Expressing quantity


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Expressing quantity

  1. 1. Western University School ofArts, Humanities, and Languages Year II, Semester I Chapter 6 Expressing Quantity Ung SreyPeuv 1
  2. 2. Some & Any• Some/any + Noun (countable & uncountable nouns)• In general we use ‘some’ in positive sentences and ‘any’ in negative sentences and questionsE.g. 1. There are some eggs on the table. 2. Was there any milk in the fridge? 3. I haven’t got any stamps.• But we use ‘some’ in questions when we expect the answer ‘yes’E.g. Did you buy some clothes? (I know that you went out to buy some.) 2
  3. 3. Some & Any…• We use ‘some’ in offers and requests/ask for things.E.g. 1. Would you like some coffee? 2. Could you please post some letters for me? 3. Can I have some of those apple?• We choose between someone & anyone, something & anything, and somewhere & anywhere (with singular noun) in the same way as between ‘some’ and ‘any’E.g. 1. Someone has split water everywhere. 2. Would you like something to eat? (offer) 3. Let’s go out somewhere. 3
  4. 4. Some & Any… 4. Did anyone see what happened? 5. We haven’t anything to eat. 6. Is there anywhere we can go?• In an if-clause, we use ‘any’ to express a condition.E.g. 1. Any problems will be dealt with by our agent. (= If there are any problems, they will be dealt with by our agent.) 2. If you have any questions, you can ask me.• In an if-clause, we can choose between ‘some’ and ‘any’. ‘Some’ is more positive.E.g. If you need some/any help, let me know. 4
  5. 5. Any…• Any/Anyone/anybody/anything/anywhere in positive sentence to mean ‘it doesn’t matter which/who/what/where’E.g. 1. I’m free all day. Call any time you like. 3. A: Which song do you want to sing? B: Any song. I don’t mind. 4. You can have anything you want for your birth day gift. 5. We left the door unlocked. Anybody could have come in. 6. Sit anywhere you like. 5
  6. 6. Any of• ‘Any of + plural noun’ expresses part of a quantity but not all ‘it doesn’t matter which/who’. We use it in positive and question• Any of + us/you/themE.g. 1. Were any of my friends at the party? 2. Do any of you want to come to a party tonight? 3. There are several colors. You can have any of them. (one or more among several colors) 4. You can catch any of these buses. They all go to the city. (one among many buses) 5. Do any of your friends speak Spanish? (1 or more) 6 6. Any of you is seller. (at least one)
  7. 7. Some of• ‘Some of’ expresses specific part (some of + singular noun)E.g. 1. Some of that food from the party was all right,but I threw some of it away. 2. Some of the book is interesting.• It expresses part of a quantity, some but not all (some of + plural noun)E.g. 1. Some of the canals in Venice have traffic lights. 2. Some of the people at the party were veryfriendly. 7
  8. 8. Special use of ‘some’• Some + singular noun can mean an indefinite person or thingE.g. The flight was delayed for some reason.• Some day/time means an indefinite time in the futureE.g. 1. I’ll be famous some day/one day. 2. You must come and see me some time.• Some can express strong feeling about sthE.g. That was*some parade, wasn’t it? (The parade was special.)*Parade: a public ceremony of a special day/eventusually with bands in the streets & decorated vehicles 8
  9. 9. Special use of ‘some’…• Some before a number means ‘about’E.g. Some twenty people attended the meeting. 9
  10. 10. Each and Every• Use every and each before a singular noun to talk about a whole group.E.g. 1. The police questioned every/each person in the building. 2. Every/each room has a number.• Every person=everyone means ‘all the people’E.g. Every guest watched as the President came in.• Each person means all the people seen as individuals (one by one)E.g. Each guest shakes hands with him. 10
  11. 11. Each and Every…• ‘Every’ means three or more, usually a large number than ‘each’E.g. There were cars parked along every street in town. (=all the streets)• ‘Each’ is more usual with smaller groups and can mean only two.E.g. There were car parked along each side of the street. (=both sides)• We can use ’each’ on ‘its own’ or with ‘of’ (but not ’every’)E.g. - There are six flats. Each has its own entrance. - Each of the six flats has its own entrance. Each one/Every one has its own entrance. 11
  12. 12. Each and Every…• We can also use ’each in mid position (close to the verb) or after a pronoun.E.g. We have each got our own desk. They gave us each a desk.• Compare Every and All before day, morning, week..E.g. 1. I travel every day. (= Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday…) 2. I was travelling all day. (= from morning till evening)• We cannot use a negative verb after ‘every/each’E.g. Every/ Each door wasn’t locked. →None of the doors were locked. 12
