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  • Kondisyonsaisangpamayanan,malakaiangepektoonito. Hal. Nakakakasanhiitongbaha. Nagkakaroonng chain reaction .. Tuladngbaha, trapiknanakakaapektosapangkabukahayanngmgatao. Yung mgadpat I deliver hindiagadnadedeliverdahilsa delay. :)
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    1. 1. LGU : Local Government Unit IC : Information Campaign SWM : Solid Waste Management Definition of Terms
    2. 2.  Solid or semi-solid material - which are non soluble in nature.  In Simple Words Solid wastes are any discarded (abandoned or considered waste-like) materials. Solid wastes can be solid, liquid, semi-solid or containerized gaseous material. . What is Solid Waste?
    3. 3. Waste was mainly composed of: • ash from fires • wood • bones • vegetable waste Ancient History
    4. 4. Households or Municipal Waste includes food, paper, cardboard, plastic, textiles, leather, glass, metal, ashes, electronics waste etc. Source of Waste
    5. 5. Business and Industrial Waste includes toxic chemicals, oil, debris from construction site, packaging waste, ashes etc.
    6. 6. Agriculture Waste includes pesticides, crops, water coming from the fields also consists of small amount of toxic chemicals.
    7. 7. Biomedical Waste or Hospital Waste medicine bottles, expired medicines, syringes, medical instruments such as scissors, blades etc.
    8. 8. Nuclear Waste includes radioactive substances coming from reactors, fuel (uranium, thorium, plutonium etc). Its highly dangerous and requires proper disposal.
    9. 9. Hazardous Waste includes toxic chemical, acids, corrosive, ignitable and reactive materials, gases etc.
    10. 10. Hotel Waste includes left over food, empty bottles, and different kinds of trash
    11. 11. Bio-degradable can be degraded (food, fruits and others) Non-Biodegradable cannot be degraded (plastics, bottles, old machines, cans, containers and others) Classification of Waste According to their Properties
    12. 12. Solid Waste Composition
    13. 13. • Affects our socio-economic conditions • Affects our climate • Affects our coastal and marine environment • Affects our health 16 Impact of Waste to the society If not managed properly
    14. 14. • This law aims for the reduction of solid waste through source reduction and waste minimization measures, treatment and disposal of solid waste in accordance with ecologically sustainable development principles. Ecological Solid Waste Management )Act of 2000 (RA 9003)
    15. 15. The 3R’s
    16. 16. • The said act gives strong emphasis on the role of municipal and local government units (LGUs) providing for the creation of Solid Waste Management Communities up to the barangay level. This requires the participation of nongovernment offices, people’s organizations, church leaders, schools, businesses and community organizations. Provision of RA 9003
    17. 17. • Effective September 5, 1938 • Prohibits the dumping into rivers of refuse waste matter or substance of any kind. • Punishment of imprisonment of not more than six months or by a fine of not more than P200 or both. Commonwealth Act No. 383 Anti-dumping Law
    18. 18. • Effective November 7, 1975 • Penalizes improper disposal of garbage and other forms of being dirty. • Violators may be imprisoned for not less than five days or more than a year or pay a fine or not less that P100 or more than P2,000 or both. Presidential Decree 825
    19. 19. • Effective 1991 • Mandates local government units to exercise powers, functions and responsibilities in providing basic services and facilities related to general hygiene, sanitation, beautification and solid waste collection, transport and disposal. Republic Act 7160 (Local Government Code)
    20. 20. 24
    21. 21. Solid Waste Management Hierarchy
    22. 22. These are the following methods for disposal of the solid waste. • LAND FILLS • INCINERATION • BIOLOGICAL REPROCESSING • RECYCLING • OCEAN DUMPING • PLASMA GASIFICATION Methods of Disposal
    23. 23. LAND FILL  It is the most traditional method of waste disposal.  Waste is directly dumped into disused quarries, mining voids or borrow pits.  Disposed waste is compacted and covered with soil to prevent vermin and wind-blown litter. Methods of Disposal
    24. 24. Advantages: • Landfill site is a cheap waste disposal option for the local council. • Jobs will be created for local people. • Lots of different types of waste can be disposed of by landfill in comparison to other waste disposal methods. • The gases given off by the landfill site could be collected and used for generating power. Disadvantages: • Dangerous gases are given off from landfill sites that cause local air pollution and contribute to global warming. • Local streams could become polluted with toxins seeping through the ground from the landfill site. • Once the site has been filled it might not be able to be used for redevelopment as it might be too polluted. Methods of Disposal
    25. 25. Land Required for Disposal of MSW Emission of Methane from Land Fill Methods of Disposal
    26. 26. OCEAN DUMPING  Ocean dumping is the dumping or placing of materials in the ocean, often on the continental shelf.  A wide range of materials is involved, including garbage, construction and demolition debris, sewage sludge, dredge material, waste chemicals, and nuclear waste.  Sometime hazardous and nuclear waste are also disposed but these are highly dangerous for aquatic life and human life also. Methods of Disposal
    27. 27. Advantages: • Convenient • Inexpensive • Source of nutrients for fishes and marine mammals. • Vast amount of space is available. • All type of wastes are disposed Disadvantages: • There are three main direct public health risks from ocean dumping: (1) occupational accidents, injuries, and exposures (2) exposure of the public to hazardous or toxic materials washed up on beach sand. (3) human consumption of marine organisms that have been contaminated by ocean disposal • Highly dangerous for aquatic life.
