Anglo-Irish Agreement 1985


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Anglo-Irish Agreement 1985

  1. 1. Anglo-Irish Agreement 1985 • Leaving Cert History • Case Study • Northern Ireland 1949-1973
  2. 2. Background • Sinn Fein began making electoral gains after the hunger strikes • UK and Irish governments worried that Sinn Fein would steal votes away from the SDLP • Irish government establish the New Ireland Forum to discuss possible solutions to the conflict
  3. 3. Background • The UK government, Unionist parties and Sinn Fein all boycotted the New Ireland Forum • The New Ireland Forum suggested 3 possible solutions – – (a) a united Ireland – (b) a confederation of Northern Ireland and the Republic – (c) joint authority over Northern Ireland.
  4. 4. • Response from UK government • Maggie Thatcher said I have made it quite clear ... that a unified Ireland was one solution that is out. A second solution was confederation of two states. That is out. A third solution was joint authority. That is out. That is a derogation from sovereignty. We made that quite clear when the Report was published. Northern Ireland is part of the United Kingdom. She is part of the United Kingdom because that is the wish of the majority of her citizens. The majority wish to stay part of the United Kingdom. • Became known as the ‘out, out, out’ speech. Background
  5. 5. articlestory
  6. 6. • 12 October 1984 IRA blow up Grand Hotel in Brighton during the Tory party conference • 5 killed – Thatcher escapes injury IRA assassination attempt
  7. 7. Anglo-Irish Agreement • UK and Irish governments begin talks • Anglo-Irish Agreement finalised on 15 November 1985
  8. 8. Anglo-Irish Agreement • It set up an Intergovernmental Conference: the Northern Ireland Secretary and Irish Foreign Minister would meet regularly. • There would be cross-border co-operation on security, legal and political issues. • The Agreement set up its own civil service with staff from both sides of the border. • The British government accepted that there might one day be a united Ireland, but only with the consent of the majority in Northern Ireland. • The Irish government accepted the existence of Partition, and also the principle of consent.
  9. 9. Reaction to Agreement • Among Unionists – uproar, shock, a sense of betrayal • The Ulster Unionist leader, James Molyneaux, said that Northern Ireland was being delivered "from one nation to another". • SDLP supported the agreement • Sinn Fein was against it because the Irish government was recognising Northern Ireland's existence.
  10. 10. Opposition in Northern Ireland • Mass rallies organised by Unionists
  11. 11. Unionist MPs resign • As a protest, all the Unionist MPs resigned, forcing by-elections all over Northern Ireland. • Although the Unionist vote went up, they lost the constituency of Newry and Armagh to the SDLP.
  12. 12. Ongoing Paramilitary campaign • IRA and Loyalist attacks continue • Almost 300 murders between 1984 and 1987 inclusive. • One of the worst massacres was on 6 November 1987 when the IRA detonated a bomb at the war memorial in Enniskillen • Crowds of civilians gathered to watch a Remembrance Day parade. • One building collapsed onto the crowd, killing 11 people and injuring many more.
  13. 13. Protests end • By 1986 protests fizzle out • Agreement remains in place • UUP and DUP ended their boycott of the UK government in September 1987 in order to have talks about the possibility of having new peace talks. • New talks in 1991 fail to progress
  14. 14. • Presentation prepared by: • Dominic Haugh • St. Particks Comprehensive School • Shannon • Co. Clare • Presentation can be used for educational purposes only – all rights remain with author