Monday 12th November 2012 Eye Witness TestimonyL/O: (EWT)of anxiety on the To consider the impact accuracy of EWT.StarterIn pairs,Verbally – recap Loftus and Palmer experiments.Share and write down – two key evaluative points.
The exam specification states:Memory in every day lifeEye Witness Testimony.Factors affecting accuracy of EWT. Including:1. Misleading information (Loftus and Palmer, 1974)2. Anxiety3. Age of witness
L/O: To consider the impact of anxiety on the accuracy of EWT.What is anxiety?In what ways can it affect people’s lives? Yours? (if you do not mindsharing).Anxiety is:• a normal feeling to experience occasionally.• a sense of unease and worry.• The body’s way of telling us something is not right.Clinical anxiety / anxiety as a mental health ‘problem’ involves amuch more regular or constant presence of anxiety which can bedisproportionate to the situation.
L/O: To consider the impact of anxiety on the accuracy of EWT.Relation to EWT? Discuss.Consider:• What do people need to have seen/heard to be an eyewitness?• What do they need to do with that information? Could this affect memory accuracy? How?
L/O: To consider the impact of anxiety on the accuracy of EWT.Anxiety and EWT1. Threat to personal safety in ‘the event’.2. Giving evidence is a pressured, serious situation.3. ‘Weapons-focus effect’ – what could this be about?
L/O: To consider the impact of anxiety on the accuracy of EWT.The weapons-focus effect• Many studies show that weapon presence can increase anxiety.Why? Why does it matter?• Focuses perception in only certain aspects.• Influences what the witness ‘sees’ or ‘does not’.• Novelty? = less reliable witness.
L/O: To consider the impact of anxiety on the accuracy of EWT.• What is the Yerkes-Dodson Law?• Page 80.
L/O: To consider the impact of anxiety on the accuracy of EWT. Related research (AO2)Laboratory experimentPeters (1988)Natural experimentYullie & Cutshall (1986)Yerkes-Dodson Law
L/O: To consider the impact of anxiety on the accuracy of EWT.TASKPlan an answer to the following question:Explain how anxiety might affect eye-witnesstestimony. Refer to Psychological research inyour answer. (6 marks)
Explain how anxiety might affect eye-witness testimony. Refer to Psychological research in your answer. (6 marks)AO1.Anxiety is… The nature of being an eye-witness means that…Both being a witness and giving testimony after= anxiety inducing.Link to memory perception, neglect and retrieval.AO2.1. Peters (1988) lab study, maybe mention ‘many studies’ have found the weapons-focus effect.2. Yullie and Cutshall (1986) natural experiment.3. Yerkes Dodson Law. AO1 = 3 marks AO2 = 3 marks
Explain how anxiety might affect eye-witness testimony. Refer to Psychological research in your answer. (6 marks)People who are eye-witnesses are in anxiety-provoking situations; at the time of the ‘event’perception can be hindered by anxiety due toshock or neglect and afterwards, whenrecalling the details, eye-witnesses mayexperience retrieval difficulties. 3 marks.
You need evaluation of the research in order to get the full 12 marks here.
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