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# 2.1 frequency distributions, histograms, and related topics

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### 2.1 frequency distributions, histograms, and related topics

1. 1. 2.1 Frequency Distributions,Histograms, and Related Topics CHAPTER 2 ORGANIZING DATA PART 1: FREQUENCY TABLES
2. 2. Frequency Tables A frequency table organizes data into classes or intervals and shows how many data values are in each class.  The classes or intervals are constructed so that each data value falls into exactly one class.  A frequency table will have the following set up: These elements make up a “basic” frequency table
3. 3. How to Make a Frequency Table1. Determine the number of classes and the corresponding class width.  The number of classes should be determined by the spread of the data and the purpose of the frequency table (the number of classes is often, but not always, given to you)  To find the Class Width (Integer Data):  Compute:  Round to the next highest whole number (this ensures that all classes taken together cover the data)
4. 4. How to Make a Frequency Table2. Create distinct classes.  The lower class limit is the lowest data value that can fit in a class.  The upper class limit is the highest data value that can fit in a class.  The class width is the difference between the lower class limit of one class and the lower class limit of the next class.  To create the classes: 1. Use the smallest data value as the lower class limit of the first class 2. Find the lower class limit of the second class by adding the class width 3. Continue to find all lower class limits by following this pattern
5. 5. How to Make a Frequency Table3. Fill in upper class limits to create distinct classes that accommodate all possible data values from the data set.  Note: there should be NO overlap
6. 6. How to Make a Frequency Table4. Tally the data into classes. Find the class frequency.  To tally data: 1. Examine each data value 2. Determine which class contains the data value. Each data value should fall into exactly once class. 3. Make a tally mark in that class’ tally column  To find the class frequency: add up the tallies and put the total in the class frequency column.
7. 7. How to Make a Frequency Table5. Compute the midpoint (class mark) for each class.  The center of each class is called the midpoint or class mark, it is often used as a representative value of the entire class.  To find the midpoint:
8. 8. How to Make a Frequency Table6. Determine the class boundaries.  The halfway points between the upper limit of one class and the lower limit of the next class are called class boundaries.  To find the Class Boundaries (Integer Data): 1. To find the upper class boundaries, add 0.5 unit to the upper class limits. 2. To find the lower class boundaries, subtract 0.5 unit from the lower class limits.
9. 9. How to Make a Frequency Table7. Find the relative frequency of each class.  The relative frequency of a class is the proportion of all data values that fall into that class.  The total of the relative frequencies should be 1, but rounded results may make the total slightly higher or lower than 1.  To find the relative frequency: ≈ means “approximately equal to”. Use this symbol anytime you round.
10. 10. How to Make a Frequency Table8. Find the cumulative frequency for each class.  The cumulative frequency for a class is the sum of the frequencies for that class and all previous classes.  To find the cumulative frequency: add the relative frequency of each class and all classes before it.
11. 11. Summary: How to Make a Frequency Table Hint: Before making a frequency table, order the data from smallest to largest. Using the graphing calculator to order data: 1. Hit STAT 2. Choose 1: Edit 3. Enter the data values into L1 4. Hit STAT 5. Chose 2:SortA( 6. Hit 2nd 1, close parentheses, hit Enter 7. To view the ordered list: hit STAT, Choose 1:Edit
12. 12. Summary: How to Make a Frequency Table1. Determine the number of classes and the corresponding class width.2. Create distinct classes (lower class limits)3. Fill in upper class limits4. Tally the data into classes. Find the class frequency.5. Compute the midpoint for each class.6. Determine the class boundaries.7. Find the relative frequency of each class.8. Find the cumulative frequency for each class.
13. 13. Page 41 Example 1 – Frequency TableA task force to encourage car pooling did a study ofone-way commuting distances of workers in the downtown Dallas area.A random sample of 60 of these workers was taken. The commutingdistances of the workers in the sample are given in Table 2-1. Make afrequency table for these data with six classes. One-Way Commuting Distances (in Miles) for 60 Workers in Downtown Dallas Table 2-1
14. 14. Example 1 – Frequency TableClass Class Tally Frequency Class Relative CumulativeLimits Boundaries Midpoint Frequency Frequency
15. 15. Homework Page 50  #1 – 6 all  #11, 13, 14 Parts a and b only  #17
16. 16. 2.1 Frequency Distributions,Histograms, and Related Topics CHAPTER 2 ORGANIZING DATA PART 2: GRAPHS
17. 17. Histograms and Relative-Frequency Histograms Histograms and Relative-Frequency Histograms provide a visual display of data organized into frequency tables.  Use bars to represent each class  All bars touch each other AP Test: You will be harshly penalized for a lack of titles and labels!