  13. 13. Whole• We use whole before a singular noun. It means ‘all’ or ‘complete’.• We can say the/my/her… before ‘whole’E.g. 1. The baby cried the whole night. (=all night) 2. I’ve spent my whole life waiting for you. (= all my life)• You can say also ‘a whole…’E.g. Jack ate a whole chocolate cake last night. (= a complete cake)• We do not use ‘whole’ with uncountable nounE.g. The whole money  All the money 13
  14. 14. Every, Everyone, Everybody, & Everything• We use a singular verb after every/everyone/everybody/everythingE.g. 1. Every seat in the theatre was taken. 2. Everybody looks tired today. 3. Everything he said was true.• But we often use they/them/their after everyone/everybodyE.g. 1. Has everyone got their tickets? 2. Everybody said they would come. 14
  15. 15. All, Everyone, Everybody, & Everything• All ≠ everyone/everybodyE.g. 1. Everybody enjoyed the party. (Not all people enjoyed) 2. Ann knows everyone in her street. (Not all people in her street)• You can use ‘all’ in the expression ‘all about’E.g. They told us all about their holiday.• All means ‘everything’ or the ‘only thing’E.g. 1. Tell me all you know. (everything) 2. All I have eaten today is a sandwich. (the only thing) 15
  16. 16. • Sometimes all = everything but it is usually better to say ‘everything’E.g. 1. He thinks he knows everything. 2. Everything was not good during the holiday.• We do not use ‘all’ without a clause (Sub+V)E.g. Tell me all  Tell me everything.• All of + this/that/these/those/my/your/his…E.g. All of these cars are modern.• We can leave out ‘of’ after ‘all’ but not before a pronounE.g. All of these clothes/ all the clothes/ all of them. But not all them all my friends = all of my friends 16
  17. 17. Every, all and whole with the time words• We use ‘every’ to say how often sth happens. every day, every week, every Monday, every 10 minutes, every three weeks, every year…• All day = the whole day = the complete dayE.g. We spent all day/ the whole day on the beach.• Note: all day/all week…• but not: all the day/all the week… 17
  18. 18. Too and Enough• Talk about right amount of sth• ‘Enough’ comes before a Noun.E.g. We haven’t got enough sandwiches.• Too + much/many + NounE.g. There’s too much orange juice.• We sometimes also say too little/ too few E.g. Have we got too few sandwiches?• After ‘too’ and ‘enough’ we can use to + inf.V + noun or for + nounE.g. 1. He is too young to get the job. 2. He isn’t old enough for the job. 18
  19. 19. Too and Enough…• We can use them together.E.g. This shirt is good enough to wear at home, but it’s too old-fashion for the party tonight.• ‘Too + adj/adv’ means more than the right amount. ‘Not too’ means the right amount.E.g. 1. Dara is too old to get the job. 2. Rotha is not too old to get the job.• ‘Too’ is not the same as ‘Very’E.g. 1. Harry was very old, but he kept on working. 2. Harry was too old to work. He had to stop. 19
  20. 20. Too, Enough, and plenty (of)• ‘Adj/adv + enough’ means the right amount (not more and not less). ‘Not enough means less than the right amount.E.g. 1. Bob is 25, so he is old enough to get the job. 2. Len is only 20, so he is not old enough to get the job.• Plenty/plenty of means ‘more than enough’E.g. 1. A: Have some more to eat? B: No, thank you. I’ve had plenty. 2. There’s no need to hurry. We have got plenty of time. 20
  21. 21. Enough and plenty of• Plenty of to refer to good thing (positive meaning)E.g. We can make omelettes for lunch. We’ve got plenty of eggs.• More than enough in a bad sense (negative meaning), we use with too many/too muchE.g. The store was very crowded. There were too many people to look around. 21
  22. 22. Both, either and neither• Used for two things (countable noun)• Both means ‘the one and the other’E.g. We had two letters this morning, and both letters are bills.• We can also use ‘both’ in front and mid position (close to the verb and after a pronoun).E.g. 1. Both restaurants are very good. 2. The letters are both bills. I’ve opened them both. 22
  23. 23. Both, either and neither…• Either means ‘the one or the other’ (it doesn’t matter which one, choice between two).• Neither means ‘not the one or the other’ (countable noun)E.g. 1. I haven’t met either twin. (= neither twin) 2. Neither restaurant is expensive. 3. We can go to either restaurant. I don’t mind. (either = one or the other, it doesn’t matter which one) 23
