The bolsheviks in power

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The bolsheviks in power

  1. 1. The Bolsheviks in Power <ul><li>February 1917 - the Tsar is overthrown by popular revolt. Replaced by liberal government. </li></ul><ul><li>October 1917 - Bolshevik Revolution establishes communist state. </li></ul><ul><li>July 1918 – New constitution establishes ‘Soviet Federal Socialist Republic’ </li></ul>
  2. 2. Key Figures <ul><li>Lenin </li></ul><ul><li>Trotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Zinoviev </li></ul><ul><li>Kamenev </li></ul><ul><li>Bukharin </li></ul><ul><li>(Stalin has minor role initially) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Lenin’s Reforms <ul><li>Eight hour working day </li></ul><ul><li>Workers elected factory committee’s who were given far-reaching powers. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Decree on Land’ abolished private ownership of land. Redistributed to the peasants without compensation for owners. </li></ul><ul><li>Women given the vote and guaranteed equality. </li></ul><ul><li>Universal free education. Major campaign to combat adult illiteracy. </li></ul><ul><li>All ranks and titles were abolished. </li></ul><ul><li>Civil marriages introduced. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Opposition to Communist Rule <ul><li>‘ White Russians’ included members of Socialist Revolutionary Party, liberals, nationalists, ex-army officers and fascists. </li></ul><ul><li>Invasions by 14 different ‘Allied Countries to help the White Army. </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion force totals 250,000 troops </li></ul><ul><li>Brutal War lasts until 1923. Trotsky masterminds Red Army victory. </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 1 million die in fighting and 3 million more from famine and disease that sweeps Russia. </li></ul>
  5. 5. War Communism <ul><li>To preserve the Revolution during the Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Grain Requisitioning </li></ul><ul><li>Banning of private trade </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalisation of industry </li></ul><ul><li>Labour discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Rationing </li></ul><ul><li>The Red Terror </li></ul>
  6. 6. New Economic Policy <ul><li>By 1921 Russia’s economy in crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>ROTCOM </li></ul><ul><li>- R = requisitioning stopped. </li></ul><ul><li>- O = ownership of small businesses encouraged. </li></ul><ul><li>- T = trade ban lifted. </li></ul><ul><li>- COM = commanding heights of industry with the state. </li></ul>
  7. 7. NEP Results 1921-28 <ul><li>Recovery to pre-war production levels. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1923 cereal production had increased by 25% on 1920 levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid increase in agricultural output. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1920-23 factory output rose by 200%. </li></ul><ul><li>The emergence of 'Nepmen' </li></ul>
  8. 8. Power Struggle <ul><li>Lenin died 1924. </li></ul><ul><li>Power struggle between Stalin ‘s supporters and Trotsky’s Left Opposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Political power struggle </li></ul><ul><li>Trotsky’s ‘Permanent Revolution’ – Russia’s working class too small to build socialism. Encourage spread of Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin’s ‘Socialism in One Country’ – Revolution outside Russia unlikely. Russians should get on with building socialism themselves. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Stalin Comes to Power <ul><li>Stalin’s suppresses Lenin’s Last Testament that called for his removal as CP General Secretary. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin joined with Zinoviev and Kamenev to defeat Trotsky at the Party Congress of 1924. </li></ul><ul><li>He builds up a network within the Party apparatus through appointing his own supporters to party positions. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1925 Stalin allied with Bukharin, against Zinoviev and Kamenev, </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Stalin advocates the continuation of the NEP. </li></ul><ul><li>Communist Party supports ‘Socialism in One Country’ </li></ul><ul><li>In 1928, Stalin turned against the NEP and begins Collectivisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Bukharin is defeated and Stalin became the undisputed leader of the USSR in 1929. </li></ul>Stalin Comes to Power
  11. 12. <ul><li>Presentation prepared by: </li></ul><ul><li>Dominic Haugh </li></ul><ul><li>St. Particks Comprehensive School </li></ul><ul><li>Shannon </li></ul><ul><li>Co. Clare </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation can be used for educational purposes only – all rights remain with author </li></ul>

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