Macedonia was north of GreeceMacedonians saw themselves as Greeks, but the Greeks saw the Macedonians as barbariansKing Philip had Alexander tutored by Aristotle to become more GreekPhilip unified Macedonia, which had been weak and divided and strengthened the army (became stronger than Sparta)
Alexander thought of himself as Greek (spoke Greek, role model was Achilles, hero of the Trojan War)
As he went, he established cities that were often named after himselfMoved from conquest to conquest quickly, pushing his army
Alexander the Great
359BC: Phillip II rose to thethrone of MacedoniaHe wanted to make his kingdomstronger than the PersiansHe admired everything Greekand even taught his army tofight like the GreeksHe wanted to unite Macedoniaand Greece
King Phillip took over the Greek city-states one by one. Some joined willingly,others did not.Effect of the Peloponnesian Wars?In 338BC, the Macedonians crushed theGreeks at the Battle of Chaeronea (nearThebes)Phillip now controlled most of Greece
Phillip planned to conquerPersia with the help of theGreeks but Phillip wasassassinated in 336 BC His son Alexander becameking at 20 years old He had been a commander atage 16 and was ready to lead In 334 BC, Alexander invadedAsia Minor
Over the next year, Alexanderfreed the Greek city-states in AsiaMinor and defeated a largeportion of the Persian army In 332BC, he conquered Syriaand Egypt He built the city of Alexandria inEgypt. It became a center ofbusiness and trade. In 331BC, Alexander wins theBattle of Gaugamela (nearBabylon)
After Gaugamela, Alexander easily overran therest of the Persian army. Over the next three years Alexander expandedthe empire past Persia. He conquered through Pakistan and all the wayto India. In India there were many bloody battles. Alexander’s soldiers were exhausted anddemanded to return home.
Alexander wanted to continuethe fight in India but helistened to his troops. In 323BC on the way home toMacedonia, Alexander got afever while in Babylon. He was tired and weak frompast battles wounds. Alexander died after 10 daysof fever at the age of 32. Henever made it home.