The Punic Wars Lecture


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  • Legion: up to 6,000 menCentury: 100 menAllowed flexibility of fighting as a large group or many smaller groups
  • Carthage had been a Phoenician colony, hence the name
  • Hannibal was a very smart general who hated RomeRoman soldiers left space between each other to minimize damage by the elephantsBlew trumpets and yelled to distract elephants
  • During exile, Hannibal joins up with an Asian army to fight the Romans; when his army loses, he commits suicide rather than be taken prisoner by the Romans
  • The Punic Wars Lecture

    1. 1. The Punic Wars264BC – 146BC
    2. 2. Conquering Italy• 509BC – 264BC: Roman armyconquers Italian peninsula,including Etruscans• 387 BC: Gauls take over Romeand finally leave when Romepays them a lot of money• Other empires tried to attackRome but Rome defeated themand took their land• Army was successful because oforganization (legions andcenturies)
    3. 3. The First Punic War• Punic Wars: series of wars between Rome andCarthage, a city in northern Africa• Punic: Latin for Phoenician• Rome wanted Spain and Sicily which werecontrolled by Carthage• Carthage sent army to defend Sicily, Rome sentarmy too• Fought mostly at sea• 241BC: Last major battle, Rome took Sicily andother islands in victory
    4. 4. • 218BC: Hannibal led the Carthaginians to attackRome• Marched his army across Spain and through theAlps to Rome• Troops rode elephants, braved snowstorms andlandslides, and survived attacks• Over half the army and most of theelephants were killed in the Alps• Hannibal’s army fought Rome for15 years!The Second Punic War
    5. 5. The Second Punic War• 202BC: Hannibal returned home to defendCarthage against the Roman army, led byScipio• Scipio defeats Hannibal at the Battle of Zama• Hannibal goes into exile• Carthage had to give up Spain and a hugeamount of money• Led to a period of peace that lasted 50 years
    6. 6. The Third Punic War• 140s BC: Roman senator Cato demandedthe destruction of Carthage because theywere becoming too powerful• 146BC: Romans burn the city of Carthage tothe ground and salt the land• Romans killed many of the Carthaginiansand enslaved 50,000• Rome now controlled North Africa, Spain,Sicily, Macedonia, Greece and Italy.• Lasted only 3 years
    7. 7. The Aftermath• Rome expanded its power and territory,gained riches and slaves• Families mourned the death of fallen soldiers• Hannibal had burned many Roman farms, somany people lost their living and moved toRome• These farms were replaced by imports andlarge estates run by the Patricians and workedby slaves