Usa foreign policy

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Usa foreign policy

  1. 1. USA Foreign Policy <ul><li>Leaving Cert History </li></ul><ul><li>Revision Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Dictatorship and Democracy 1919-1945 </li></ul>
  2. 2. USA Foreign Policy <ul><li>The Cold War 1945-1972 </li></ul><ul><li>Decline of Cold War Certainties 1973-1989 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Potsdam July 1945 <ul><li>Germany & Austria divided in 4 zones </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis to be tried for crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of land from Germany to Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Russian support against Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Successful atomic test </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic bomb raised tensions </li></ul>
  4. 4. Easter Europe <ul><li>Stalin worried about invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Establish buffer zone </li></ul><ul><li>Communist regimes in East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Albania, Romania, Czechoslovakia </li></ul>
  5. 5. US A response <ul><li>Growing concern about spread of communism </li></ul><ul><li>Churchill – Iron Curtain speech </li></ul><ul><li>Increased support for French & Italian Communist Parties </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War in Greece – US send military supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Truman Doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>Marshall Plan </li></ul>
  6. 6. Truman Doctrine <ul><li>March 1947 – Aid to Greece and Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>America ‘would support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities’ </li></ul><ul><li>Policy of ‘containment’ </li></ul><ul><li>Direct military support for anti-communist governments around the world </li></ul>
  7. 7. Marshall Plan <ul><li>Economic recovery in Europe key to stopping the spread of communism </li></ul><ul><li>Massive economic aid to Europe – particularly Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin told Eastern European countries not to accept money </li></ul><ul><li>German recovery triggered economic growth </li></ul>
  8. 8. Berlin Blockade <ul><li>City divided in 4 zones </li></ul><ul><li>Deep in East Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Marshall Plan led to new currency – Deutschmark – triggered crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin orders blockade of Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>Twenty mile air corridor </li></ul><ul><li>Operation Vittles – massive airlift </li></ul><ul><li>Blockade lasts 320 days </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin ends blockade – Berlin centre of Cold War </li></ul>
  9. 9. Results of Crisis <ul><li>USA, Canada and most of Western Europe form NATO </li></ul><ul><li>Division of Germany now permanent – new West Germany and Russian controlled East Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Communist countries form Warsaw Pact in 1955 when West Germany joins NATO </li></ul><ul><li>Cold War now dominant – USA and USSR enemies – crisis could lead to war. </li></ul>
  10. 10. McCarthy Witch-hunts <ul><li>‘ Are you or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party?’ </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Communist campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Employee Loyalty Programme – root out communists among government employees </li></ul><ul><li>House Un-American Activities Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Hollywood – Charlie Chaplin, Paul Robeson and Arthur Miller </li></ul><ul><li>McCarthy prominence 1950 – Republicans used him to undermine Truman – supported by FBI </li></ul><ul><li>McCarthy discredited when he accused the army of harbouring communists </li></ul>
  11. 11. Korean War 1950-1953 <ul><li>Korea divided after WW2 – Russia controlled the North – USA controlled the South – 38 th Parallel </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea invades in June 1950 </li></ul><ul><li>North takes control of most of the country </li></ul><ul><li>After the ‘loss’ of China (Mao in 1949) Truman’s view that loss of Korea would be a blow to US prestige </li></ul><ul><li>USA used the USSR boycott of the UN to condemn the North Korea invasion </li></ul><ul><li>A UN force (mostly from USA) sent to Korea under General MacArthur </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>North Korean forces pushed almost to border with China </li></ul><ul><li>China intervenes and pushes back South </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur criticises Truman and is sacked </li></ul><ul><li>Stalemate results – Stalin dies in 1953 and a DMZ established at 38 th Parallel – ‘containment’ success </li></ul><ul><li>Massive increase in defence spending </li></ul><ul><li>Unpopular war and Truman does not stand for re-election </li></ul>Korean War 1950-1953
  13. 13. Eisenhower <ul><li>Elected President 1952 </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin dies 1953 – replaced by Khrushchev </li></ul><ul><li>Hungarian Uprising 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>US does not intervene </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary in USSR’s ‘sphere of influence’ </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower pursues diplomacy – refuses to increase military spending </li></ul>
