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Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm
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Working memory model, case study cw & evaluate msm

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  • 1. The Working Memory Model (Baddeley and Hitch, 1974) L/O: to be able to outline and describe the model (AO1).Starter: MSM (1968) WMM (1974)Why might Baddeley and Hitch have been dissatisfied withthe explanation of memory via the Multi-store Model?(think back to its limitations).
  • 2. L/O: to be able to outline and describe the model (AO1)• Baddeley and Hitch (1974) felt that the multi-store model UNDERESTIMATED the complexity of STM.• In the WMM, STM is what you think about any one moment (what you are working on). Multi-store Model: MSM Working Memory Model: WMM Passive. Active. Unitary (single system of STM). Multi-component system (auditory E.g. and visual STM). reverse digit span, Linear system (one way from Two way: STM information mental ‘waiting stage’ STM to LTM). combines with LTM information. arithmetic.
  • 3. L/O: to be able to outline and describe the model (AO1) WMM study replication You will need some paper, a pen and to listen carefully. Baddeley (1975): the effect of length of word on our ability to remember it. Could you guess his directional hypothesis (AO3)?
  • 4. Baddeley (1975): the effect of word length on recall. Participants were link opportunity presented with long win platinum words list and asked to repeat the words out add livelihood loud. Then same for short words list. cup overestimate Count the number of words recalled. list regiment Compared two knot government conditions: 1. Short word list spade horizon 2. Long word list watch timetable rule elephant What have we found in our slim cathedral version?
  • 5. L/O: to be able to outline and describe the model. (AO1) The STM in this model has separate but The Central connected parts. Executive Active system. The Phonological Loop The Visuo- Phonological store Spatial Sketchpad Articulatory (Scratchpad) Loop
  • 6. L/O: to be able to outline and describe the model. (AO1) - Sensory information comes in - Decides what should and The Central should not be done at any one time. Executive - Prioritises via ATTENTION. - Other modules are ‘slaves’ to this one. The Phonological LIKE A The MANAGER? Loop Visuo- Phonological store Spatial Sketchpad Articulatory (Scratchpad) Loop
  • 7. L/O: to be able to outline and describe the model. (AO1) The Central Executive The Slave system 1 Phonological - Auditory store. Loop - REHEARSES The sound-based Visuo- Phonological information to store Spatial prevent DECAY. Sketchpad Articulatory (Scratchpad) Loop
  • 8. L/O: to be able to outline and describe the model. (AO1) The Central Executive The 2 sub-divisions: Phonological 1. Phonological store: Loop ‘inner ear’ for The perception of sounds, Visuo- Phonological speech. store Spatial Sketchpad 1. Articulatory loop: ‘inner voice’ for Articulatory (Scratchpad) speech production. Loop e.g. saying things over and over.
  • 9. L/O: to be able to outline and describe the model. (AO1) Think back to the study The Central replication… Executive Baddeley (1975): the effect of word length on recall. The What did we find? Phonological Could you recall more short Loop or long words? The 2 seconds DURATION. Visuo- Phonological How does this finding store Spatial support the WMM? i.e. it holds as much as Sketchpad can be rehearsed in 2 Articulatory seconds. (Scratchpad) Loop (Baddeley, 1986).
  • 10. L/O: to be able to outline and describe the model. (AO1) The Central Executive The Phonological Slave system 2 Loop - ‘inner eye’ The - deals with Visuo- Phonological store information by Spatial visually organising Sketchpad it (sketching it out). Articulatory (Scratchpad) Loop A.K.A. ‘mental rough paper’ for working out a maths sum.
  • 11. L/O: to be able to outline and describe the model. (AO1)What is 59 + 35?1. Work out the answer.2. Try to trace the process you went through. Map them to the WMM?
  • 12. Working Memory ‘working’• Info in (59+35)• Held temporarily and combined with LTM info (what is 59? what is 35? How do I add?)• Sum 9+5 will be worked out and held• Sum 50+30 will be worked out and held• Then combined• Visual: maybe use ‘mental rough paper’
  • 13. L/O: to be able to outline and describe the model. (AO1)• Page 73 textbookWhat did Baddeley’s (1976) study show?
  • 14. L/O: to be able to outline and describe the model. (AO1)Without notes.5 key facts for AO1 WMM model:1.2.3.4.5.
  • 15. L/O: to be able to outline and describe the model. (AO1)8 mark question (May 2012)a) Outline the main features of the working memory model (4 marks). AO1b) Outline one strength and one limitation of the working memory model (2+2 marks). AO2
  • 16. • Your marked 12 markers.Generally, the outlines/descriptions were great(AO1)But evaluations were not so (AO2) hence usrevisiting this.
