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Sumer Presentation Sumer Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Sumer Civilization History Alive Textbook
  • Stable Food Supply Used (1) IRRIGATION SYSTEM to farm in the (2) FERTILE CRESCENT in Mesopotamia Invented the (3) PLOW to till the soil and prepare it for planting  Before, they poked holes in the ground using animal bones, which took a very long time. Used (4) OXEN to pull the plow
  • Social Structure (5) UPPER: priests, land owners, government officials  Had large two-story homes made of whitewashed mud walls in the city center (6) MIDDLE: merchants and craftspeople  Used gold, silver, tin, led, copper, bronze  Made swords, plows, hoes, mirrors, jewelry (7) LOWER: Slaves  Had no property and lived with owner
  • Government City-states were led by kings (8) CHOSEN BY GODS Enforced laws, collected taxes, maintained irrigation and army Army made of professional soldiers and temporary citizen-soldiers  Foot soldiers, (9) CHARIOT DRIVERS (10) GOVERNORS ruled towns outside the main city (11) SCRIBES recorded laws
  • Religion Affected all parts of life and created a bond between people Believed they could please the gods by showing love and devotion King built and maintained huge temples, or (12) ZIGGURATS, where the gods lived  Staircases allowed gods to come down to Earth Statues showed people (13) WORSHIPPING Religious (14) CEREMONIES involved music and sometimes human sacrifice
  • Arts Painting, architecture, music (15) METALWORKERS made weapons, cups, jewelry, mirrors (16) MUSICIANS played music to entertain and please the gods and people  Played the drums, pipes, and (17) LYRE, a wooden instrument with strings that was often decorated
  • Technology Most important: (18) WHEEL in (19) 3500 BCE  Used for pottery, farmer carts, army chariots  Before, used a (20) SLEDGE, or flat-bottom cart  Wheeled carts were faster and easier for oxen to pull Invented upside-down U and V (21) ARCHES to make stronger doorways and more beautiful buildings
  • Writing Invented (22) CUNEIFORM, a highly developed written language, around 2400 BCE Wrote on (23) CLAY TABLETS Used to track trade Based on (24) PICTOGRAPHS, or symbols that stand for real objects
  • Standard of Ur - War
  • Standard of Ur - Peace