-C$-/-C5/K/7-5J7/$#5/%0-/*$7-/%/7-0%5M/;$%$:5#7/ "$./ R$%-/ -0/ 79J/ $/ 15R/ 7-5J7/ 0#/ $,-5#/ -C5#/ 75k+5%*5M/ XC$-/ 7/ "07-/ 5775%-$,/ 7/ -C$-/ -C5/ J#0*577/ $A0J-5A/ #5*0:%757/ -C5/ %55A/ -0/ J#5J$#5/ -C5/*0""+%-./(510#5/-C5./5"(#$*5/-0+#7"M/W-/7C0+,A/$,70/(5/7-#5775A/ -C$-/-0+#7"/7/%0-/-C5/0%,./J$-C/-0/A545,0J"5%-/$%A/-C$-/Q28/7/%0-/ -C5/ J$%$*5$/ -0/ #54-$,75/ A5J#5775A/ #+#$,/ 5*0%0"57M/ W%/ 1$*-/ 70"5/ *0""+%-57/"$./%0-/R$%-/-0/(5/%40,45A/%/-0+#7"/70/-/7/(5--5#/-0/ J+#7+5/A115#5%-/A545,0J"5%-/0J-0%7M 3775%-$,,.P/ -C5/ "$%/ 5,5"5%-/ 01/ -C7/ C$%A(009/ -C$-/ 75J$#$-57/ -/ 1#0"/ J#540+7/ 5110#-7/ 7/ -7/ #5*0:%-0%/ -C$-/ Q28/ 7/ #5,$-45,./ 5$7./ -0/ 7-$#-/ (+-/"+*C/"0#5/*C$,,5%:%:/-0/7+7-$%M/!7/7+*CP/-C7/C$%A(009E7/75*0%A/ 75*-0%/a@-5J/G/0%R$#A7b/10*+757/0%/-C5/7-5J7/-0/7+7-$%/Q28M/8C7/R,,/ %40,45/-C5/7*$,%:/+J/01/Q28/-0/"$95/-/"0#5/*0"J5--45/%/-5#"7/01/ -7/ (+7%577/ "0A5,/ $7/ R5,,/ $7/ "$c"7%:/ -C5/ 7J#5$A/ 01/ -7/ 5*0%0"*/94
  • 105. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &3J#0i5*-P/$1-5#/RC*C/-/7C0+,A/(5/R5$%5A/011/A#5*-/7+JJ0#-/1#0"/A0%0#/$%A/:045#%"5%-/$:5%*57M@*$,%:/+J/R,,/#5k+#5/(5--5#/,5$A5#7CJ/$%A/"$%$:5"5%-M/8C5/#0,5/01/-C5/,0*$,/*C$"J0%/7/5cJ5*-5A/-0/:#$A+$,,./A"%7C/$%A/-0/(5/#5J,$*5A/(./$/(#0$A5#/"$%$:5"5%-/($75/-0/(5/"$A5/+J/01/#5J#575%-$-457/1#0"/545#./ 75*-0%/ 01/ -C5/ *0""+%-./ 57J5*$,,./ R0"5%/ $%A/ .0+-C7M/ 8C5/Q28/0#:$%7$-0%/R,,/$,70/%55A/-0/(5/#+%/%/$/7.7-5"$-*P/-#$%7J$#5%-/$%A/$**0+%-$(,5/"$%%5#M/V-C5#R75/A0"%$%*5/R,,/75-/%M3cJ$%A%:/ -C5/ -$#:5-/ "$#95-7/ 7/ $%0-C5#/ 95./ 5,5"5%-/ 01/ "04%:/ +J/0#:$%7$-0%/7C0+,A/(5/(+7%577/7$44./5%0+:C/-0/57-$(,7C/J$#-%5#7CJ7/R-C/-0+#/0J5#$-0#7/-C$-/C$45/$**577/-0/%-5#%$-0%$,/"$#95-7M/W%/-+#%P/-C5/ Q28/ J#0i5*-7/ %55A7/ -0/ 75-/ $%A/ $--$%/ C:C5#/ 7-$%A$#A7/ 1/ -/ R$%-7/-0/ $--#$*-/ %5R/ "$#95-/ 75:"5%-7/ -C$-/ R0+,A/ (5/ "0#5/ A5"$%A%:/ $%A/A7*5#%%:/%/-C5#/5cJ5*-$-0%7M)%$,,./ -/ 7C0+,A/ (5/ 7$A/ -C$-/ ,95/ $%./ -0+#7"/ J#0A+*-P/ Q28/ J#0i5*-7/%55A/*$#51+,/J,$%%%:/$%A/"$%$:5"5%-M/N#0i5*-7/7C0+,A/%0-/(5/-#5$-5A/,95/ p70"5-C%:/ -C$-/ i+7-/ C$JJ5%7E/ (+-/ #5k+#5/ %%04$-0%P/ -$#:5-5A/"$#95-%:/ $%A/ #5:+,$#/ "0%-0#%:/ -0/ 5%7+#5/ 7+**577M/ !