AP European History - 15th Century - Renaissance, Age of Exploration, Emergence of Modern Europe
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AP European History - 15th Century - Renaissance, Age of Exploration, Emergence of Modern Europe

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The review deck covers the 15th century of European History from the perspective of what is often tested for on the AP European History exam. Use it as a review tool to quickly cram on topics like......

The review deck covers the 15th century of European History from the perspective of what is often tested for on the AP European History exam. Use it as a review tool to quickly cram on topics like the Renaissance, Age of Exploration, and 15th century society and be better prepared for the AP exam.

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  • 1. AP  European  History  Cram  Deck   15th  Century  –  The  Renaissance,  Age  of  Explora<on,  &   Emergence  of  Modern  Europe      
  • 2. AP  European  History  -­‐>  15th  Century   The  Italian  Renaissance   •  Roughly  1450-­‐1550,  star8ng  in  Italy  &  spreading  north;  ended  by  the  Italian  Wars   •  Core  ideologies:     • Humanism  –  Renewed  interest  in  human  achievements;  recovering  texts  from  an8quity   studied  for  natural  law  &  human  nature;  Petrarch,  Machiavelli,  Cas8glione,  Boccaccio   • Secularism  -­‐  Secularism  is  a  general  term  for  the  shiK  away  from  religion  and  dogma  to   earthly  ma"ers.  In  the  Renaissance,  secularism  manifested  itself  in  humanism.   •  Focus  on  the  corporeal  world  over  the  aKerlife;  objec8ve  descrip8ons  of  the  world   •  Law,  government,  &  economics:  The  Renaissance  had  limited  impact;  However,  there   were  advancements  such  as  in  banking  and  capitalism   •  Occurred  during  the  peak  of  the  influence  of  the  Catholic  Church  (many  religious  artworks)   while  also  seUng  the  founda8on  for  the  Scien8fic  Revolu8on  in  the  next  two  centuries   •  It  was  broadly  a  revival  of  a  focus  on  the  arts  and  culture  that  had  been  lost  for  hundreds   of  years.   h"p://www.learnerator.com  
  • 3. AP  European  History  -­‐>  15th  Century   The  Northern  Renaissance   •  Late  15th  &  early  16th  centuries  as  the  Italian  Renaissance  spread  north   •  While  Italians  based  their  inspira8on  on  pagan  texts  from  Greece  and  Rome,  the  North   used  Greek  and  Hebrew  texts  from  the  Bible   •  Northern  Renaissance  was  defined  by  ChrisKan  Humanism   •  Greater  focus  on  prac8cal  learning,  science,  educa8on,  and  technology.  This  can  be  seen  in   the  inven8on  of  the  Gutenberg  prin8ng  press  in  Germany.   •  By  comparison,  the  importance  of  the  Church  in  Italy  and  Spain  resulted  in  the   Southern  Renaissance  focusing  more  on  art,  architecture,  and  religion   •  Tended  to  portray  the  suffering  and  humankind  and  nonreligious  subject  ma"er  (ie,   Pieter  Bruegels  the  Elder  &  his  pain8ngs  of  everyday  peasant  life)   •  Distance  from  the  Catholic  Church  also  laid  founda8on  for  the  Reforma8on  as  Chris8an   Humanists  like  Erasmus  wanted  to  reform  the  Church   •  Wanted  to  reform  society  based  on  Chris8an  ideals;  Educa8on  for  the  masses  was  viewed   as  the  best  method  of  reform   h"p://www.learnerator.com  
