In Mesopotamia it is either very (1) DRY or the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (2) FLOOD. Humans needed a way to control the rivers’ flow. The answer is (3) IRRIGATION! (4) IRRIGATION: SUPPLYING THE LAND WITH WATER BY USING CANALS People built (5) IRRIGATION SYSTEMS using dams and canals to control river water.
Irrigation increased the (5) AMOUNT of food farmers were able to grow. Farmers created a (6) SURPLUS of food. Surplus – (7) MORE THAN WHAT IS NEEDED Because farming was so productive, many people were free to (7) PURSUE OTHER JOBS .
Most people became (8) ARTISANS . Artisans – workers who are especially skilled in (9) CRAFTING ITEMS BY HAND By 3000BC people learned to mix (10) COPPER AND TIN to make bronze from melting rocks. This led to the (11) BRONZE AGE Bronze was used to make durable weapons, tools, helmets and shields.
Because of surplus, the human population (12) EXPLODED. In 8000BC there were (13) 5 MILLION people on Earth. By 5000BC, the population was (13) 20 MILLION. Towns grew larger and eventually became cities. (14) PUBLIC BUILDINGS for storing grain and religion were built. Public (15) MARKETS existed for buying and selling goods. By (16) 3000BCE, cities existed all over southern Mesopotamia.