18. 18. How to Make Histograms1. Make a frequency table2. Place class boundaries on the horizontal axis and frequencies or relative frequencies on the vertical axis3. Draw the bars  The width of the bar = class width  Height of the bars of a histogram = class frequency  Height of the bars of a relative-frequency histogram = relative frequency of that class
19. 19. Example 2 Histogram and Relative-Frequency Histogram Make a histogram and a relative-frequency histogram with six bars for the data in Table 2-1 showing one-way commuting distances. Class Class Tally Frequency Class Relative Cumulative Limits Boundaries Midpoint Frequency Frequency 1–8 0.5 – 8.5 14 4.5 14/60 ≈ 0.23 0.239 – 16 8.5 – 16.5 21 12.2 21/60 ≈ 0.35 0.5817 – 24 16.5 – 24.5 11 20.5 11/60 ≈0.18 0.7625 – 32 24.5 – 32.5 6 28.5 6/60 ≈ 0.10 0.8633 – 40 32. 5 – 40.5 4 36.5 4/60 ≈ 0.07 0.9341 – 48 40.5 – 48.5 4 44.5 4/60 ≈ 0.07 1
20. 20. Example 2Histogram and Relative-Frequency Histogram
21. 21. Histograms in the Graphing Calculator1. Make a frequency table2. Enter the data in L13. Hit 2nd y=, hit enter4. Highlight On, hit enter, choose the histogram picture, hit enter5. Hit WINDOW Xmin = lowest class boundary Ymin = 0 Xmax = highest class boundary Ymax = highest frequency Xscl = class width yscl = 16. Hit GRAPH Hit TRACE to see boundaries and frequency of each bar
22. 22. Distribution Shapes Histograms are valuable and useful tools. If the raw data came from a random sample of population values, the histogram constructed from the sample values should have a distribution shape that is reasonably similar to that of the population. (Page 47) The shape of a histogram AP Test: There are can valuable information often questions on interpreting given about the data histograms.
23. 23. Distribution Shapes Mound-shaped symmetrical  Both sides are (approximately) the same (mirror images)
24. 24. Distribution Shapes Uniform or rectangular  Every class has equal frequency  “Symmetrical”
25. 25. Distribution Shapes Skewed left or skewed right  One tail is stretched out longer than the other. The direction of skewness is on the side of the longer tail.
26. 26. Distribution Shapes Bimodal  Two classes with the largest frequencies are separated by at least one class.  May not have the same frequency  May indicate that we are sampling from two different populations
27. 27. Distribution Shapes Outliers  Outliers in a data set are the data values that are very different from other measurements in the data set.  If there are gaps in the histogram between bars at either end of the graph, the data set may include outliers  Outliers may indicate data-recording errors  Valid outliers may be so unusual that they should be examined separately from the data set
28. 28. Ogives An ogive is a graph that displays cumulative frequencies.  It is a line graph that starts on the horizontal axis and increases
29. 29. How to Make an Ogive1. Make a frequency table2. Place upper class boundaries on the horizontal axis and cumulative frequencies on the vertical axis.3. Make a dot over the upper class boundaries at the height of the cumulative class frequency. Connect the dots with line segments.  The ogive beings on the horizontal axis at the lower class boundary of the first class.
30. 30. Example 3 Page 49 Cumulative Frequency Table and OgiveAspen, Colorado, is a world-famous ski area. If the daily hightemperature is above 40F, the surface of the snow tends to melt. Itthen freezes again at night. This can result in a snow crust that is icy. Italso can increase avalanche danger.Table 2-11 gives a summary of daily high temperatures (F) in Aspenduring the 151-day ski season. High Temperatures During the Aspen Ski Season (F) Table 2-11
31. 31. Example 3 Page 49 Cumulative Frequency Table and Ogivea) Draw the corresponding ogivea) Looking at the ogive, estimate the total number of days with a high temperature lower than or equal to 40F.
32. 32. Page 54 Dotplots Dotplots are useful displays of categorical or qualitative variables because they show the individual data values and the raw data.  Horizontal axis is a number line that spans the data  Each data value is a dot or point above the corresponding value on the horizontal axis.  Repeated values are represented by stacked dots Example of a dotplot: Number of RBIs
33. 33. Homework Page 50  #7 – 10  #11, 13, 14 Parts c through f only (note you did parts a and b already!)  #19