Determinants of Health  Jonathan Fielding Professor of Health Services and Pediatrics, UCLA Director of Public Health and ...
What makes health? <ul><li>Like a book—define the production function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
What is health? <ul><li>What does it mean to you? </li></ul><ul><li>What are its major characteristics and dimensions? </l...
“ ...a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” World...
“… an individual’s capacity in relation to aspirations and potential for living fully in the social environment.” Alvin Ta...
Population Health <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it best defined by the sum of the health of individuals in the ...
What determines health? <ul><li>Public surveys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical care </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public consumptio...
 
How have health problems changed? <ul><li>Longevity in 1900 vs 2000? </li></ul><ul><li>Communicable diseases </li></ul><ul...
How have health problems changed? <ul><li>Chronic diseases— </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are they? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Health Behaviors and Health Outcomes Multiple Pathways
 
Family Environment Family Functioning Family Life-Cycle Family’s Characteristics Community, Society & Culture Individual’s...
Family’s Characteristics Health Biological Psychological Health Behaviors Demographic Income Education Occupation Race Eth...
Family Effects on Physical  Aggression by Children Trembly et al., 1996
Hostility and Mortality by City Williams et al., 1980  Honolulu Minneapolis Seattle Denver Cleveland Detroit Des Moines Ne...
Psychological Problems  Within Families With at Least One Child with a Psychological Diagnosis Mother (-)  Mother (+) Fath...
Health of children: a special case <ul><li>What are differences between the relative importance of influences on child and...
Individual health versus population health  <ul><li>Does sum of health of individuals comprise health of the population?  ...
Determinants of Individual Health Social Environment Physical  Environment Genetic Endowment Individual Response  -Behavio...
Burden of Disease and Injury: Measures <ul><li>Mortality rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the traditional measure of burden </l...
Leading Causes of Death in Los Angeles County, 1997 Number of Deaths in 1999 Los Angeles County Department of Health Servi...
Overall Burden of Disease Among Men in Los Angeles County Based on DALYs, 1997
Overall Burden of Disease Among Women in Los Angeles County Based on DALYs, 1997
Among Adults (Age 18 years and older), Average Number of Activity Limitation Days by Chronic Health Condition, Los Angeles...
Social Ties and and 9 year Mortality in Alameda County, CA Berkman L et al. Social networks, host resistance, and mortalit...
Social Ties and and 9 year Mortality in Alameda County, CA Berkman L et al. Social networks, host resistance, and mortalit...
Income & Health Relative risk of coronary heart disease death by civil service rank- male civil service workers Marmot MG ...
Environmental Exposure Haile RW, et al. The Health Effects of Swimming in Ocean Water Contaminated by Storm Drain Runoff. ...
Health Disparities <ul><li>Major differences in frequency and severity of major diseases by race and ethnicity </li></ul><...
Prevalence of Asthma Among Children (Age 0 to 17 years) by Race/Ethnicity and Age, Los Angeles County, 1999 - 2000 * Estim...
Key Health Indicators (LAC) <ul><li>Uninsured adults under 65    31% </li></ul><ul><li>Overweight and obese adults    52...
Community Health <ul><li>Population health but includes the characteristics of community that influence determinants over ...
Community Health Report Cards <ul><li>Attempt to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide snapshot of community health/ quality of l...
Determinants of Health regulation regulation GENETIC ENVIORNMENT INDIVIDUAL RESPONSE: BIOLOGICAL BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ...
Thinking ahead <ul><li>Need to consider contribution of different community institutions to health (potential vs actual) <...
Health Department Roles <ul><li>Educate the public about multiple determinants and broad definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Inf...
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Fielding deterhlth