  24. 24. Both, either and neither with of• Used for two thingsE.g. I’ve got two bicycles. Both of them are quite old. I’ve given up cycling, so I don’t ride either of them any more. Neither of them is (are) in very good condition, I’m afraid.• Both, either, and neither = both of, either of/neither ofE.g. both my parents = both of my parents• both of, either of, and neither of + the/these/those/my/your/his• Note: ‘Both of the restaurants’/ ‘both of these restaurants’  But not ‘Both of restaurants’  24
  25. 25. Both, either and neither with of…• After both of/either of/neither of we can also use us/you/themE.g. 1. Can either of you speak Spanish? 2. I wanted Tom and Ann to come but neither of them wanted to. 3. Both of us were very tired.• Neither of… can use with singular or plural verbE.g. 1. Neither of the children wants (want) to go to bed. 2. Neither of us is (are) married. 25
  26. 26. Both, either and neither with of…• Both … and… (the one and the other)• Either… or… (the one or the other/Choice)• Neither... nor… (not the one or the other)E.g. 1. Both Tom and Ann were late. 2. We are both tired and hungry. 3. Neither Tom nor Ann came to the party. 4. He said he would contact me but he neither wrote nor phoned. 5. I’m not sure where he is from. He’s either Spanish or Italian. 6. Either you apologize or I’ll never speak to you again. 26
  27. 27. ‘Both’, ‘Either’ and ‘Neither’ aloneE.g. 1. A: Is he British or American? B: Neither. He’s Australian. 2. A: Do you want tea or coffee? B: Either. I don’t mind. (It doesn’t matter which one.) 3. A: Do you want wage or salary? B: Both. 27
  28. 28. No, None, No- one, Nobody, Nothing, Nowhere• These words can be in the middle or at the end of a sentence. But don’t use ‘not’ with these words. They are already negative.E.g. I saw nothing. (Not ‘I didn’t see nothing.’)• In the middle or at the end of a sentence, we more often use : not…any/anyone/anybody/anything/anywhereE.g. 1. I didn’t see anything = I saw nothing. 2. We haven’t got any money. = We’ve got no money 28
  29. 29. No, None, No- one, Nobody, Nothing, Nowhere… 3. There isn’t anywhere else to go. = There is nowhere else to go. 4. She didn’t tell anyone about her plans. = She told no-one about her plans. 5. Nobody tells me anything. = people don’t tell me anything.• No + Noun (No = ‘not a’ or ‘not any’). It is a negative word with both countable and uncountable nounsE.g. 1. We had to walk because there was no bus. = …there wasn’t a bus. 29
  30. 30. No, None No-one, Nobody,… 2. I can’t talk to you now. I have no time. = I ‘don’t have any time. 3. There were no shops open. =there weren’t any shops.We can use ‘no’ with subject but we cannot use ‘any’ E.g. No warning was given./A warning was not given. Any warning was not given.After ‘no-one/nobody’ we often say they/them/their E.g. 1. Nobody phoned, did they? (= did he or she) 2. No-one in the class did their homework. 30 (=his/her homework)
  31. 31. No, None No-one, Nobody,…• We can use any/no with comparativeE.g. 1. Do you feel any better today? = Do you feel better at all? (said to someone who felt ill yesterday.) 2. I expected your house to be very big but it’s no bigger than mine. 31
  32. 32. No and None• None’ has a negative meaning. ‘none’ is used alone and without noun E.g. 1. A: ‘How much money have you got?’ B: ‘None’.• We use ‘none of with noun’ such as none of these shops, none of my money, none of it/us/you/them/ my/your/his/that/these/those/this/theE.g. 1. None of the rabbits survived. They all died. 2. None of us enjoyed rock climbing.• You can use a singular or plural verb. A plural verb is more commonE.g. None of these stores are moderns. 32
  33. 33. Much, Many, little, few, a lot of, & lots of• Much and little with uncountable nounsE.g. much time, much luck… little energy, little money…• Many and few with countable nounsE.g. many friends, many people… few cars, few countries…• A lot of and lots of go before both plural and uncountable nouns to express a large quantityE.g. a lot of luck, a lot of sugar, a lot of people, a lot of tourists, lots of games, lots of fun, lots of time, lots of books… 33
  34. 34. Much, Many, little, few, a lot of…E.g. 1. A lot of people/lots of people work in Phnom Penh. 2. You’ll have a lot of fun/lots of fun at the party.Note: ‘Lots of’ is more informal than ‘a lot of’• As a general rule, we use a lot of/lots of in positive statements and many or much in negatives and questionsE.g. 1. There are a lot of/lots of tourists here. 2. There aren’t many tourists here. 3. How many tourists come here? 4. There isn’t much traffic on Sunday. 34
  35. 35. Much, Many, little, few, a lot of…• In informal English, you may hear ‘a lot of’ in negative/ questionE.g. 1. I don’t have a lot of/many friends. 2. Did you drink a lot of/much wine last night?• In formal English, we can sometimes use ‘many’ and ‘much’ in positive statementsE.g. 1. Many students have financial problems. 2. There is much enthusiasm for the idea.• We can use ‘quite’ and ‘rather’ before ‘a lot of’ but not before ‘many’ or ‘much’E.g. There are quite/rather a lot of tourists here. 35
