Hydro electric power plant

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A presentation on Hydro Electric power plant

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  • Hydro electric power plant

    1. 1. Hydro Electric Power Plant Presented by Vijay Marcel D M.Tech(RE) - I Year
    2. 2. Energy Energy Non Renewable Energy Renewable energy Fossil fuels Hydro power Nuclear fuels Wind energy Solar energy Ocean energy
    3. 3. Hydro electric power plant - Intro • Hydro electric power plant harness power from water under pressure to generate power. • Nearly 30% of the total power generated by world is met by hydro electric. • In India the first major hydro electric scheme was implemented as Sivasamudram scheme in Mysore with 4.5MW capacity.
    4. 4. Selection of site • The site for Hydraulic power plant is selected considering the following factors  Water available.  Storage of water.  Head of water.  Distance from load center.  Accessibility of the site.  The land of site should be cheap and rocky.
    5. 5. Scheme of Hydro Electric power plant
    6. 6. Components power plant          of hydro Reservoir Dam Fore bay Trash rack Waterway Draft tube Surge tank Spillway Power house and equipment. electric
    7. 7. Water reservoir • Reservoir is used to store water behind the dam which is utilized by hydro electric plant to produce the water. • Reservoir may be natural or artificial. • Water held in the upstream reservoir is called storage and water behind the dam at the plant is called pondage.
    8. 8. Dams • A Dam is a structure of masonry built at a suitable location across a river. • The primary function of the dam is to provider the head of water. • Dams are classified based on  Function  Shape  Construction materials  Design
    9. 9. Dams - Classification Storage Dams Diversion Dams Functions Arch Dam Shape Trapezoidal Gravity DAM Stone masonry Construction material RCC Arch Buttress Earth Rock fill Design Structural Hydraulic Overflow Non-overflow
    10. 10. Forebay • Forebay acts as a regulating reservoir temporarily • The forebay has the following parts  Entrance bay  Spillway  Flushing sluice  Screens  Valve chamber  Penstock inlet
    11. 11. Trash rack • It is provided for preventing the debris from getting into the intakes from dam or from the forebay • Trash rack is made up of steel bars • The spacing of bars depends upon the following factors  Type of turbine  Size of floating material  Velocity of flow through trash rack.
    12. 12. Waterway • A waterway is used to carry water from the dam to powerhouse. • It includes canal, penstock and tunnel • Tunnel is the passage by cutting mountain to reduce the length of waterway to reservoir and the power house. • The tunnel is either circular or horse shoe shaped. • A canal is an open structure constructed on earth or rock. • The canal should be located on the economically short route.
    13. 13. Waterway • Penstock is a pipe which carry the water from reservoir to turbine house. • Penstock is made up of steel or reinforced concrete or wood. • Penstock should be sloping towards the powerhouse. • Sharp bends should be avoided and require special anchorages . • The intake of the penstock should be at a low level to provide adequate water seal under all conditions
    14. 14. Draft tube • A Draft tube connects the runner exit to tail race. • Draft tube provides a negative head at the runner outlet by which it is possible to attach a turbine above the tail race. • The outlet velocity of water is reduced and a gain in pressure head i.e. the net working head of turbine is increased.
    15. 15. Surge tanks • Surge tank is a storage reservoir fitted to a penstock . • It controls the pressure variations resulting from the rapid change in water flow from penstock and thereby prevents water hammer effects. • It’s function is to control water when load on turbine decreases and supplies water when the load on the turbine increases.
    16. 16. Power house and equipment • In the powerhouse conversion of energy of water to electrical energy takes place. • It has the following equipments  Turbines  Generators  Relief valve for penstock fittings  Transformers  Switch board equipment and instruments  Low tension and high tension bus bar  Governors  Flow measurement equipments
    17. 17. Turbines • Hydraulic turbines are classified into two types they are  Impulse turbines  Reaction turbines • Hydraulic turbine has the following parts  Runner  Guiding mechanism  Tail race • The impulse turbines are used for high head power plants and reaction turbines are used for low and medium head power plants.
    18. 18. Advantages of hydro electric power plant • Water is cheapest and reliable source of generation of electric power. • It’s maintenance cost is low • No fuel transportation problem • Running cost of plant is low • The life of plant is more and effect of age is comparatively small on the overall efficiency of the plant • In addition to power generation it is used for irrigation and flood control purposes.
    19. 19. Disadvantages of hydro electric power plant • The power produced by the plant depends upon quantity of water in the dam and rainfall. • The cost of transmission is high • Erection of the plant takes long time • Initial cost of the plant is high.
    20. 20. Thank you With regards Vijay Marcel D M.Tech(RE) – I Year

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