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Fielding deterhlth

  1. 1. Determinants of Health Jonathan Fielding Professor of Health Services and Pediatrics, UCLA Director of Public Health and Health Officer, LA County
  2. 2. What makes health? <ul><li>Like a book—define the production function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unlike a book, need to define what we mean by health </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is health? <ul><li>What does it mean to you? </li></ul><ul><li>What are its major characteristics and dimensions? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you know when you see it? </li></ul>
  4. 4. “ ...a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” World Health Organization, 1948
  5. 5. “… an individual’s capacity in relation to aspirations and potential for living fully in the social environment.” Alvin Tarlov, 1996
  6. 6. Population Health <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it best defined by the sum of the health of individuals in the population? Why or why not? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the different populations of interest? </li></ul>
  7. 7. What determines health? <ul><li>Public surveys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical care </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins/ supplements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cosmetic procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viagra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HRT </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. How have health problems changed? <ul><li>Longevity in 1900 vs 2000? </li></ul><ul><li>Communicable diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major killers since before recorded history through early 20 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decimated native American populations during early contact with Europeans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are key factors that reduced their toll? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. How have health problems changed? <ul><li>Chronic diseases— </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are they? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How quickly do they develop? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Health Behaviors and Health Outcomes Multiple Pathways
  11. 13. Family Environment Family Functioning Family Life-Cycle Family’s Characteristics Community, Society & Culture Individual’s Innate Characteristics Individual Health Individual’s Development Individual’s Community Community and Family Pathways to Health Family Functions
  12. 14. Family’s Characteristics Health Biological Psychological Health Behaviors Demographic Income Education Occupation Race Ethnicity Housing Residence Employment Religion Language Household Marital Status Composition Relation
  13. 15. Family Effects on Physical Aggression by Children Trembly et al., 1996
  14. 16. Hostility and Mortality by City Williams et al., 1980 Honolulu Minneapolis Seattle Denver Cleveland Detroit Des Moines New York Philadelphia Chicago
  15. 17. Psychological Problems Within Families With at Least One Child with a Psychological Diagnosis Mother (-) Mother (+) Father (-) Father (+) Father (-) Father (+) 36% 47% 68% 72% (-) Individual without diagnosis (+) Individual with diagnosis Child (+)
  16. 18. Health of children: a special case <ul><li>What are differences between the relative importance of influences on child and adult health? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of other caregivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health/ development interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term impact of lifestyles/ attitudes </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Individual health versus population health <ul><li>Does sum of health of individuals comprise health of the population? </li></ul>
  18. 20. Determinants of Individual Health Social Environment Physical Environment Genetic Endowment Individual Response -Behavior -Biology Health & Function Disease Health Care Well-Being Prosperity Source:R.G.Evans & G.L. Stoddard, Why Are Some People Healthy , p. 53
  19. 21. Burden of Disease and Injury: Measures <ul><li>Mortality rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the traditional measure of burden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>counts how many people die of a particular problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>does not address disability or premature death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Years of life lost (YLL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>measures how many years of expected life have been lost due to a particular problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>takes into account premature death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the newest measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>takes into account both disability and premature death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Los Angeles County is the first local jurisdiction to generate DALY’s estimates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequency of health problems </li></ul>
  20. 22. Leading Causes of Death in Los Angeles County, 1997 Number of Deaths in 1999 Los Angeles County Department of Health Services
  21. 23. Overall Burden of Disease Among Men in Los Angeles County Based on DALYs, 1997
  22. 24. Overall Burden of Disease Among Women in Los Angeles County Based on DALYs, 1997
  23. 25. Among Adults (Age 18 years and older), Average Number of Activity Limitation Days by Chronic Health Condition, Los Angeles County, 1999
  24. 26. Social Ties and and 9 year Mortality in Alameda County, CA Berkman L et al. Social networks, host resistance, and mortality: A nine year follow up study of Alameda County residents. Am J Epidemiol 109:186-204, 1979. Males
  25. 27. Social Ties and and 9 year Mortality in Alameda County, CA Berkman L et al. Social networks, host resistance, and mortality: A nine year follow up study of Alameda County residents. Am J Epidemiol 109:186-204, 1979. Females
  26. 28. Income & Health Relative risk of coronary heart disease death by civil service rank- male civil service workers Marmot MG et al. Employment grade and coronary heart disease in British civil servants. J Epidemiol Community Health 3:244-249, 1978
  27. 29. Environmental Exposure Haile RW, et al. The Health Effects of Swimming in Ocean Water Contaminated by Storm Drain Runoff. Epidemiology. July 1999 10(4)p 355-363 Selected Attributable numbers/10,000 exposed subjects for total to fecal coliforms HCG- highly credible GI illness with vomiting, diarrhea, and fever or stomach pain and fever
  28. 30. Health Disparities <ul><li>Major differences in frequency and severity of major diseases by race and ethnicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All stages of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both men and women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have not diminished with advances in health care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of reasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elimination a national priroity </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Prevalence of Asthma Among Children (Age 0 to 17 years) by Race/Ethnicity and Age, Los Angeles County, 1999 - 2000 * Estimate may be unstable due to small sample size
  30. 32. Key Health Indicators (LAC) <ul><li>Uninsured adults under 65  31% </li></ul><ul><li>Overweight and obese adults  52% </li></ul><ul><li>Cigarette smoking among adults  18% </li></ul><ul><li>Binge drinking among adults who drink  16% </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentary adults  41% </li></ul><ul><li>Kindergarteners IZ up to date at second birthday  64% </li></ul><ul><li>Low birth weight births  6% </li></ul><ul><li>Low birth weight black births  12% </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS incidence rate (males)  34 per 100,000 </li></ul>
  31. 33. Community Health <ul><li>Population health but includes the characteristics of community that influence determinants over time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. safety of parks; housing stock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. civic engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. environmental problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. cohesion to work collectively to improve community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. markets selling affordable fresh fruit and vegetables </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Community Health Report Cards <ul><li>Attempt to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide snapshot of community health/ quality of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve awareness of problems/ assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve community health planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broad collaborations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often many sectors within community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health determinants often included </li></ul>
  33. 35. Determinants of Health regulation regulation GENETIC ENVIORNMENT INDIVIDUAL RESPONSE: BIOLOGICAL BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOLOGICAL investment consumption workforce THE ECONOMY PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES (POPULATION-BASED) DISEASE <------> POOR <------> OKAY <------> OPTIMUM DISABILITY HEALTH HEALTH HEALTH HEALTH SERVICES SOCIAL ENVIORNMENT PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
  34. 36. Thinking ahead <ul><li>Need to consider contribution of different community institutions to health (potential vs actual) </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of sense of place </li></ul><ul><li>Need to address underlying health determinants </li></ul><ul><li>Health care for all important-- but other health determinants at least as important </li></ul><ul><li>How to develop sense of belonging/ responsibility? </li></ul><ul><li>Lifecycle perspective –understanding delayed effects </li></ul>
  35. 37. Health Department Roles <ul><li>Educate the public about multiple determinants and broad definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Influence public policies to support health improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver targeted services to those in need </li></ul><ul><li>Track changes in health and health risks </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce disease burden and disparities </li></ul>

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