Dev intro%2c evo animal research
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  • 1. Unit 1: Developmental Psychology Two parts1. Attachment.2. Attachment in everyday life.
  • 2. L/O: to be able to define attachment AO1 Attachment is an emotional connection or bond.Independently, think and write down all of thedifferent ways a person can form attachmentswith another. 2 minutes.
  • 3. What we will cover this half-term [from the exam Specification]Part 1Attachment• Explanations of attachment, including learning theory andBowlby’s theory.• Types of attachment: secure attachment, insecure-avoidantand insecure-resistant.• Use of the “Strange Situation” in attachment research. Key names: Bowlby Pavlov Ainsworth & Bell
  • 4. L/O: to be able to define attachment AO1What?• Mutual affection Not just physical needs met:• Frequent interaction food, water, hygiene.• Desire for proximity• Selectivity: the child wants to be with caregiver and no-one elseWho?• Child and principle caregiver• Usually the mother but can be father or other person
  • 5. What we will cover this half-term [from the exam Specification]Part 1Attachment• Explanations of attachment, including learning theory and Bowlby’s theory• Types of attachment: secure attachment, insecure-avoidant and insecure-resistant• Use of the “Strange Situation” in attachment research Key names: Lorenz Harlow Bowlby Pavlov Ainsworth & Bell
  • 6. Can you speculate as to how these two schools of thought might try to explain attachment?Why do they occur?Biological and evolutionary perspective.vs.Environment and learning perspective.
  • 7. The Evolutionary Perspective• Read ‘Evolution: Natural Selection’ - page 98. Is there an evolutionary advantage to forming attachments? YES.Animal instinct for both parent and new born. Linked to survival.
  • 8. L/O: To be able to describe the findings from research into attachment in animals AO1 To evaluate their research AO2Konrad Lorenz – Biologist studied geese [1935]Imprinting: an innate ability, in all species that are mobilesoon after birth, to quickly recognise and follow a caregiver.Important for survival: Protection from predators Learn necessary skills and behavioursResearch with geese found:• there is a ‘critical period’ for imprinting – first 36 hours of life.• a lack of or inappropriate imprinting had consequences for survival and mating choices.
  • 9. L/O: To be able to describe the findings from research into attachment in animals AO1 To evaluate their research AO2Evaluation AO2× Imprinting can occur outside of the 36 Can we apply hour ‘critical period’ so better referred these findings to as a ‘sensitive period’ when from animal studies to imprinting occurs more readily. humans?× The effects may not be as permanent as Can Kendrick’s Lorenz suggests. Kendrick et al. found study be used to evaluate goats raised in mixed flocks with sheep Lorenz’s for 3 years showed a preference for human/geese research? sheep BUT female tended to revert back to their own species after 1-2 years.
  • 10. Can we? L/O: to be able to define attachment AO15 (a) What is meant by the term attachment?................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 marks 2 minutes.Question 5 a Peer-assess [Write PA by…]AO1 = 2 marks Knowledge of attachmentAttachment can be defined as an emotional relationship between twopeople in which each seeks closeness and feels more secure when inthe presence of the attachment figure.One mark for a brief outline such as an emotional bond.Second mark for some elaboration.
  • 11. L/O: To be able to describe the findings from research into attachment in animals AO1 To evaluate their research AO2Harry Harlow – studied Monkeys [1962] Research found: Monkeys spent majority of their time with comforting cloth mother and only visited wire mother toMonkeys raised from birth with feed. two substitute mothers: Preferred comfort to food supply? 1. wire mother with milk2. Cloth mother without milk. Long-term effects: • Maternal Deprivation resulted Watch the clip. in timid, fearful monkeys lacking What did Harlow social skills. do and find? • No physical effects long-term.
  • 12. L/O: To be able to describe the findings from research into attachment in animals AO1 To evaluate their research AO2Evaluation AO2× Maternal Deprivation or privation?Deprivation = something you has being taken away.Privation = never having something at all. Research into humans support importance of contact – Klaus and Kennel found more contact in hospital = stronger attachment a month later.× Quantity or quality/type of contact? Harlow does not distinguish but seems important to human attachment.× Generalisable to humans?
  • 13. Can we?L/O: To be able to describe the findings from research into attachment in animals AO1 To evaluate their research AO2 Get into pairs. Label yourselves A and B. Cover your notes. A – tell B about Lorenz, his research and one evaluative point. B – tell A about Harlow, his research and one evaluative point. Then, share what your partner told you.
  • 14. Self StudyPage 64 study guide: Read and add to notes.Due Monday 14th January.
  • 15. • Research Methods crossword.
  • 16. L/O: To be able to describe the findings from research into attachment in HUMANS AO1 To evaluate their research AO2John Bowlby
  • 17. Theories of attachmentL/O: To be able to outline Bowlby’s theory of attachment AO1 To be able to define key terms AO1 Starter: Briefly outline the Psychoanalytic theory of attachment.
  • 18. L/O: To be able to outline Bowlby’s theory of attachment AO1 To be able to define key terms AO1Bowlby (The biological / evolutionary perspective)- Attachment has strong biological roots.- Both infant and caregiver have a biological NEED to form an attachment to one and other – reciprocal.- ‘Attachment’ rather than ‘imprinting (Lorenz’s geese) as complex emotions are associated.- Monotropy: a child attaching to one person (principle caregiver).
  • 19. L/O: To be able to outline Bowlby’s theory of attachment AO1 To be able to define key terms AO1 What are the three stages according to Bowlby’s theory? Are they fixed or flexible? Be critical: Why is this problematic? Internal working model:
  • 20. L/O: To be able to outline Bowlby’s theory of attachment AO1 To be able to define key terms AO1 Critical Period: Continuity hypothesis: Secure base hypothesis:
  • 21. L/O: To be able to outline Bowlby’s theory of attachment AO1 To be able to define key terms AO1 Study guide: 1. Pg. 65 – read and add to notes. 2. Do ‘Apply your knowledge’ question (4 marks) – write it as a short speech or a brief information leaflet. You have been invited to give a talk to the local mother-and-baby group. Using ideas from Bowlby’s theory of attachment, what advice might you give the mothers about how they could form a strong mother-child bond?
  • 22. Self-StudyDue Friday• Write a list of the behaviours you would expect to see in a child who has formed a strong attachment bond in early life?• What about those of a child who has not?