Pollution – is the contamination or the addition of impurities to the environment. It is defined as any process for which humans destroy the quality of their environment.
WATER POLLUTION About 70% of the earth‟s surface is covered by oceans. The ocean is a valuable source of energy, food, and mineral resources. The amount of waste materials introduced to the ocean annually from factories, power plants and shipping industries is tremendous. Many of these products are found to be carcinogenic(cancer-causing agents)
As a consequence, greater problems have been produced, such as:1. Diseases from infectious organisms carried within waters2. Oversupply of plant nutrients which accelerates plankton growth.3. Increase in oxygen-consuming products4. Accumulation of toxic chemicals and minerals, like DDT, aldrin and dieldrin, in water bodies.
PHILIPPINE CASES OF WATER POLLUTION Do you know how our bodies of water go through oil spill problems? Oil, from Middle East, is carried by tankers and brought to local oil refineries found in Batangas and Pandacan. To reach these refineries, the tankers must pass through bodies of water. Along its route, a tanker may hit something that will create a hole at its bottom. Since the tanker is full of oil, the pressure between the oil inside and the body of water outside prevents oil leakage until the tanker docks and starts to discharge or unload its oil content. By then, the oil starts to flow and spills on the water.
EFFECTS OF OIL SPILLS~FACTS AND FIGURES Batangas Bay receives 135 000 barrels of crude oil twice a month. With oil spillage on these waters:1. Food and income for the small fishermen along the coast are greatly hampered2. The largest selection of coral species found here will be affected3. Tourism will drop as a result of polluted water
In early 2001, liquid pollutants thought to originate a dumped liquid wastes from a giant soft drink company, allegedly flowed to Marikina River as oil spill. Environmentalists warned that this type of pollution endangered millions of carpa and tilapia grown in the river. In the same year, an oil vessel hit the Pudoc reefs in Bolinao, Pangasinan. Damages caused by the vessel on the reef were assessed and the municipal government was paid 12.5 million pesos by the owners of the oil vessel. In August 2002, the tropical depression “Milenyo” heavily battered the region of Baybay, Leyte. As a result, an oil spill from a ship that was in the area at the height of the storm threatened marine sanctuaries in several coastal communities.
OIL SPILLS~ITS BENEFIT TO ORGANISMS One method of clearing water of oil spills iswith the use of dispersant to threat oil as it issprayed on the water surface. This chemicalsolidifies oil into big oil droplets. As solid oilbecomes heavier than water, it goes down to thebottom of the body of water. It then becomes foodfor bacteria, thus increasing the population ofdecomposers.
AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is the introduction into theatmostphere of materials that produce adverseeffects on the health and well-being of humans withtheir normal activities
SOME WAYS BY WHICH AIR MAY BE POLLUTED COME UP AS:1. Smog - a combination of smoke and fog in the air. Smog is due mostly to exhausts from vehicles and to factory smokestacks
2. Greenhouse effect - the retention of heat in the earth‟s atmosphere due to the presence of greenhouse gases(carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone).
3. Particulates - settling particles of soot from coal, particles of cement that settle as fine, white dust, or other particles like from pollen of plants.
4. Gaseous pollutants - may include sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, methane gas, and other gases which diffuse into the air and form corrosive acids when combined with water.
5. Radiation - the air may also carry radiation. In every atomic explosion, radioactive particles are formed in huge clouds.
6. Acid rain - rain that has become more acidic because of the chemicals dissolved in it.It can kill trees, fish and other animals in the rivers and lakes.
7. Holes in the ozone layer - ozone layer protects the earth from the harmful radiation of the sun. It is a part of the earth‟s atmosphere about 22km above the earth‟s surface.
The original forests of the Philippines covered nearly half our land - a total of about 145 973.30 square kilometers. Occupying almost all parts of the country.
THE GREAT FOREST BELTS ARE DIVIDED INTO DISTINCT PARTS:1. Primary or virgin forests- in low lands like mangrove, beach dipterocarp and molave(forests).2. Secondary forests- developed from virgin forests through succession by illegal logging or kaingin system.3. Grasslands and open country- developed from and to secondary forests.4. Parang vegetation- grasslands with patches of secondary forest tree species.5. Bamboo thickets6. Cultivated fields
Mt Apo – extinct volcano with the highest peak in the Philippines. It is located in Bukidnon, Davao Cordillera.It has forests that extends up to 2 700 m and cover about 50 square kilometer.
