Culture and   AttachmentL/O: To define and apply key terms (AO1/2)     To be aware of cross-cultural research (AO2)Starter...
List a few of theexpectations of yourculture.Are there any forchild rearing? Read the chapter opening on page 114 of the t...
Bowlbys theory of attachmentassumes universality ofattachment: the features apply toall in all cultures.If infant attachme...
Recap!Independently, describe the behaviour of a:Securely attached childInsecurely (anxious-avoidant) attached childInsecu...
Suggest why children from different   countries may behave differently in the   Strange Situation (2 marks).   Suggest why...
L/O: To define and apply key terms (AO1/2)     To be aware of cross-cultural research (AO2)   Cross-cultural research into...
L/O: To define and apply key terms (AO1/2)     To be aware of cross-cultural research (AO2)  Van Ijizendoorn and Kroonenbe...
L/O: To define and apply key terms (AO1/2)     To be aware of cross-cultural research (AO2)     Can the Strange Situation ...
TOP MARKSAccurate and reasonably  detailed.                         Cultural Bias               AO1 – to be able to outlin...
Recap!Independently, describe the behaviour of a:Securely attached childInsecurely (anxious-avoidant) attached childInsecu...
Cross-cultural research into attachment1. Differences in long-term goals:Carlson & Harwood (2003)2. Differences in caregiv...
Van Ijizendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988)Cross-cultural comparison of the StrangeSituation.1. Study the data in the table (nu...
Can we? AO1 – to be able to outline cross-       cultural research into            attachment.Outline one or more studies...
Read your neighbour’s answer.Are they accurate?                    Can we?          AO1 – to be able to outline         o...
AO2 – to select appropriate details from cross-  cultural research to evaluate the Strange Situation.Exam Tip: It is impre...
AO2 – to select appropriate details from cross- cultural research to evaluate the Strange Situation.Read ‘Cultural Bias’ –...
AO2 – to select appropriate details from cross- cultural research to evaluate the Strange Situation.Evaluate the Strange S...
AO2 – to select appropriate details from cross-  cultural research to evaluate the Strange Situation.Mark scheme:         ...
Meta-analysis: not a new study but a bringing together of information from studies conducted         previously (e.g. Van ...
Choose and write on a post-it note one thing / idea/ part of the model answer that would you wereimpressed by and would li...
AO1 – to be able to outline the findings of           Rothbaum’s comparative study.Rothbaum et al. (2000) argue against th...
AO1 – to be able to outline the findings of          Rothbaum’s comparative study.Rothbaum et al. (2000) compared three ke...
Can we?  AO1 – to be able to outline the     findings of Rothbaum’s        comparative study.Outline one or more studies ...
Read your neighbour’s answer.Are they accurate?                    Can we?        AO1 – to be able to outline the        ...
Self-study for over half term1. Update card tracker for 12 markers including reflectionon key target.• Choose one main Sub...
Culture and attachment
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Culture and attachment

  1. 1. Culture and AttachmentL/O: To define and apply key terms (AO1/2) To be aware of cross-cultural research (AO2)StarterIn pairs, tryto defineCULTURE inonesentence.
  2. 2. List a few of theexpectations of yourculture.Are there any forchild rearing? Read the chapter opening on page 114 of the textbook. INDIVIDUALIST CULTURE? COLLECTIVIST CULTURE? SUBCULTURE?L/O: To define and apply key terms (AO1/2) To be aware of cross-cultural research (AO2)
  3. 3. Bowlbys theory of attachmentassumes universality ofattachment: the features apply toall in all cultures.If infant attachment is innate thenit should be the same in all cultures.We might all need responsive andsensitive parenting (according toBowlby) but how we obtain it is notthe same across all cultures.
  4. 4. Recap!Independently, describe the behaviour of a:Securely attached childInsecurely (anxious-avoidant) attached childInsecurely (anxious-resistant) attached childDisorganised/’other’ attached child A B C D?
  5. 5. Suggest why children from different countries may behave differently in the Strange Situation (2 marks). Suggest why there may be differences within a country in childrens reactions to the Strange Situation (2 marks). 1 mark = name the key word/issue. +1 marks= elaborate/explain.L/O: To define and apply key terms (AO1/2) To be aware of cross-cultural research (AO2)
  6. 6. L/O: To define and apply key terms (AO1/2) To be aware of cross-cultural research (AO2) Cross-cultural research into attachment Differences in long-term goals: Carlson & Harwood (2003) Differences in caregiver response to needs: True et al. (2001) Differences in value of caregiver/child: Tronick et al. (1992)
  7. 7. L/O: To define and apply key terms (AO1/2) To be aware of cross-cultural research (AO2) Van Ijizendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988) Cross-cultural comparison of the Strange Situation. 1. Study the data in the table (number of studies for each place and percentage attachment types). 2. Read their key findings.