  • 17. Evaluating the WMM (Working Memory Model)L/O: to be able to complete up to a 6 marker on evaluation of WMM (A02). Get your 4 markers back.What do we know already about the evaluation of theWMM linked to research?Consider:- Case Studies- Research by Baddeley.
  • 18. Strengths (AO2)1. Baddeley (1975) short vs. long word list experiment. Participants were presented with a list of words (short or long). Tested recall following hearing the list. Found: participants recalled significantly more words in the short list condition. Support the 2 second duration of the articulatory loop.2. Brain imaging research has shown that the two slave system functions utilised a different part of the brain. PL = Broca’s area, VSS= occipital lobe.
  • 19. Limitations (AO2)1. Limited evidence for the role of the CE, in particular its capacity has not been measured.2. Communication between STM and LTM is not clearly explained or evidenced by research.
  • 20. 2a) outline (4 marks) 2b) outline one strength and one limitation of the WMM (2+2 marks)• Elaboratione.g. limitation:the role of the CE is unclear/vague (1/2 marks)The CE is an important/vital part of the modelbut it’s exact role is unclear and lacks evidence(2/2 marks).
  • 21. • You need some paper, a pen and to listen carefully. Jacobs, 1890 1.Which study did I replicate? Test of STM capacity. Found: Same method, Digit span = just 2.Is it reliable? same findings? over 9. Letter span = just over 7. Did we?
  • 22. Jacobs, 1890 Test of STM capacity582 rxt6893 byjg51374 ftndw173628 lrmpfc7904861 gpydlhb52603714 pzgxmjhs586403791 vbjytrqfz6713802534 dcsfwmxlgj
  • 23. The Multi-Store Model of Memory (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968) DURATION: up to 18 seconds. CAPACITY: average 7 items. ENCODING: changing info to a memorable format = semantic (meaning). CAPACITY: UNLIMITED IN LTM.decay Short-term Long-term Sensory memory memory memory ENCODING: changing info to a memorable format = sound. DURATION: 48 years or longer.
  • 24. Unit 1: Cognitive Psychology AQA Specification A
  • 25. Unit 1: Cognitive Psychology AQA Specification A STM vs. LTM Key studies STM vs. LTM Key study Who? When? STM vs. LTM Main 3 components Key studiesOthermainprocessesAdd your AO1 and AO3 information on to the diagram for revision.
  • 26. L/O: To be aware of what a case study is (AO1) To be able to use a case study to evaluate the MSM (AO2)• A case study is an investigation of a single individual.• Because they are unique or rare in some way.• In-depth information is obtained as they are conducted over a long time and use various methods of data collection.• Primary data = researcher collects.• Secondary data = e.g. school or medical records.
  • 27. L/O: To be aware of what a case study is (AO1) To be able to use a case study to evaluate the MSM (AO2)Case study: Clive Wearing How does this case study provide both support for and against the MSM? (AO2)• STM completely gone.• Some LTM impaired.• Ability to play piano remains: LTM procedural memory.
  • 28. L/O: To be aware of what a case study is (AO1) To be able to use a case study to evaluate the MSM (AO2)Support for:STM and LTM as twoseparate systems. How does this case study provide bothEvidence against: support for andPart of his LTM is ok against the MSM?(procedural) but episodic (AO2)is not, therefore LTMcannot be one singlestore.
  • 29. L/O: To be aware of what a case study is (AO1) To be able to use a case study to evaluate the MSM (AO2)‘Evaluate’?e.g. Outline/Describe and Evaluate the MSM.You need:• 2 strengths• 2 limitations• All linked to research ideally.
  • 30. AO2 The Multi-Store Model of Memory (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968) Strengths Limitations 1. Case Studies (Clive Wearing18 seconds. DURATION: up to / 1. Case study Clive Wearing K.F. / H.M. ) supports STM and CAPACITY: average 7 items. ENCODING: changing info to a are suggested that there LTM as separate. memorable format = semantic (meaning). types of LTM differentdecay (procedural, episodic) which LTM. CAPACITY: UNLIMITED IN is 2. Offers a good explanation of not explained by Long-term the MSM. Murdoch’s serial position effect. Short-term memory In a word list,memory effect memory Sensory primacy 2. Case study K.F. has STM occurs (first few words are problems with verbal material remembered due to but not non-verbal, suggesting maintenance rehearsal) and ENCODING: changing info to a that the STM is also not a recency effect (last few due to memorable format = sound. single store. 48 years or longer. DURATION: capacity of STM).

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