  14. 14. Divisions over Berlin <ul><li>As West Germany prospered – East Germany remains poor </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of Germans move to West Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev pressurises West to give up Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower refuses </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy replaces Eisenhower in 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>Vienna Summit June 1961 – Khrushchev tries to bully Kennedy </li></ul><ul><li>In effort to stop refugees East Germany builds ‘Berlin Wall’ </li></ul><ul><li>Eases crisis – becomes symbol for East-West divisions </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cuba <ul><li>Castro’s forces overthrow dictator Batista in 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>Castro approaches USA for support – turns to USSR when rejected by USA </li></ul><ul><li>USA imposes trade embargo </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy assists anti-Castro Cubans </li></ul><ul><li>Bay of Pigs invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Castro declares Cuba ‘socialist’ </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cuban Missile Crisis <ul><li>USSR secretly begins building missile bases in Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>CIA notice increase in Russian ships to Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Spy planes take photos of missile bases </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy decides to blockade Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>US forces placed on alert </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy press conference to tell world about missiles in Cuba – says US will search all ships and turn back any with weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Calls on Khrushchev to stop ‘provocative threat to world peace’ </li></ul><ul><li>The World holds it breath – panic buying in USA </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev backs down and removes missiles </li></ul>
  17. 17. Prague Spring 1968 <ul><li>Reforms introduced in Czechoslovakia by Dubcek </li></ul><ul><li>Fearing change – USSR sends in tanks to remove Dubcek </li></ul><ul><li>USA does nothing – sphere of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Coup in Chile 1973 – overthrow of Socialist Government of Allende </li></ul>
  18. 18. Détante <ul><li>Nixon and Brezhnev want to relax tensions </li></ul><ul><li>Arms race placing massive drain on resources (USSR) </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon wants to develop US-China relations </li></ul><ul><li>USSR and China fall out in 1955 </li></ul><ul><li>1969 – Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) – Helsinki </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon visits Moscow in 1972 to sign SALT 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Détante politically popular in USA </li></ul><ul><li>Yom Kippur War in Oct 1973 causes tensions </li></ul><ul><li>Détante continues under President Ford </li></ul><ul><li>SALT 2 signed by President Carter in 1976 </li></ul>
  19. 19. Decline of Détante <ul><li>Criticism of Détante because of growing support for Communism in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Carter considered weak </li></ul><ul><li>US increases military spending </li></ul><ul><li>USSR invades Afghanistan in 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Carter warns USSR to keep out of Middle-East oil-region </li></ul><ul><li>Carter Doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>Ratification of SALT 2 suspended </li></ul><ul><li>USA boycotts Moscow Olympics 1980 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Ronald Reagan <ul><li>Anti-communist crusader – elected 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>‘ evil empire’ </li></ul><ul><li>Confront USSR from a position of strength </li></ul><ul><li>Renewal of Cold War – massive increase in military spending </li></ul><ul><li>Increased support for Reagan after Solidarity in Poland suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>USA funds anti-communist rebels and dictatorships in Central and South America </li></ul><ul><li>Star Wars – defensive shield – escalation of arms race </li></ul><ul><li>USSR in financial trouble – cannot compete </li></ul>
  21. 21. Fall of USSR <ul><li>Gorbachev USSR leader 1985 - reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Perestroika (restructuring) </li></ul><ul><li>Glasnost (openness) </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted improved relations – no money for arms </li></ul><ul><li>Reagan wanted to be remembered for ending Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting in Reykjavik 1986 – signing of INF Treaty in 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Demands for reforms in Eastern Europe grow </li></ul><ul><li>Communist regimes collapse like dominoes – fighting in Romania </li></ul><ul><li>Gorbachev tells Bush (1988) USA not an ‘enemy’ </li></ul><ul><li>USSR disintegrates in 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Attempted coup fails - Yeltsin </li></ul>
  22. 22. The End of History <ul><li>Francis Fukuyama - 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War , or the passing of a particular period of post-war history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.&quot; </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Presentation prepared by: </li></ul><ul><li>Dominic Haugh </li></ul><ul><li>St. Particks Comprehensive School </li></ul><ul><li>Shannon </li></ul><ul><li>Co. Clare </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation can be used for educational purposes only – all rights remain with author </li></ul>
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