Parents eveningTake this time to prepare for the Age and EWT 12 marker in a moment.
Write your answer to the 12 mark question. Use your plan.AO1 = 6 marks. AO2 = 6 marks.Outline = select research into Age+EWT. More or less detail?Evaluate = research problems, contradictory? ACCURATE AND REASONABLY DETAILED!
L/Os: 1. To be able to describe the The four techniques used in cognitive interviews. Cognitive 2. To be able to explain how the cognitive interview Interview differs from a standard interview.A method developed to improve the amount of accurate recallfrom witnesses.Waddington and Bull (2007): the cognitive interview encouragesaccurate and thorough recall of specific events.Starter: Using what you know about cognitions and memory, any ideas how this might work?
L/Os:To be able to describe the four techniques used in cognitiveinterviews.The cognitive interview is based on two principlesof memory:Organisation of memory – can be accessed viamany routes.Context of memory – cues present at the time ofstorage aid retrieval.
L/Os:To be able to describe the four techniques used in cognitiveinterviews. • No standardised questions. • No time-limit. • Interviewer remains silent. • Interviewer can take notes. • Clarification and elaboration is only asked for after recall is complete. • Only open-ended and non-leading questions.
You need a piece of paper and a pen.Choose someone in the room that you know well.Look down at your paper and describetheir face in as much detail as you can, in words.Try drawing their face, without looking.
L/Os:To be able to describe the four techniques used in cognitiveinterviews. You are going to work in pairs/threes. You will be given one of the four techniques for cognitive interview. You should read about it, get your head around it then find a way of presenting it to the class. - A short role play would be fabulous (interviewer and interviewee).
L/Os:To be able to describe the four techniques used in cognitiveinterviews.Four techniques:1. Reinstate the contextPrinciple: return the interviewee to the situation /context to aid memory retrieval.How?- Recreating the original mood.- Ask interviewee to think back to where they were, what they were doing.
L/Os:To be able to describe the four techniques used in cognitiveinterviews.Four techniques:2. Change sequencePrinciple: to encourage not skipping details inretrieval.How?- Asked to recall events in any order (not chronological).- Begin at any point.- Asked to repeat the account, reversing the order of events.
L/Os:To be able to describe the four techniques used in cognitiveinterviews. Four techniques: 3. Change perspective Principle: thinking as another person might aid retrieval of details. How? - Asked to recall events from another perspective. - Only what they know – not being imaginative as this will reduce accuracy.
L/Os:To be able to describe the four techniques used in cognitiveinterviews.Four techniques:4. Report everythingPrinciple: encouraging unrestrained recall is likely toreveal details that otherwise might be mentally‘edited out’.How?- Asked to report everything and anything.- Regardless of how fragmented or irrelevant the details might seem.
Enhanced Cognitive Interview• Why? It was felt that there was a lack of communication between interviewer and interviewee – affecting recall/accuracy.• How? More instructions from interviewer: speak slowly and carefully; encourage comfort by adapting language.• Support? Fisher et al (1987) – 57.5% more correct eye-witness statements compared with 39.6% with original cog. Interview.
Complete thisexam question –IDENTIFY AND EXPLAIN.
HOW DID YOU DO?Question 1AO1 = 6 marks Accurate explanation of each techniqueThe main techniques used in the cognitive interview are summarised below.Context reinstatement - trying to mentally recreate an image of the situation, includingdetails of the environment, such as the weather conditions and the individual’semotional state including their feelings at the time of the incident.Recall from changed perspective – trying to mentally recreate the situation fromdifferent points of view eg describing what another witness present at the scenewould have seen.Recall in reverse order – the witness is asked to recall the scene in a differentchronological order eg from the end to the beginning.Report everything – the interviewer encourages the witness to report all details aboutthe event, even though these details may seem to be unimportant.In both cases, 1 mark for identifying an appropriate technique and 2 further marks foraccurate elaboration.
Complete 5 (a), 5 (b) and 5 (c) on the exam paper copy.
How did you do?1 mark for naming one relevant technique.2 marks for naming two or more techniques or for avery brief outline of how one could be used.Further marks for elaboration.3-4 marks ONLY If the outline relates to the event.
Question 5(c)In real life settings research has high validity because thefindings can be generalised to other similar situations.Therefore, more likely to be relevant to EWT where there arereal consequences/emotional impact in real life which do notoccur in laboratory investigations.Demand characteristics may be shown in lab exps – less likelyin real world.NOT advantages/disadvantages of general lab or real worldresearch.1 mark for – ‘lack ecological validity’.2-3 marks for some elaboration as above.
L/O:To be able to explain how the cognitive interview differsfrom a standard interview.
Evaluation1. Outline one strength of the cognitive interview?2. Outline one weakness of cognitive interview?Also recap:3. Outline one strength of questionnaires as a research method?4. Outline one weakness of questionnaires as a research method?5. Outline one strength of interviews as a research method?6. Outline one weakness of interviews as a research method?
Self - Study1. Remind yourself of the MEAN, MEDIAN andMODE (pages 46-47 textbook).2. Use the self-study guide to recap and fill in anygaps in your notes about the Cognitive Interview(pg.50 + Apply Your Knowledge qu).Due Monday 3rd December.