  36. 36. Much, Many, little, few, a lot of…• ‘A great many’ is rather formalE.g. A great many crimes are unreported.• Much or many are used after ‘very, so, too, as, & how’ (but not ‘a lot of’)E.g. 1. Very many crimes are unreported. 2. There were so many people at the party. 3. There’s too much concrete here and not enough grass. 4. How much support is there for the idea? 5. I haven’t got as many girlfriends as you. 36
  37. 37. Special patterns with ‘Many’ and ‘few’• ‘Many’ and ‘few’ can come after ‘the, these/those or possessive’E.g. 1. The few hotels in the area are always full. 2. Can you eat up these few apples. 3. Bunna introduced us one of his many girlfriends. 37
  38. 38. Other expressions for large/small quantities• Large quantitiesE.g. 1. A large number of people couldn’t get tickets. 2. A dishwasher uses a great deal of electricity. 3. It uses a large/huge/tremendous amount of electricity. 4. Numerous difficulties were in my way. 5. We’ve got masses of/heaps of/ loads of time.• Small quantitiesE.g. 1. several people/a handful of people stood behind us. 2. A computer uses only a small/tiny amount of electricity. 38
  39. 39. Few and little with and without ‘a’• With ‘a’ the meaning is positive a few/a little= some/ a small amount/a small numberE.g. 1. Let’s go and have a drink. We have got a little time before the train leaves. (small amount) 2. I enjoy my life here. I have a few friends and we meet quite often. (some friends/a small number of friends)• Without ‘a’ the meaning is negativeE.g. 1. Hurry up! We have got little time. (not much) 2. He’s not so popular. He has few friends. (not many) 39
  40. 40. Few and little with and without ‘a’…Note: ‘only a little’ and ‘only a few’ have a negative meaning.E.g. 1. Hurry up! We’ve only got a little time. 2. The village was very small. There were only a few houses.• We can use ‘very’ before few/little• Very few= hardly anyE.g. There are very few tourists here. = There are hardly any tourists here.• A bit of = a little but ‘a bit of’ is more informal 40
  41. 41. ‘A bit’ and ‘Very’Weakest → not + verb + very Weak → slightly/a little/ a bit + adj/adv Stronger → quite, rather, fairly, pretty Strongest → very, extremely, really ‘a bit’, ‘pretty’, and ‘really’ are informalE.g. 1. He didn’t feel very well. In fact, he felt quite ill. 2. He felt a bit tired, but he didn’t stop. 3. The traffic was travelling at 5 kph. The journey was very slow. 41
  42. 42. ‘So’ and ‘Such’• So + adj/advE.g. 1. The film was so boring! 2. I didn’t see. It happened so quickly!• Such + adj + nounE.g. 1. This is such a beautiful house. 2. I didn’t like the book. It was such a stupid story.• I was surprised when Phirum told me the house was built 100 years ago. I didn’t realize it was so old. I didn’t realize it was such an old house. (=as old as it is)42
  43. 43. ‘So’ and ‘Such’… ‘So’ and ‘Such’ make the meaning of the adj strongerE.g. 1. It’s a lovely day, isn’t it? It’s so warm. (= really warm) 2. We enjoyed our holiday. We had such a good time. (= a really good time)Compare ‘so’ and ‘such’ in these sentences1. I like Pronit and Chanly. They are so nice.2. I like Pronit and Chanly. They are such nice people. (Not: ‘so nice people’) 43
  44. 44. ‘So’ and ‘Such’…• We often say ‘so… that…’ and ‘such ... That…’E.g. 1. I was so tired that I went to bed at 7 o’clock. 2. She worked so hard that she made herself ill. 3. It was such lovely weather that we spent the whole day in the garden.4. The book was so good that I couldn’t put it down. It was such a good book that I couldn’t put it down.• Note: We can leave out ‘that’E.g. I was so tired (that) I went to bed at 7 o’clock. 44
  45. 45. ‘So’ and ‘Such’…• We can say ‘so long’ but ‘such a long time’; ‘so far’ but ‘such a long way’; ‘so much’, ‘so many’ but ‘such a lot of’E.g. 1. I haven’t seen him for so long that I’ve forgotten what he looks like.Or I haven’t seen him for such a long time that I’ve forgotten what he looks like. 2. I didn’t know you lived so far from the city.Or I didn’t know you lived such a long way from the city. 3. Why did you buy so much food?Or Why did you buy such a lot of food? 45
  46. 46. References• Eastwood, J. (1999). Oxford practice grammar (2nd ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press.• Eastwood, J. (1994). Oxford guide to English grammar (1st ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press.• Macfarlane, M. (2008). English practice grammar. Britain: Garnet Publishing Ltd.• Murphy, R. (1985). English grammar in use (1st ed). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 46