Introduction     Framework         Tools        Application   Conclusions




                                Melinda
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Introduction             Framework   Tools   Application   Conclusions




      1    Introduction

      2    Framework

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Introduction       Framework         Tools         Application      Conclusions


Publishing datasets on the Web



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Introduction        Framework         Tools     Application   Conclusions


Interlinking datasets

      Links are contain...
Introduction   Framework   Tools   Application   Conclusions


Web Data Cloud
Introduction            Framework         Tools         Application       Conclusions


Goodie : Open Data's coming up



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Introduction            Framework        Tools         Application      Conclusions


What do we do ?




               W...
Introduction      Framework           Tools          Application      Conclusions


General approach




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Introduction      Framework             Tools             Application      Conclusions


Manual resource alignement




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Introduction          Framework              Tools           Application       Conclusions


Matching identiers - Exemple
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Introduction         Framework          Tools          Application        Conclusions


Datasets sharing a common ontology...
Introduction     Framework              Tools              Application   Conclusions


Datasets sharing a common ontology ...
Introduction          Framework          Tools         Application        Conclusions


Matching datasets having heterogen...
Introduction         Framework                Tools                Application          Conclusions


Exemple



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Introduction          Framework          Tools          Application         Conclusions


General interlinking framework

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Introduction        Framework           Tools           Application     Conclusions


Processes and specications




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Introduction            Framework        Tools         Application      Conclusions


Analysis criterion


      Degree of...
Introduction            Framework         Tools         Application        Conclusions


Analysis criterion

      Ontolog...
Introduction        Framework         Tools          Application       Conclusions


Six interlinking tools



         RK...
Introduction             Framework             Tools           Application           Conclusions


Six interlinking tools
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Introduction              Framework                   Tools               Application              Conclusions


 Applicat...
Introduction              Framework                   Tools              Application               Conclusions


Applicati...
Introduction              Framework                   Tools   Application   Conclusions


Application

      Using the ali...
Introduction            Framework        Tools         Application       Conclusions


Conclusions


               We pro...
Introduction            Framework        Tools         Application       Conclusions


For more




               http://...
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Melinda: Methods and tools for Web Data Interlinking

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Presentation given at STI Innsbruck the 17th of December 2009.

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Melinda: Methods and tools for Web Data Interlinking

