Learn Out Live Eng Vocabulary 1


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Learn Out Live Eng Vocabulary 1

  1. 1. Early Intermediate English Vocabulary: Lesson 1 By Jeremiah Bourque http://learnoutlive.com/
  2. 2. Versus <ul><li>In this lesson, I will be comparing two words that appear to be opposites or at least, very different from each other. </li></ul><ul><li>The format will be ___ vs. (versus) ___ </li></ul><ul><li>Versus is of Latin origin and simply means “against”; it is used in sports matches. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, “Dog vs. Cat” – dogs are considered to get along very poorly with cats. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Typical vs. Atypical <ul><li>Something “typical” is something ordinary, common, regular, expected. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: A typical television show </li></ul><ul><li>Something “ a typical” is something that is not typical, that is uncommon, unexpected. </li></ul><ul><li>In English, many words mean their opposite when “a” is placed at the start of them. “Typical” and “ a typical” are such words. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Expedite vs. Delay <ul><li>To “expedite” is a fancy word for “hurrying up,” to make faster, to do in haste. The term is usually applied to packages being shipped through “snail mail”; expedited mail is a faster process than “normal.” </li></ul><ul><li>To “delay” something is to retard it, to slow it down. A delay in shipping simply means that a shipment is, for some reason, not moving according to schedule. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Certain and Uncertain <ul><li>To be “certain” of something is to have confidence in it; to trust that it is true. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Tom is certain that Peter will arrive to pick him up at 2:00P.M. Tom has no doubt. </li></ul><ul><li>To be uncertain is to not be certain; to have doubt, to not trust that something is true. It is the opposite of “certain.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Certainty vs. Uncertainty <ul><li>“Certainty” is the state or condition of “being certain.” If I “have certainty” something is true, I am certain that something is true. </li></ul><ul><li>“Uncertainty” is being uncertain . </li></ul><ul><li>More broadly, “uncertainty” is a word used for a state of confusion , of disorder, of lawlessness. For example: Uncertainty in modern-day Afghanistan. </li></ul>
  7. 7. A Quandary <ul><li>A “quandary” is a situation of doubt and uncertainty . </li></ul><ul><li>If you have two choices and have no idea which one is correct, you are in a quandary . You don’t know what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Any large question without a clear answer can be said to be a quandary . </li></ul>
  8. 8. To Quiver vs. A Quiver <ul><li>To “quiver” is another way of saying, “to shake.” For example: quivering from the cold. (Present) </li></ul><ul><li>“ A quiver” is a container for arrows, as in, bows and arrows. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Merit vs. Demerit <ul><li>A “merit” is something good that is in your favor: an admirable quality or attribute (something good about you). </li></ul><ul><li>A “demerit” is something that is bad about you. </li></ul><ul><li>Used alone – as merit , not a merit – this word (merit) simply means excellence and is exceptional. “A proposal of merit ” is a proposal that is obviously good . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Assertive vs. Unassertive <ul><li>To be “assertive” is to be direct. This usually means to say what you think is true; to firmly state your opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>To be “unassertive” is to be passive and to not clearly say what you think (what your opinion is). </li></ul><ul><li>In American English language and culture, you can be polite while being assertive . And being assertive is good English. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Relevant & Pertinent <ul><li>Both relevant and pertinent mean more or less the same thing: that something is important to the current subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Peter wants Tom to drive him to the movie theatre. Tom thinks the fact his car is being repaired, and therefore, not available, is relevant . </li></ul><ul><li>It’s relevant because without a car, Tom can’t drive Peter (or himself) anywhere! </li></ul>
  12. 12. Realistic vs. Unrealistic <ul><li>To be “realistic” is to have a firm grasp of the facts, of what is real. </li></ul><ul><li>To be “unrealistic” is to have a loose grasp of the facts only; to be focused on what is not real, and to wrongly believe that the world acts according to our opinions and ideas alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Being realistic means knowing the limitations of the world. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pragmatic vs. Idealistic <ul><li>To be “pragmatic” is to be focused on how to accomplish tasks in the real world , the world that exists around us. </li></ul><ul><li>To be “idealistic” is to be focused on how to make the real world into an ideal world , one that reflects ideals. </li></ul><ul><li>To be pragmatic is to be realistic . To be idealistic is to be unrealistic (usually). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Resilient vs. Fragile <ul><li>To be “resilient” is to have high endurance. The endurance can be physical , but it can also be mental . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: A resilient door. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: A resilient person who stands up to pressure very well. </li></ul><ul><li>To be “fragile” is to be easily broken. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Nancy is fragile ; she is easily upset by criticism. </li></ul>
  15. 15. A Maverick <ul><li>In America, a “maverick” is a person who is independent in thought and action. A maverick disagrees with many others in his opinions about what is correct. </li></ul><ul><li>A maverick can be realistic or unrealistic ; it depends upon the person and the situation </li></ul><ul><li>A maverick can also be thought of as a black sheep . </li></ul>