Mt Pulag – another extinct volcano in Luzon which has different types of forests. This highest mountain in Luzon has mostly pine forests converted into farm flowers.
HUMANS AND THE USE OF FORESTS Forests are often misused by people.immature trees are cut down ruthlessly. In the Philippines, setting the forest on fire inpreparation for cropping is a practice known askaingin. Forest fires are also caused by arsonists,debris burners, and irresponsible campers. Indiscriminate logging is another way by whichhumans mismanage the forests. The way treesare cut down may or may not restore the samequantity as before. Other natural factors may bring down forests –insect enemies, lightning that may cause fires andcalamities like storms or strong winds.
IMPORTANCE OF FORESTS More people are learning to regard forests as crops.The following are the benefits derived from the trees in our forests:1. Source of lumber – raw lumber has been our main exports. The famous apitong, tanguile, guijo, and narra forests supply most of today‟s construction lumber.2. Source of paper – paper is produced from pulpwood such as pine.3. Source of distillation products – examples of distillation products are wood alcohol, acetic acid, lampblack, paints and varnishes, oxalic acid and charcoal.
4. Source of other products – examples of these products are pine, bamboo, buri, sugar, tanning materials and essential oils.5. Habitat of many animals – forest trees provide food and shelter to wild animals.
Here are a few of man‟s problems pertaining to the maintenance of soil in order to preserve plant and animal population:1. Depletion of soil minerals – some minerals lost from the soil brought about by overproduction are nitrates, phosphates, and potassium compounds. Soil becomes acidic and is remedied by adding lime or fertilizer.
2. Loss of organic matter(topsoil) – topsoil loss is caused by too much planting and harvesting of agricultural crops, seasonal clearing of fields, and burning of woods and grasses in the fields.3. Leaching – when the field is plowed before planting, rains soak into the pulverized soil easily. If the minerals from the topsoil are dissolved in water, plants cannot absorb them, so that water, as it penetrates through the deeper part of the ground.
4. Erosion – a destructive way by which soil is lost through the action of water and wind and also when poor farming methods are applied is called erosion. Water Erosion – may be of three kinds:a. Sheet erosion – occurs when water stands in a field during a flood and then flows away graduallyb. Rill erosion – happens when, in rolling down the hilly areas, the rain falls on exposed soil and carries with it particles of the soil, forming tiny channels or rills down the slope.c. Gully erosion – an advanced stage of rill erosion whereby gullies deepen and widen to increase the size of their bed. Wind Erosion – results from natural strong winds or dust storms caused by man‟s carelessness and shortsightedness.
WATER PROBLEMS ARISING FROM SOIL PROBLEMS Soil problems lead to water problems, too:1. Floods and drought are two extreme water problems resulting from the misuse of soil and its plant cover2. Humans deplete groundwater largely through runoff during rainy periods and through overconsumption in cities.3. Deep wells, used to supply drinking water and people‟s other necessities, draw heavily on the supply of groundwater thus lowering the water table4. Too much runoff water results from heavy rains. Floods are an aftermath of the denuding of the forests and the conversion of original tall-grass prairies into ice fields and marshes.
Wildlife has several meanings, depending on its use. It may mean all plants and animals that live in their natural habitats, unattended to by humans, or all animals in their natural habitats, or only the birds and mammals.
HOW DO HUMANS HARM WILDLIFE SPECIES?There are mainly two ways:1. Directly by collecting or killing the species2. Indirectly by destroying or changing their habitats, including the destruction of organisms on which they feed as well as the introduction of predators, parasites, or competitors.
WHY DO WE WANT TO PROTECT WILDLIFE FROM EXTINCTION?1. Wildlife is considered one of the country‟s natural resources.2. Wildlife has economic value; income is derived from the many forms of wildlife.3. Wildlife enhances artistry and beautification of the surroundings.4. Wildlife has genetic value; each species is unique and is genetic character combination may never come about again once the species becomes extinct.5. Wildlife plays a role in food cycles in nature. Most wildlife are threatened by many factors and become endangered. Endangered species is one which is thought to be in danger of becoming extinct in the near future especially when its population becomes very small
PHILIPPINE WILDLIFE AND ENDANGERED SPECIES1. The Philippine eagle(monkey-eating eagle) – a native only to islands of Luzon, Samar, Leyte and Mindanao. Destruction of forests as its natural habitats and its capture for sale as pets and specimens have contributed to the decline in its population.