(045/ $,,P/ -C5/"07-/7+**5771+,/Q28/%-$-45/7C0+,A/(5/45R5A/$7/$/"5$%7/-0/$%/5%AP/-C$-/ 7/ $7/ $/ *$-$,.7-/ -0/ %+#-+#5/ -C#4%:/ #+#$,/ 5%-#5J#5%5+#7CJ/ %/ $,,/5*0%0"*/75*-0#7M 95
  • 106. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 "II5:>Cd R C F A % ; 6 % "? 5 : 8 C 5 F % e% 50J(P,B.(L@"#E O$7CC$/H0"57-$./l/X5%C$/3*0,0A:5/ + ; : A 7 8 A % ! 5 4 F ; : F % * : W ; = W 5 >% JBK,2*<%*2*;?I?>MK1-NS#K%#:%*2*;G2,-1&(:MLK,2*NS#K%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% * : % + ( $ % C : % A E 5 % " ! / +% "9<%?IDTEEEV>>A # 5 ?C;: $$$N-#:&R$(1&;0--,-NS#K% $$$N(S#&#0:21KNS#KNS-// 53J(;"-3,"(9"#+"3(:%"3( e+(:,&2#-,*%],-,L(: @$+%:/!%:9,+%:/6Ai0 B,M/N$A$7+9$/[0M/==</2$%A+%:/Z?=KTP/W%A0%57$ 5(*<%l>V%VV%AVAIAIW F,G<%>V%VV%AV?ICEA JK,2*<1,&01,&:2,M;,R##NS#N2. 50J(:#E1B10(G"%,#1-1d 5#0:21K%/(S&2#-%"(,.Y/ N#04%*5/01/e+"$#$7P/8C5/NC,JJ%57M7 5(*<%?DDB?VDAIIDW F,G<%?DDB?VDAIII "9<%?TV?TEICCVI 53J(="#E(k+"#(;&#d 3#BF#0-.(:Y% VJ5#$-0%/$%A/Q+7-0"5#/Q$#5/01/)00-J#%-/8#$45,P/ L/O5/8C$%C/80%:/@-#MP/H$/[0/ 5(*<%EW%=?@%WD%TDDVEWWY F,G<%EW%=?@%WD%TDDVECC JK,2*<%1#-MF##&+:2-&Nd- a1##.(;@"#-?( =3Je@%,-.%],:2*;-%U2.(K,-%F(2*%=2:(S&#:%#Q%],:8(&2-L@ @-M/B$*0(/Q0+%-. =><L/I%:/@-#55-/[0#-C @-M/B$*0(7P/V%-$#0/[V2/T[V 5(*<%=CIT@%>>WBVVTD%(G&N%VIV F,G<%=CIT@%>>WBVVIE JK,2*<%Z(--;M1&Z,S#71NS#K96
  • 107. " ( ) * ++, -+( -. +!!/ ( &0$-* " % 1 ) -0+/2 &% !3 !" #$%&#% ( ) ( *#+%, - %. / . &, 0-%1 2 &353J(A"#E(A,(;&&( D5J FC A 5F%# 5= 7A 5> %A ; %+($=3R,2:+(:1#-%#Q%/(#-L(0+%F#*8%d2**,L(%9:(1(:),&2#-%3#KK2&&((@@50%:5+J/)0,9/d,,$:5P/B5i+/W7,$%A IN% R&&+<OO(S#&#0:21KNS#KNS-O VN% R&&+<OO-#:&R$(1&;0--,-NS#K@50:RJ0/Q-.P/B5i+/@J5*$,/@5,1Ue045#%%:/ DN% R&&+<OO$$$N1&Z,S#71NS#KN#04%*5 WN% $$$N1&Z#S#7S#0-&:;2--NS#K5(*<%AEABCC>? CN% $$$N;,*,-Z2NS#KN,0 >N% R&&+<OO$$$N$R,*($,&SRNS#N-m53J(5&@$(!"0,*(:%$(!"