  1. 1. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Melinda Methods and tools for Web data Interlinking François Schare December  @ STI Innsbruck
  2. 2. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions 1 Introduction 2 Framework 3 Tools 4 Application 5 Conclusions
  3. 3. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Publishing datasets on the Web Four publication principles 1 Resources are identied by URIs. 2 URIs are dereferenceable. 3 When a URI is dereferenced, a description of the identied resource should be returned, ideally adapted through content negotiation. 4 Published Web datasets must contain links to other Web datasets.
  4. 4. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Interlinking datasets Links are contained in specic datasets http://www.example.org/linkset/DBPedia-MB a void:Linkset ; void:target http://www.dpbedia.org; void:target http://www.musicbrainz.org; http://www.example.org/linkset/DBPedia-MB http://www.dbpedia.org/resource/ Johann_Sebastian_Bach owl:sameAs http://www.musicbrainz.org/artist/ 24f1766e-9635-4d58-a4d4-9413f9f98a4c .
  5. 5. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Web Data Cloud
  6. 6. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Goodie : Open Data's coming up data.gov, US Data Act data.gov.co.uk, Sir TBL on the track Other intitiatives around : from the EU, Open Data intitiatives
  7. 7. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions What do we do ? We propose a framework capturing the various data interlinking methods We study existing tools and position them in the framework We propose an architecture allowing to articulate ontology alignment and interlinking tools
  8. 8. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions General approach owl :sameAs URI1 URI2 Data interlinking Fig.: The data interlinking problem.
  9. 9. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Manual resource alignement owl :sameAs URI1 URI2 URI transformation Fig.: URI transformation.
  10. 10. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Matching identiers - Exemple owl:sameAs http://www.lastfm.fr/music/ http://dbpedia.org/resource/ Johann+Sebastian+Bach Johann_Sebastian_Bach URI alignment Fig.: URI transformation exemple
  11. 11. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Datasets sharing a common ontology owl :sameAs Resource URI1 matching of URI2 datasets described by the same ontology O1 Fig.: Matching two datasets described according to the same ontology.
  12. 12. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Datasets sharing a common ontology - Exemple mo:MusicArtist type type DBPedia Musicbrainz URI1 URI2 first last first last Johann- Jean- Sebastian Bach Sébastien Bach Resource matching algorithm, datasets described according to a common ontology Fig.: Matching data sharing a common ontology
  13. 13. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Matching datasets having heterogeneous ontologies owl :sameAs Resource URI1 matching of URI2 datasets described by dierent ontologies O1 Implicit alignment O2 Fig.: Two datasets matched using an implicit alignment.
  14. 14. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Exemple OpenCyc Musicbrainz Classical Music Performer mo:MusicArtist type type URI1 URI2 English ID givenname Jean-Sébastien Johann Sebastian name Bach Bach
  15. 15. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions General interlinking framework owl :sameAs URI1 URI2 Data interlinking O1 Alignment O2 Ontology matching Fig.: General framework for data interlinking involving ontology matching.
  16. 16. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Processes and specications process result instance link specication linkset class matcher alignment Tab.: Matching process, interlinks, and their results.
  17. 17. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Analysis criterion Degree of Automation Is the tool completely automatic ? Does the tool need to be parametrized by the user ? What kind of parameters (data matching techniques, ontology alignment) ? Used matching techniques String matching ? External functions (values conversion, data transformations) ? Similarity propagation ? Other techniques ? Domain : Is the tool specic for a given domain ?
  18. 18. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Analysis criterion Ontologies Does the tool take into account ontologies associated to the datasets ? Does the tool allow to interlink datasets described according to dierent ontologies ? In the case the ontologies dier, does the tool perform ontology alignment ? Output What does the tool produce in output ? Does the tool propose to merge the two input datasets ? Postprocessing Does the tool perform any post-processing operations ?
  19. 19. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Six interlinking tools RKB-CRS Coreference resolution service of the RKB RDF Knowledge Base. LD-mapper Interlinking tool for the music ontology MO. ODD Linker Interlinking tool based on SQL record matching. RDF-AI Interlinking and data fusion tool. Silk et Silk LSL Interlinking tool and link specication language. Knofuss architecture Outil Interlinking and data fusion tool with ontology alignment.
  20. 20. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Six interlinking tools owl:sameAs URI 1 URI 2 Resource comparison method LD-Mapper ODD-Linker RKB-CRS Implicit Explicit O1 Alignment Alignment O2 Silk RDF-AI Knofuss Ontology Matching System Fig.: Tools positioned in the dened framework
  21. 21. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Application Let us consider a link specication between DBPedia and Geonames : Interlink id=cities Silk LinkTypeowl:sameAs/LinkType Prefix id=rdfs namespace= SourceDataset dataSource=dbpedia var=a http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema# / RestrictTo Prefix id=dbpedia namespace= ?a rdf:type dbpedia:City http://dbpedia.org/ontology/ / /RestrictTo Prefix id=gn namespace= /SourceDataset http://www.geonames.org/ontology# / TargetDataset dataSource=geonames var=b RestrictTo DataSource id=dbpedia ?b rdf:type gn:P EndpointURIhttp://demo_sparql_server1/sparql /RestrictTo /EndpointURI /TargetDataset Graphhttp://dbpedia.org/Graph LinkCondition /DataSource AVG Compare metric=jaroSimilarity DataSource id=geonames Param name=str1 path=?a/rdfs:label / EndpointURIhttp://demo_sparql_server2/sparql Param name=str2 path=?b/gn:name / /EndpointURI /Compare Graphhttp://sws.geonames.org//Graph Compare metric=numSimilarity /DataSource Param name=num1 path=?a/dbpedia:populationTotal / Thresholds accept=0.9 verify=0.7 / Param name=num2 path=?b/gn:population / Output acceptedLinks=accepted_links.n3 /Compare verifyLinks=verify_links.n3 /AVG mode=truncate / /LinkCondition /Interlink /Silk
  22. 22. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Application The alignment implicitely contained in the link specication. align:map [ :map2 a align:Cell; align:entity1 [ a align:Property; edoal:and dbpedia:populationTotal. :dbp-geo a align:Alignment; edoal:and [ a edoal:PropertyDomainRestriction; align:onto1 http://dbpedia.org/ontology/; edoal:domain dbpedia:City. align:onto2 http://www.geonames.org/ontology#; ]; align:map [ :map1 a align:Cell; align:entity2 [ a align:Property; align:entity1 dbpedia:City; edoal:and gn:population; align:entity2 gn:P; edoal:and [ a edoal:PropertyDomainRestriction; align:relation align:subsumedBy. edoal:domain gn:P. ]; ]; align:relation align:equivalent. align:map [ :map2 a align:Cell; ]; align:entity1 dbpedia:populationTotal; align:map [ :map2 a align:Cell; align:entity2 gn:population; align:entity1 [ a align:Property; align:relation align:equivalent. edoal:and rdfs:label. ]; edoal:and [ a edoal:PropertyDomainRestriction; align:map [ :map3 a align:Cell; edoal:domain dbpedia:City. align:entity1 rdfs:label; ]; align:entity2 gn:name; align:entity2 [ a align:Property; align:relation align:equivalent. edoal:and gn:name; ]. edoal:and [ a edoal:PropertyDomainRestriction; edoal:domain gn:P. ]; align:relation align:equivalent. ].
  23. 23. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Application Using the alignment, the link specication can be simplied. UseAlignment rdf:resource=#dbp-geo / Interlink id=cities LinkTypeowl:sameAs/LinkType LinkCell rdf:resource=#map1 / LinkCondition AVG Compare metric=jaroSimilarity CellParam rdf:resource=#map2 / /Compare Compare metric=numSimilarity CellParam rdf:resource=#map3 / /Compare /AVG /LinkCondition Thresholds accept=0.9 verify=0.7 / Output acceptedLinks=accepted_links.n3 verifyLinks=verify_links.n3 mode=truncate / /Interlink
  24. 24. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Conclusions We propose a framework for data interlinking on the Web of data. We have presented existing tools and positioned them wrt the framework. We propose a simplication of the interlinking task and demonstrate it on an example. Our current work goes towards more interoperability for link specications : Is it possible to construct more generic link specications ? ie attached to datasets or ontologies Is it possible to automatically nd out the key properties allowing to identify matching pairs ?
  25. 25. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions For more http://melinda.inrialpes.fr François Schare et Jérôme Euzenat. Linked data meets ontology matching : enhancing data interlinking through ontology alignments. (submitted WWW'2010).

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