2. The Philippine Crocodile – a small, little known freshwater Asian crocodile. Its maximum size in males usually does no exceed 3 meters. This crocodile is indigenous in Luzon, Mindoro, Masbate, Samar, Jolo, and Negros.
3. The Philippine Flat-headed Frog – an ancient amphibian found in Palawan. This frog has several mysterious features including its method of reproduction and development. Recent rains had caused clean mountain river in Central Palawan to swell and flow rapidly disturbing the frog‟s regular habitats. Other factors that affect the persistence of the flat-headed frog in Palawan River include: Destruction of low elevation forests Logging and mining Frequent modification of river banks Siltation Pollution Use of fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides Livestock waste runoff
4. The Philippine Cockatoo – common species of bird found throughout the Philippine archipelago. A huge percent decline in the population has occurred as a result of human activities. In this „90s, more or less 4 000 birds are estimated to survive in the wild. Now, 70-75% of this population is concentrated in the province of Palawan.
Your role in the environment is clear – you are not merely a biological species but also a social species which by your ingenuity and skill, shape and reshape your ecosystem at will.
POLLUTION PROBLEMS1. Laws are being passed to ensure proper sewage and industrial waste disposal.2. A supply of clean water ensured.3. Many health hazards have been controlled.4. Government agencies are created to monitor the level of pollution and setting a standard regulating particulate matter, even that measuring as small as 2.5 microns.5. Community effort of converting trash into compost.
DEFORESTATION PROBLEMS1. Laws or decrees are passed, like the Presidential Decree No. 865 also known as Forestry Reform Code of the Philippines.2. Illegal logging and hunting are strictly forbidden within many reserve areas.3. 3. Reforestation – planting of new trees, care of Forest Research Institute(FORI).4. Putting up watershed reserves.5. Vigilance against illegal loggers, “Kaingineros”, hunters by community members.
WILDLIFE AND ENDANGERED SPECIES Like the forests, wildlife too must be protected. Our idea of protection is what we call conservation, the use of natural resources so as to derive the maximum benefit for the maximum number of people and for the maximum length of time.
LAWS HAVE BEEN PASSED TO:1. Prohibit the destruction and collection of wildlife species.2. Limit the catch, declaring hunting season3. Set aside areas as national parks and wildlife offices.4. Regulate taking, possessing, selling, and exchanging of animal species.5. Regulate cutting of trees.6. Ban deadly weapons7. Undertake intensive public relation and information campaign.
Soil loss can be prevented through many different ways.1. Cover crops and row crops. Cover crops like cassava, rice, wheat, and camote are plants, which grow close together and bind the soil with a dense mat of roots. Row crops, such as corns, beans, tobacco, and tomatoes, are planted in rows in cultivated fields.
2. Commercial fertilizers are used to restore soil minerals
3. Crop rotation is the alternation in the planting of crops involving those that use nitrates and those that replace nitrates.
4. Minimum cultivation is a procedure which may reduce leaching since fertility of the soil is retained.
5. Contour farming is a practice by which a farmer follows a contour around a slope in plowing. The farmer plows across the slope of the hill instead of up and down to check erosion.
6. Strip cropping is the alternation of strips of row crops and cover crops. This completely covers the soil surface and holds it securely.
7. Wind breakers or shelter belts usually in the form of trees, control wind erosion of soil.
8. Gully control is used to control the increasing sizes of gullies formed. Plants are grown on the slopes of the gull. These plants act as oil binders and prevent further widening of the slopes.
9. Terracing is used to check the flow of water on steep sloping land. Level areas are built on the contour of the slope with the use of a terracing grader.
10. Irrigation is a process done on agricultural land to divert water into a specific area during dry periods.
The following are some measures taken to control floods and prevent droughts during dry seasons:1. Control soil erosion and restore topsoil2. Restore forests, especially in watersheds3. Restore sloughs and backwater along rivers4. Regulate cultivation of lowlands and flood plains of major rivers and restore of these areas5. Build dams and reservoirs to hold back flood waters and store water for dry periods.6. Control the use of groundwater7. Maintain dikes and levees along major rivers.
PROJECT IN BIOLOGYBy: Lea Keziah Ilagan Quennie Lou Sena Jessa Mae Red
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