  16. 16. De Facto vs. De Jure <ul><li>Origin: Latin </li></ul><ul><li>“De facto” is commonly used in English to mean, it is real in fact . “De jure” is its opposite and means, real in name and in law . Or put another way, in name only . </li></ul><ul><li>If something is “de facto” true, it is true, whether or not the fact it is true is officially recognized. </li></ul><ul><li>“De jure” is actually rarely used in English. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Expected vs. Unexpected <ul><li>Something that is “expected” is known or guessed before it happens. </li></ul><ul><li>Something that is “unexpected” is sudden and takes a person by surprise. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Nancy dropped in on Tom. Nancy arrived unexpectedly in her car. (Nancy arrived without warning Tom with a telephone call.) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Competent vs. Incompetent <ul><li>To be “competent” at something is to be of acceptable skill and ability in that. </li></ul><ul><li>To be “incompetent” is to have a level of skill and ability that is not acceptable . </li></ul><ul><li>To be wrong is to simply have made a mistake , but to be incompetent is to be bad at something, over and over again. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Skilled vs. Inept <ul><li>To be “skilled” at something is to have a good, or superior, amount of skill in that task. To be “unskilled” is the opposite. </li></ul><ul><li>To be “inept” is to be unskilled . </li></ul><ul><li>Generally speaking, one should only speak of “competence” and “incompetence” when someone is skilled and is therefore expected to succeed. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Equal vs. Unequal <ul><li>In mathematical terms, “equal” means something is the same. 2 + 2 = (equals) 4 </li></ul><ul><li>In speech, something that is equal is fair for people who are different in some way, such as between men and women. </li></ul><ul><li>Something that is unequal is often considered to be unfair . It may be fair, it may not; but people often argue that whatever is unequal is unfair. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Equality vs. Inequality <ul><li>Therefore, “equality” is a state not of being the same, but of being treated fairly . </li></ul><ul><li>Conversely, “inequality” is a state of being treated in an unfair and biased manner. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Praise vs. Scorn <ul><li>To “praise” is to compliment; to say good things about a person’s character or actions. </li></ul><ul><li>To “scorn” is to insult; to say bad things about a person’s character or actions. </li></ul><ul><li>One praises merit but scorns incompetence . </li></ul><ul><li>Scorn and insults are rude behavior. “Criticism” (if done properly) is polite. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Proper vs. Improper <ul><li>Something that is “proper” is right , correct, fair . </li></ul><ul><li>Something that is “improper” is bad , incorrect, unfair . </li></ul><ul><li>Proper behavior is good behavior; improper behavior is bad behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>A good teacher finds time to praise proper behavior.  </li></ul>
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  25. 25. Unconscious vs. Subconscious, 1 <ul><li>To be unconscious is to temporarily lose consciousness, to be knocked out, etc; properly used, the word refers to the effects of a concussion. </li></ul><ul><li>The subconscious governs actions we perform without thinking while awake . For example, breathing is subconscious. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Unconscious vs. Subconscious, 2 <ul><li>Native English speakers have begun using “unconscious” in place of “subconscious”; for example, “I flipped the TV channel unconsciously.” This is very bad English and you should not use it. </li></ul><ul><li>You may flip a TV channel subconsciously, but not if you have a concussion or are in a coma (prolonged unconsciousness)!! </li></ul>
  27. 27. Biased vs. Unbiased <ul><li>To be biased is to have a bias (a preconception, a tilt, to have favor, to be partial) for someone or something. Conversely, to be unbiased is to be objective and impartial and to judge a person, thing or situation without prejudging the outcome. </li></ul><ul><li>Quick & dirty version: biased = unfair, unbiased = fair. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Novel vs. Obsolete <ul><li>These are fancy words for “new” (novel) and “old” (obsolete). </li></ul><ul><li>“Novel” means to have never existed before. </li></ul><ul><li>“Obsolete” means having outlived its original purpose; worthless in the present era. Example: The modern automobile made the horse & carriage obsolete . </li></ul>
  29. 29. Interlude <ul><li>“Novel,” the noun , means a work of fiction, but likely evolved from a novel being a new written work; therefore, a novel written work; therefore, “a novel.” </li></ul><ul><li>“Antiquated” should mean simply “quite old,” particularly in style, but often carries the implication of also being obsolete . </li></ul>
  30. 30. Rarely vs. Frequently <ul><li>“Rarely” means the subject happens only once in a very long while. “Rarely” does not mean “never,” but does mean that incidences of the subject are rare . </li></ul><ul><li>“Frequently” means the subject happens many times in a given period. This does not mean the subject follows a fixed schedule; if it did, it would happen “regularly” instead. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Commonly vs. Occasionally <ul><li>“Commonly” means something that happens frequently. </li></ul><ul><li>“Occasionally” means something that happens more than rarely but less than commonly . </li></ul><ul><li>The word “uncommonly” should be understood as similar to “occasionally.” </li></ul>
  32. 32. Rapidly vs. Tardily <ul><li>To move “rapidly” is to move quickly, with speed and haste, fast rather than slow. </li></ul><ul><li>To move “tardily” is the opposite; slow rather than fast. </li></ul><ul><li>Both of these words are adverbs and modify a verb . A person can act rapidly or tardily, just as they can move quickly or slowly . </li></ul>