*,$( AN% $$$NK21#$,*,2R#K(1&,;NS#K=3##:.2-,&#:@]/ EN% $$$N,-L8*0-LB0.Z#NS#N2.;70R$,$/H0"57-$.]/IVN3O/a2$-+/N+-5C/ TN% R&&+<OOS0**2-N#:LOS7&Q0""+%-./3*0-0+#7"/Q0U0J5#$-45b I?N% $$$NS7&)2(&-,KNS#KNN;/G></3,0J+#$ IIN% R&&+<OOL02K,:,1NL#)N+R@$%A$9$%/K????/@$($CP/;$,$.7$ IVN% $$$N&,+R2-B1,+,N2-Q#5(*<%l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l>W@%DDIT%AAVAF,GN<%=l>W@%DDIT%CI>?JK,2*<%,.K2-M$R,*($,&SRNS#N-m$$$N$R,*($,&SRNS#N-m53J(>&.(G,%0&#(3R,2:+(:1#-I+9+/`$,$%i/D#5$"-"5/X$,97e0#:5/0$AP/;077"$%_OD/Z<^>!+7-#$,$5(*N<%=l>I@%A%W?TE%VCTCF,GN%<%=l>I@%A%W?TE%V>?AJK,2*<%&#0:1M;,*,-Z2NS#KN,0$$$N;,*,-Z2NS#KN,0N%/ 97
  • 108. " ( ) * + + , - + ( - .+! ! /(&0 $-*"%1)-0+/2&%! 3 !" # $ %&# % ( ) ( * #+%,-%./.&,0-%12& 3 #56545:85F :C3,F"( >10&+3F10( 23+0-d( lIUUUmJ/ 3#KK0-2&;% 5#0:21K% 2-% /#0-&R(:-% [Q:2S,<% ],:8(&2-L% ,% 3#KK0-2&;% 5#0:21K% J-&(:+:21(N/!1#*$/570+#*57/8#+7-P/&"($(R5 :0@B1.d( )J( "#$( G"3B"#$d( <J( lIUUNmJ/ 9:#K#&2-L% 3#KK0-2&;B4,1(.% 5#0:21K% ()(*#+K(-&<% UR;Y% UR,&% [-.% "#$N/ D#5*-0#$-5/V1/3%4#0%"5%-$,/!11$#7P/;%7-#./V1/3%4#0%"5%-/!%A/80+#7"P/575$#*C/D7*+770%/N$J5#P/ [0MZM /3"*Q1BBd( /J( "#$( ;@"3*"#d( :J( lIUUUmM/ Q0,,$(0#$-0%/ %/ O0*$,/ 80+#7"/ N0,*."$9%:M/ [--,*1% #Q% 5#0:21K% ^(1(,:SRY/d0,M/TLP/[0M/TP/JJM/>KTUZ=GM )"#"$,"#( 6#,Y130,-,10( )&#0&3-,+*( lKTTTmM/ [% ],-0,*% F#:% ]#-2&#:2-L% 3#KK0-2&;% 5#0:21K% ()(*#+K(-&N% Q$%$A$%/6%45#7-57/Q0%70#-+"P/Q$%$A$M )@1%+0&3#d( ;J( lKTTMmJ/ 5*#5$-0%/ $%A/ 3*0-0+#7"/ ;$%$:5"5%-P/ [$%-$(+#f% /S2(-S(% #Q% ],-,L(K(-&Y% /08R#&R,2&R,KK,&R2:,ZN !"--&#d(5J(aJ(lIUUUmJ/ /@*C00,/01/;5A$/@-+A57P/Q$%$A$M a"*"B(2J/J("#$(G1-?d(=J(lIUUOmJ/Q0,,$(0#$-0%/8C50#./$%A/Q0""+%-./80+#7"/N,$%%%:M/[--,*1%#Q%5#0:21K% ^(1(,:SRP/d0,MTTP/[0M/=P/JJM/=<LUT?ZM a&HH1d5J(lIUURmJ/@+7-$%$(,5/Q0""+%-./80+#7"/D545,0J"5%-/547-5AP/5#0:21K%],-,L(K(-&Y/d0,M=^P/[0M/ ^P/JJM/Z^GUZ^KM a&#10d(;J(lKTTOmJ [--,*1%#Q%5#0:21K%^(1(,:SRY/ d0,M>TP/[0M/TP/JJM/>?