  • 4. AP  European  History  -­‐>  15th  Century   Renaissance  by  Geography   •  Italian  City-­‐States.  Very  wealthy  rela8ve  due  to  their  loca8on  on  the  Mediterranean  and   access  to  trade.  This  wealth  allowed  for  prolific  patronage  of  the  arts.   •  Spain.  Began  later  than  in  Italy  due  to  the  Reconquista  which  ended  1492  when  Spain   united.  Less  ideological  change  b/c  Spain  was  rela8vely  xenophobic  &  rigid.  Velazquez,  El   Greco,  Cervantes.   •  England.  Trailed  the  Northern  &  Italian  Renaissance,  peaking  during  the  reign  of  Elizabeth   I  (1558-­‐1603)  who  brought  stability  aKer  years  of  conflicts.  More  secular  in  nature  due  to   distance  from  Church.  Sir  Thomas  More,  Francis  Bacon,  John  Milton,  Edmund  Spencer.   •  France.  Began  w/  the  invasion  of  Italy  (1494),  bringing  first  contact  w/  the  Renaissance.   Peaked  under  Henry  II  &  Francis  I.  Undermined  by  the  French  Wars  of  Religion.   •  Germany.  Most  notable  for  the  prin8ng  press,  which  revolu8onized  the  rate  at  which   ideas  could  spread.  Mar8n  Luther  pos8ng  the  95  Theses  in  1517  began  the  ReformaKon.   •  Netherlands.  Paralleled  the  Italian  City-­‐States  in  its  strength  in  banking  and  commerce.   Thus  able  to  patronize  the  arts:  Van  Eyck,  Rembrandt,  Pieter  Bruegel.  Erasmus  considered   to  be  the  most  influen8al  ChrisKan  Humanist.   h"p://www.learnerator.com  
  • 5. AP  European  History  -­‐>  15th  Century   The  Age  of  ExploraKon   •  Roughly  from  the  beginning  of  the  15th  century  un8l  the  17th  century   •  Primary  mo8va8on  was  the  search  of  new  trading  routes,  goods,  &  partners.  Secondary   mo8ves  included  religious  expansion,  pride,  and  sa8sfying  personal  curiosity.   •  Especially  interested  in  finding  new  sea  routes  to  the  East  for  the  silk  and  spice  trades.   • Partly  due  to  the  fall  of  ConstanKnople  in  1453  to  the  O"oman  Empire  which  cut  off   direct  trade  with  Asia   •  PoliKcal  centralizaKon  was  an  important  precursor  to  this  outward  push.  It  allowed  states   to  be"er  raise  revenues  and  bear  the  risks  and  costs  of  such  ventures.   •  Columbian  Exchange:  Europeans  established  Atlan8c  trade  routes  with  the  “New  World”   that  resulted  in  the  introduc8on  of  new  goods,  customs,  &  foods  to  all  par8es  involved.   •  Europe  >  New  World:  Disease,  sugar,  wheat,  wine,  ca"le,  horses,  pigs,  &  sheep   •  New  World  >  Europe:  Maize,  potatoes,  tomatoes,  beans,  squash,  and  pumpkins   •  Explora8on  slowed  down  in  the  17th  century,  due  par8ally  to  the  religious  turmoil  on  the   con8nent  epitomized  by  the  breakout  of  the  Thirty  Years  War  (1618-­‐1648).   h"p://www.learnerator.com  
  • 6. AP  European  History  -­‐>  15th  Century   PoliKcs  &  Government   •  In  the  Medieval  era,  the  basics  of  the  modern  state  essen8al  for  the  Renaissance  emerged:   RepresentaKve  assemblies,  court  systems,  police,  &  a  professional  bureaucracy.   •  During  the  15th  century,  rulers  began  to  consolidate  their  power  and  bring  domes8c  order   by  imposing  structured  punishments  on  crime  and  geUng  nobles  in  line   •  The  New  Monarchs  of  this  era  preceded  Machiavelli’s  The  Prince,  but  their  ac8ons   followed  the  same  ideals  as  they  oKen  subordinated  morality  to  enhance  their  power   •  These  rulers  included  Louis  XI  (France),  Henry  VII  (England),  and  Ferdinand  and   Isabella  (Spain)   •  Strong  na8onal  iden8ty  and  agenda   •  Stressed  the  fact  that  their  kingship  was  the  common  unifying  force  in  their  realms   •  Suppressed  internal  dissent  and  command  the  respect  of  their  subjects   •  Centralized  tax  collec8on  to  fund  standing  armies  and  endeavors  such  as  those  of   the  Age  of  ExploraDon   •  ExcepDon  to  this  was  the  Holy  Roman  Empire,  which  was  highly  decentralized   h"p://www.learnerator.com  