  33. 33. Rapid vs. Tardy <ul><li>These are adjectives and modify nouns . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: A rabbit is a rapid animal. A turtle is a tardy animal. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to: A rabbit is a fast animal. A turtle is a slow animal. </li></ul><ul><li>A rabbit is rapid , but hops rapidly . Notice how the two words are used. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Wholly vs. Partially <ul><li>Based on “whole” and “partial.” </li></ul><ul><li>Something that is “wholly” one thing, is that thing fully, completely, 100%. </li></ul><ul><li>Something that is “partially” one thing is not fully or completely that, and is somewhere between 0% and 100%. </li></ul><ul><li>“I’m partially worried” means, I am somewhat worried, but not panicked. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Unite vs. Divide <ul><li>To “unite” is to bring separate pieces of something together into a greater whole. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: “A great leader unites a nation.” A great leader brings parts of a nation together through his leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>To “divide” is to separate something that was whole into smaller pieces. </li></ul><ul><li>“A poor leader divides a nation” by making one part conflict with another part. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Fancy vs. Plain <ul><li>Something that is “fancy” is pretty, beautiful, elegant, etc. in a way that is different from the ordinary. </li></ul><ul><li>Something that is “plain” is ordinary, simple, regular; something that is expected. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, “fancy” speech is indirect, while “plain” speech is direct. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Interest vs. Disinterest <ul><li>When paired with “disinterest,” “interest” means curiosity, concern, attention; “I am interested in what you want to say.” </li></ul><ul><li>“Disinterest” is the opposite of “interest,” and “being disinterested” is the opposite of “being interested.” </li></ul><ul><li>This is separate from interest on a loan, which is a % paid in addition to the original amount of the loan, called ‘the principal.’ </li></ul>
  38. 38. Hurrying vs. Inching <ul><li>“To hurry” is to rush, to move quickly, rapidly, hastily. </li></ul><ul><li>“To inch” is, in this context, to move slowly, carefully; to move inch by inch . </li></ul><ul><li>An inch is a very short distance in the “English system” of measurements, equal to 25.4 millimeters. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Joy vs. Sorrow <ul><li>“Joy” is a state of happiness. </li></ul><ul><li>“Sorrow” is a state of sadness. </li></ul><ul><li>“To be joyful” is to be happy, buoyant, sunny. </li></ul><ul><li>“To be sorrowful” is to be sad, grim, gloomy. </li></ul><ul><li>“Your joys” are what makes you happy. </li></ul><ul><li>“Your sorrows” are what makes you sad. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Offer vs. Accept <ul><li>“To offer” is to present something to another. “To accept” is to take something that is offered. </li></ul><ul><li>I offer my gratitude, and you accept it. </li></ul><ul><li>If you offer me your pen, I will accept your pen. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Accept vs. Decline <ul><li>The opposite of “to accept” is “to decline.” </li></ul><ul><li>To decline is to refuse . </li></ul><ul><li>“I decline your offer .” </li></ul><ul><li>“I am not interested in your offer , so I must decline .” </li></ul><ul><li>Try to avoid saying, “I decline to accept this.” Instead, say “I refuse to accept this.” Or simply, “I decline .” </li></ul>
  42. 42. Empty vs. Full <ul><li>To be “empty” is to have nothing contained within. A gas tank that is empty has no gas in it; the car cannot move. </li></ul><ul><li>To be “full” is the opposite of “empty”; something “full” is 100% filled and cannot be filled any further. </li></ul><ul><li>“Empty promises” are hollow promises with no truth in them; an empty promise is a deceit . </li></ul>
  43. 43. Should vs. Must <ul><li>If you “should” do something, either someone expects you to do this task, or the task is in your best interests. </li></ul><ul><li>If you “must” do something, something or someone compels you to do this task. </li></ul><ul><li>“Should” implies the choice of declining . </li></ul><ul><li>“Must” implies that you cannot refuse . </li></ul><ul><li>“I must…” and “I have to…” are used in an identical way in natural English. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Interlude <ul><li>If you should go use the toilet, you need to use the toilet, but it is not an emergency. </li></ul><ul><li>If you must go use the toilet, it is an emergency and you do not have the option of waiting! </li></ul><ul><li>Separate what you should do and what you must do. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Want vs. Need <ul><li>If you “want” something, you have a desire for it, but absence of that thing will not have serious consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>If you “need” something, you must have that thing; you require it. You will suffer serious consequences without it. </li></ul><ul><li>You want a cup of coffee, but you need to breathe. If you do not breathe, you will die. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Interlude <ul><li>Just like you separate what you should do from what you must do, separate what you want from what you need . </li></ul><ul><li>Do not imitate English natives who confuse these words. Use the correct word. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that someone who says “need” when they mean “want” is exaggerating , using a stronger word where it is not truly appropriate. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Thank You Very Much! <ul><li>Bye!  </li></ul><ul><li>http://twitter.com/jbtutor </li></ul><ul><li>http:// learnoutlive.com/ </li></ul>