>U>TZM A,00d(:J(lKTTNm/W7/Q0""+%-.U2$75A/3*0-0+#7"/!/e00A/675/V1/20A45#7-./Q0%75#4$-0%/)+%A7Y/5:(-.1%2-% JS#*#L;%g%J)#*0&2#-Y/d0,M=KP/[0M/GP/JJM/T>TUT>^M 5,-F@1BB( >J<J( "#$( >1,$d( =JGJ( lKTTImJ/ Q0""+%-./ W%-5:#$-0%/ W7,$%A/ 80+#7"/ %/ N5#+M/ [--,*1% #Q% 5#0:21K% ^(1(,:SRY/d0,MT<P/[0M/=P/JJM/==>U=>KM >11$d(5JGJ(lIUUVmJ/N0R5#/5,$-0%7/!%A/Q0""+%-.U2$75A/80+#7"/N,$%%%:M/[--,*1%#Q%5#0:21K%^(1(,:SRY/ d0,MTZP/[0M/>P/JJM/GGLUGK=M >10H&#0,%B1(23"Y1B(lKTTUmJ/UR,&%21%,%3#KK0-2&;B4,1(.%5#0:21Kn/C--Jf]]RRRM#57J0%7(,5-#$45,M*0"]*0J.] *0J.K?==K^MC-"M/5-#545A/T^/B$%+$#./T??KM ;7gd(lKTTTm 2".B&3d(GJ(lIUUUmJ/8C5/Q0""+%-./!JJ#0$*Cf/D057/W-/5$,,./X0#9Y/5#0:21K%],-,L(K(-&Y%d0,M=LP/[0M/^P/JJM/ Z<^UZ<KM 2@1(5&+#-",#(8#0-,-+-1(lKTTTmM/3#KK0-2&;%4,1(.%5#0:21K%Q#:%3#-1(:),&2#-%,-.%()(*#+K(-&N%!/570+#*5/I-M/ 8C5/;0+%-$%/W%7--+-5P/I$-C"$%A+/[5J$,M 67);=d(IUUUJ/@+7-$%$(,5/80+#7"f/[%`#-Ba#)(:-K(-&,*%e:L,-2m,&2#-%9(:1+(S&2)(N/2$*9:#0+%A/N$J5#/[0M/ZM/ 5J0#-/J#5J$#5A/(./-C5/6[Q@D/[eV/@-55#%:/Q0""--55/10#/^-C/@5770%/01/-C5/Q0""770%/0%/@+7-$%$(,5/ D545,0J"5%-P/=K-C/U>?-C/!J#,/=KKKP/[5R/`0#9M/sV%,%5tM/!4$,$(,5f/C--Jf]]RRRM:A#*M0#:]+5"]5*0U-0+#] %:0ZMJA1M98
  • 109. "BAE;4F%!4;6C=5 :*3"#(!"*?"@/7/$/N#015770#/$-/-C5/)$*+,-./01/2+,-/3%4#0%"5%-P/ 6%45#7-/ 859%0,0:/ ;$,$.7$P/ @9+A$P/ B0C0#P/ RC5#5/ C5/ C$7/ (55%/ -5$*C%:/ 10#/ -C5/ J$7-/ T^/ .5$#7M/ 257A57/ -5$*C%:/ -0+#7"/ J,$%%%:/ -0/J07-:#$A+$-57P/N#01M/H$"F$C/7/$,70/-C5/D#5*-0#/01/-C5/Q5%-#5/01/ W%%04$-45/N,$%%%:/l/D545,0J"5%-/=3_9@M/W%/-C5/J$7-//T?/.5$#7P/C5/ -0+#7"/J,$%%%:/$%A/A545,0J"5%-M/H7/$#5$/01/7J5*$,7$-0%/7/-C5/ %-5#1$*5/ (5-R55%/ 5*0-0+#7"/ $%A/ *0""+%-./ ($75A/ -0+#7"M/ N#01M/ H$"F$C/C$7/,5$A/"0#5/-C$%/G?/*0%7+,-$%*./J#0i5*-7/*0""770%5A/ (./ 6[3@QVP/ BWQ!P/ -C5/ ;%7-#./ 01/ 80+#7"/ ;$,$.7$P/ 80+#7"/ ;$,$.7$P/ XX)P/ W79$%A$#/ ;$,$.7$P/ 7-$-5/ :045#%"5%-7/ $%A/ -C5/ J#4$-5/75*-0#M/H5/C$7/$,70/(55%/$*-45/%/%-5#%$-0%$,/#575$#*C/1+%A5A/ (./ $:5%*57/ 7+*C/ $7/ -C5/ 2#-7C/ Q0+%*,P/ 2#-7C/!