  • 7. AP  European  History  -­‐>  15th  Century   Economics,  Demographics,  &  Trade   •  Prelude.  Economic  growth  in  the  previous  centuries  laid  the  founda8ons  for  the   Renaissance.  Commercial  8es  with  the  East  increased,  financial  ins8tu8ons  advanced,  and   popula8on  increased.   •  Wealth.  The  wealth  created  from  overseas  trade  &  cultural  exchange  with  Asian  &  Africa   in  southern  Italy  allowed  for  the  patronage  of  ar8sts  by  successful  families,  most  notably   the  Medici   •  Commerce.  Emergence  of  modern  banking  &  capitalist  techniques  pioneered  in  Italian   city-­‐states,  explaining  their  wealth  and  power:  joint-­‐stock  &  insurance  companies,  deposit   banks,  credits,  modern  accoun8ng  techniques   •  UrbanizaKon.  Resulted  from  the  commercial  success  of  Italian  city-­‐states.  Up  un8l  about   the  18th  century,  Italy  would  be  the  most  urbanized  area  in  Europe.   h"p://www.learnerator.com  
  • 8. AP  European  History  -­‐>  15th  Century   Society,  Religion,  &  Culture   •  Class  &  Culture.  The  Renaissance  was  made  by  &  for  the  mercan8le  elite,  a  group  that  had   dis8nct  aristocra8c  pretensions  &  was  hardly  democra8c.  It  did  not  directly  affect  most  of   society,  including  the  middle  class   •  Women.  The  women  most  affected  by  the  Renaissance  were  upper  class  and  merchant   women,  whose  status  was  significantly  lowered.   •  Not  allowed  in  universi8es,  guilds,  to  inherit  businesses,  &  were  not  regarded  seriously   •  Protected  more  by  the  law  in  the  Middle  Ages  and  had  more  involvement  in  business   •  Sexuality.  Whereas  sexual  equality  defined  the  medieval  era,  Renaissance  humanists   established  a  double  standard  of  love  and  marriage.   •  Slavery  &  Race.  Renaissance  understandings  of  race  were  very  primi8ve;  they  lacked  a   clear  understanding  of  Africa  and  had  a  generally  ambivalent  view  toward  Africans.  Most  of   their  concep8on  of  race  came  from  theological  tenets  of  light  and  darkness.   h"p://www.learnerator.com  
  • 9. AP  European  History  -­‐>  15th  Century   Fine  Art  &  Literature   •  Michelangelo  –  Painted  the  Sis8ne  Chapel;  Interested  in  perfec8ng  a  representa8on  of   human  anatomy  as  seen  in  the  sculpture  of  David,  the  Pieta,  &  the  SisDne  Chapel.   •  Da  Vinci  –  Perhaps  the  ul8mate  Renaissance  Man  for  his  genius  in  pain8ng,  sculp8ng,   architecture,  science,  engineer,  and  writer   •  Raphael  –  His  School  of  Athens  is  an  early  example  of  perspec8ve  from  the  period   •  Massaccio  –  One  of  the  1st  to  use  perspec8ve  to  depict  depth  on  a  2D  surface   •  PainKng  –  Influenced  by  either  religious  themes  or  for  private  aggrandizement;  defined  by   balance  and  propor8on  and  perspec8ve  which  were  elements  missing  from  previous  eras   •  Architecture  –  Adopted  Greco-­‐Roman  symmetry  in  classical  columns,  arches,  and  domes;   Brunelleschi  –  Florence  Cathedral  dome;  Leon  BaUsta  Alber8  –  Trea8se  on  Architecture   •  Used  linear  perspec8ve  &  anatomically  accurate  methods  of  depic8ng  people  to  more   realis8cally  depict  the  world   •  The  status  of  ar8sts  was  elevated  from  previous  8mes,  partly  due  to  the  fact  that  ar8sts   only  did  work  when  commissioned  by  wealthy  patrons.   h"p://www.learnerator.com