  8. 8. L/O: To define and apply key terms (AO1/2) To be aware of cross-cultural research (AO2) Can the Strange Situation procedure be used to assess the development of secure attachment in children regardless of which culture they are brought up in? Explain your answer with reference to cross-cultural research. (6 marks)
  9. 9. TOP MARKSAccurate and reasonably detailed. Cultural Bias AO1 – to be able to outline cross- cultural research into attachment. AO2 – to select appropriate details from cross-cultural research to evaluate the Strange Situation. TOP MARKS Specifics of the research findings are accurate.
  10. 10. Recap!Independently, describe the behaviour of a:Securely attached childInsecurely (anxious-avoidant) attached childInsecurely (anxious-resistant) attached childDisorganised/’other’ attached child - Separation A B C D? - Stranger - Reunion
  11. 11. Cross-cultural research into attachment1. Differences in long-term goals:Carlson & Harwood (2003)2. Differences in caregiver response to needs:True et al. (2001)3. Differences in value of caregiver/child:Tronick et al. (1992)
  12. 12. Van Ijizendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988)Cross-cultural comparison of the StrangeSituation.1. Study the data in the table (number of studies for each place and percentage attachment types).2. Read their key findings.
  13. 13. Can we? AO1 – to be able to outline cross- cultural research into attachment.Outline one or more studies that have investigated cultural variations in attachment (6 marks) Accurate and reasonably detailed.
  14. 14. Read your neighbour’s answer.Are they accurate? Can we?  AO1 – to be able to outline outline cross-cultural research into attachment. Outline one or more studies that have investigated cultural variations in attachment (6 marks) Accurate and reasonably detailed.
  15. 15. AO2 – to select appropriate details from cross- cultural research to evaluate the Strange Situation.Exam Tip: It is impressive to use specificexamples of attachment/child-rearing differencesacross, and within, cultures.Tell the person next to you one specificdifference. Listen to theirs. TOP MARKS Specifics of the research findings are accurate.
  16. 16. AO2 – to select appropriate details from cross- cultural research to evaluate the Strange Situation.Read ‘Cultural Bias’ – a Japanese perspective onpages 118-119.Complete the table of differences found.Discuss the findings on your tables.
  17. 17. AO2 – to select appropriate details from cross- cultural research to evaluate the Strange Situation.Evaluate the Strange Situation as a method forinvestigation types of attachment (4 marks).OrApart from ethical issues, explain one or morelimitations of using the Strange Situation toassess the type of attachment in young children(4 marks).
  18. 18. AO2 – to select appropriate details from cross- cultural research to evaluate the Strange Situation.Mark scheme: Can we?Cultural differences e.g. German children areencouraged to be independent so may appearinsecure anxious-avoidant whereas Japanesechildren are rarely – to selectfrom their mothers so  AO2 separated appropriate details from cross-culturalmay appear insecure avoidant-resistant. research to evaluate the Strange Situation. What other ways could the Strange Situation be criticised? (other than ethical and cultural issues).
  19. 19. Meta-analysis: not a new study but a bringing together of information from studies conducted previously (e.g. Van Ijzendoorn)Outline and evaluate research into culturalvariations in attachment (12 marks)AO1 – 6 marksOutline methodology (what they did, who with, key factors in theculture and attachment, findings).AO2 – 6 marksEvaluate research (strengths and criticisms) based on otherresearch (supports or contradicts) or on AO3 grounds.
  20. 20. Choose and write on a post-it note one thing / idea/ part of the model answer that would you wereimpressed by and would like to try to use in youranswer next week.Self-Study:Complete Research Methods questions (AO3)
  21. 21. AO1 – to be able to outline the findings of Rothbaum’s comparative study.Rothbaum et al. (2000) argue against the assumeduniversality of attachment principles.• Insufficient consideration of the importance of culture on attachment.• Differences in child-rearing behaviour and attitudes.• Attachment theory concepts are “deeply rooted in a Western-perspective” - focused on Western values.- CULTURALLY BIASED
  22. 22. AO1 – to be able to outline the findings of Rothbaum’s comparative study.Rothbaum et al. (2000) compared three key aspects ofattachment theory with Japanese child-rearing andculture.Aim: to demonstrate the cultural bias.1. The sensitivity hypothesis2. The secure base hypothesis3. The competence hypothesis
  23. 23. Can we?  AO1 – to be able to outline the findings of Rothbaum’s comparative study.Outline one or more studies that have investigated cultural variations in attachment (6 marks) Accurate and reasonably detailed.
  24. 24. Read your neighbour’s answer.Are they accurate? Can we?  AO1 – to be able to outline the findings of Rothbaum’s comparative study. Outline one or more studies that have investigated cultural variations in attachment (6 marks) Accurate and reasonably detailed.
  25. 25. Self-study for over half term1. Update card tracker for 12 markers including reflectionon key target.• Choose one main Subject Target and write in Spring Term 2 of small tracker.2. Correct any highlighted or circled literacy errors inmarked work (spelling/word choice).• Choose one main Literacy Target and write in Spring Term 2 of small tracker.General revise of attachment so far.
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