*$A5"./ $%A/!7$/D3&CJ(=3J(:*3"#(!"*?"@ -C$%/ L?/ J$J5#7]$#-*,57/ $%A/ 7/ $/ #5%0R%5A/ 7J5$95#/ $-/ %-5#%$-0%$,/ $%A/%$-0%$,/*0%15#5%*57M28(9&#83(-&:(%#Q%_--#),&2)(% E;,2*>%K(:,-LM0&KNK;%O%&+:LPQ,7M;,R##NS#K9*,--2-L%g%()(*#+K(-&-2)(:12&2%5(8-#*#L2%],*,;12, L",#"%( A@"B,C"@/ 7/ $/ N#015770#/ $-/ -C5/ )$*+,-./ 01/ ;$%$:5"5%-/ $%A/ H+"$%/ 570+#*5/ D545,0J"5%-P/ 6%45#7-/ 859%0,0:/ ;$,$.7$P/ @9+A$P/ B0C0#/ $%A/ 7/ -C5/ H5$A/ 01/ -C5/ 80+#7"/ N,$%%%:/ 575$#*C/ e#0+J/ =59^a@M/ H$4%:/ 75#45A/ $-/ 6%45#7-/ 859%0,0:/ ;$,$.7$/ 10#/ T>/ .5$#7P/ N#01M/ IC$,1$C/ 7J5*$,757/ %/ -0+#7"/ 5*0%0"*7/ $%A/ -0+#7"/"$%$:5"5%-M/257A57/-5$*C%:P/7C5/C$7/$,70/(55%/$*-45/%/ "$#95-%:P/ #+#$,/ -0+#7"/ $%A/ *0""+%-./ ($75A/ -0+#7"M/ N#01M/ IC$,1$C/7/*+##5%-,./-C5/,5$A/*0%7+,-$%-/%/"J,5"5%-%:/$/*$J$*-./ (+,A%:/J#0:#$""5/-0/7*$,5/+J/*0""+%-./($75A/-0+#7"/J#0i5*-7/ %/ 8$%i+%:/ N$P/ B0C0#/ 10#/ W79$%A$#/ ;$,$.7$M/ @C5/ 7/ $,70/ ,5$A%:/ $/ -5$"/01/*0%7+,-$%-7/RC0/C$45/(55%/*0""770%5A/(./-C5/;%7-#./01/ 80+#7"/;$,$.7$/-0/*0%A+*-/$/%$-0%RA5/7-+A./0%/-C5/J5#10#"$%*5/ 01/-C5/C0"57-$./J#0:#$""5MD3&CJ(=3J(L",#"%(A@"B,C"@ E;,2*>%KBm,2-,7M0&KNK;%O%8R,*2Q,RPmM;,R##NS#K"(,.5#0:21K%9*,--2-L^(1(,:SR%a:#0+-2)(:12&2%5(8-#*#L2%],*,;12,
  • 110. www.apec.orgPrepared by: Produced for:To u r i s m P l a n n i n g R e s e a r c h G r o u p A s i a - P a c i fi c E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n S e c r e t a r i a tFacult y of Built Environment 3 5 H e n g M u i K e n g Te r r a c e S i n g a p o r e 1 1 9 6 1 6U n i v e r s i t i Te k n o l o g i M a l a y s i a Te l : ( 6 5 ) 6 8 9 1 - 9 6 0 081310 UTM Skudai Fax : (65) 6891-9690J o h o r D a r u l Ta’ z i m Email : info@apec.orgTe l : ( 6 0 ) 0 7 - 5 5 3 0 6 5 8 Website: w w w.apec.orgFax : (60) 07 – 556 6155Email : merang@utm.my /tprg_fab@yahoo.comA P E C # 2 0 9 -TO - 0 3 . 1ISBN 978-981-08-4665-7