Learn Out Live Eng Vocabulary 1Presentation Transcript
Early Intermediate English Vocabulary: Lesson 1 By Jeremiah Bourque http://learnoutlive.com/
In this lesson, I will be comparing two words that appear to be opposites or at least, very different from each other.
The format will be ___ vs. (versus) ___
Versus is of Latin origin and simply means “against”; it is used in sports matches.
For example, “Dog vs. Cat” – dogs are considered to get along very poorly with cats.
Typical vs. Atypical
Something “typical” is something ordinary, common, regular, expected.
Example: A typical television show
Something “ a typical” is something that is not typical, that is uncommon, unexpected.
In English, many words mean their opposite when “a” is placed at the start of them. “Typical” and “ a typical” are such words.
Expedite vs. Delay
To “expedite” is a fancy word for “hurrying up,” to make faster, to do in haste. The term is usually applied to packages being shipped through “snail mail”; expedited mail is a faster process than “normal.”
To “delay” something is to retard it, to slow it down. A delay in shipping simply means that a shipment is, for some reason, not moving according to schedule.
Certain and Uncertain
To be “certain” of something is to have confidence in it; to trust that it is true.
Example: Tom is certain that Peter will arrive to pick him up at 2:00P.M. Tom has no doubt.
To be uncertain is to not be certain; to have doubt, to not trust that something is true. It is the opposite of “certain.”
Certainty vs. Uncertainty
“Certainty” is the state or condition of “being certain.” If I “have certainty” something is true, I am certain that something is true.
“Uncertainty” is being uncertain .
More broadly, “uncertainty” is a word used for a state of confusion , of disorder, of lawlessness. For example: Uncertainty in modern-day Afghanistan.
A “quandary” is a situation of doubt and uncertainty .
If you have two choices and have no idea which one is correct, you are in a quandary . You don’t know what to do.
Any large question without a clear answer can be said to be a quandary .
To Quiver vs. A Quiver
To “quiver” is another way of saying, “to shake.” For example: quivering from the cold. (Present)
“ A quiver” is a container for arrows, as in, bows and arrows.
Merit vs. Demerit
A “merit” is something good that is in your favor: an admirable quality or attribute (something good about you).
A “demerit” is something that is bad about you.
Used alone – as merit , not a merit – this word (merit) simply means excellence and is exceptional. “A proposal of merit ” is a proposal that is obviously good .
Assertive vs. Unassertive
To be “assertive” is to be direct. This usually means to say what you think is true; to firmly state your opinion.
To be “unassertive” is to be passive and to not clearly say what you think (what your opinion is).
In American English language and culture, you can be polite while being assertive . And being assertive is good English.
Relevant & Pertinent
Both relevant and pertinent mean more or less the same thing: that something is important to the current subject.
Example: Peter wants Tom to drive him to the movie theatre. Tom thinks the fact his car is being repaired, and therefore, not available, is relevant .
It’s relevant because without a car, Tom can’t drive Peter (or himself) anywhere!
Realistic vs. Unrealistic
To be “realistic” is to have a firm grasp of the facts, of what is real.
To be “unrealistic” is to have a loose grasp of the facts only; to be focused on what is not real, and to wrongly believe that the world acts according to our opinions and ideas alone.
Being realistic means knowing the limitations of the world.
Pragmatic vs. Idealistic
To be “pragmatic” is to be focused on how to accomplish tasks in the real world , the world that exists around us.
To be “idealistic” is to be focused on how to make the real world into an ideal world , one that reflects ideals.
To be pragmatic is to be realistic . To be idealistic is to be unrealistic (usually).
Resilient vs. Fragile
To be “resilient” is to have high endurance. The endurance can be physical , but it can also be mental .
Example: A resilient door.
Example: A resilient person who stands up to pressure very well.
To be “fragile” is to be easily broken.
Example: Nancy is fragile ; she is easily upset by criticism.
In America, a “maverick” is a person who is independent in thought and action. A maverick disagrees with many others in his opinions about what is correct.
A maverick can be realistic or unrealistic ; it depends upon the person and the situation
A maverick can also be thought of as a black sheep .
De Facto vs. De Jure
“De facto” is commonly used in English to mean, it is real in fact . “De jure” is its opposite and means, real in name and in law . Or put another way, in name only .
If something is “de facto” true, it is true, whether or not the fact it is true is officially recognized.
“De jure” is actually rarely used in English.
Expected vs. Unexpected
Something that is “expected” is known or guessed before it happens.
Something that is “unexpected” is sudden and takes a person by surprise.
Example: Nancy dropped in on Tom. Nancy arrived unexpectedly in her car. (Nancy arrived without warning Tom with a telephone call.)
Competent vs. Incompetent
To be “competent” at something is to be of acceptable skill and ability in that.
To be “incompetent” is to have a level of skill and ability that is not acceptable .
To be wrong is to simply have made a mistake , but to be incompetent is to be bad at something, over and over again.
Skilled vs. Inept
To be “skilled” at something is to have a good, or superior, amount of skill in that task. To be “unskilled” is the opposite.
To be “inept” is to be unskilled .
Generally speaking, one should only speak of “competence” and “incompetence” when someone is skilled and is therefore expected to succeed.
Equal vs. Unequal
In mathematical terms, “equal” means something is the same. 2 + 2 = (equals) 4
In speech, something that is equal is fair for people who are different in some way, such as between men and women.
Something that is unequal is often considered to be unfair . It may be fair, it may not; but people often argue that whatever is unequal is unfair.
Equality vs. Inequality
Therefore, “equality” is a state not of being the same, but of being treated fairly .
Conversely, “inequality” is a state of being treated in an unfair and biased manner.
Praise vs. Scorn
To “praise” is to compliment; to say good things about a person’s character or actions.
To “scorn” is to insult; to say bad things about a person’s character or actions.
One praises merit but scorns incompetence .
Scorn and insults are rude behavior. “Criticism” (if done properly) is polite.
Proper vs. Improper
Something that is “proper” is right , correct, fair .
Something that is “improper” is bad , incorrect, unfair .
Proper behavior is good behavior; improper behavior is bad behavior.
A good teacher finds time to praise proper behavior.
Unconscious vs. Subconscious, 1
To be unconscious is to temporarily lose consciousness, to be knocked out, etc; properly used, the word refers to the effects of a concussion.
The subconscious governs actions we perform without thinking while awake . For example, breathing is subconscious.
Unconscious vs. Subconscious, 2
Native English speakers have begun using “unconscious” in place of “subconscious”; for example, “I flipped the TV channel unconsciously.” This is very bad English and you should not use it.
You may flip a TV channel subconsciously, but not if you have a concussion or are in a coma (prolonged unconsciousness)!!
Biased vs. Unbiased
To be biased is to have a bias (a preconception, a tilt, to have favor, to be partial) for someone or something. Conversely, to be unbiased is to be objective and impartial and to judge a person, thing or situation without prejudging the outcome.