    28. 28. BIOLOGICAL PROCESSING  Materials such as plants, food scraps, and paper products can be decomposed into the organic matter.  The organic matter that is produced from this type of recycling can then be used for such things as landscaping purpose or agricultural uses.  Usually this method of recycling is done by putting the materials in a container and let to stay there until it decomposes. Methods of Disposal
    29. 29. RECYCLING PROCESS • COLLECTION: The first step required for recycling is collecting recyclable materials from communities. Today many major cities and larger communities offer a curbside pick up service for recyclable materials. • SORTING: The second step involves processing the recyclable materials. This includes sorting the materials into groups, cleaning them and getting them ready to be sold to manufacturers who will turn the materials into new products. Methods of Disposal
    30. 30. RECYCLING PROCESS • MANUFACTURING: It is the third step in the recycling process. The collected material is sent to industries those convert them into new products. • PURCHASING: The last step involves the purchasing of recycled products. When consumers purchase products that have been made with post consumer material the recycling process has been completed and then can be repeated.
    32. 32. Advantages: • Reduction of air and water pollution. • Reduction in the release of harmful chemicals and greenhouse gases from rubbish. • Saves space required as Waste Disposal Landfill. • Reduce financial expenditure in the economy. • Helps in conserving a lot of energy resources like petroleum and coal deposits. Disadvantages: • Recycling is not a solution to managing every kind of waste material • For many items recycling technologies are unavailable or unsafe • In some cases, cost of recycling is too high.
    33. 33. INCINERATION  Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of solid waste at 1000C.  The first incinerators for waste disposal were built in Nottingham by Manlove, Alliott & Co. Ltd. in 1874 to a design patented by Albert Fryer.They were originally known as destructors . Methods of Disposal
    34. 34.  waste materials are converted into ash, flue gas, and heat.  The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic constituents of the waste and gases due to organic waste.  the heat generated by incineration is used to generate electric power
    35. 35. Advantages: • Minimum of land is needed compared to other disposal methods. • The weight of the waste is reduced to 25% of the initial value. • No risk of polluting local streams and ground waters as in landfills. • Incineration plants can be located close to residential areas. • Gases are used to generate power. Disadvantages: • Expensive • Required skilled labor. • The chemicals that would be released into the air could be strong pollutants and may destroy ozone layer (major disadvantage). • high energy requirement
    36. 36. • Chimneys and tiled stoves in private households alone discharge approximately 20 times more dioxin into the environment than incineration plants. • According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the combustion percentages of the total dioxin and furan inventory from all known and estimated sources in the U.S. (not only incineration) for each type of incineration are as follows: 35.1% backyard barrels; 26.6% medical waste; 6.3% municipal wastewater treatment sludge; 5.9% municipal waste combustion; 2.9% industrial wood combustion. Thus, the controlled combustion of waste accounted for 41.7% of the total dioxin inventory. •
    38. 38.  Plasma gasification is a new garbage disposal solution using plasma technology.  Uses electrical energy and the high temperatures (4000°C to over 7000°C) created by an plasma torches.  Almost completely breaks down the waste into syngas which are used to generate electricity.  The remaining material (slag) is used to produced material for building projects. Methods of Disposal Plasma Gasification
    39. 39.  Plasma gasification is a new garbage disposal solution using plasma technology.  Uses electrical energy and the high temperatures (4000°C to over 7000°C) created by an plasma torches.  Almost completely breaks down the waste into syngas which are used to generate electricity.  The remaining material (slag) is used to produced material for building projects. Methods of Disposal Plasma Gasification
    40. 40. WHAT IS PLASMA?  Fourth state of matter.  It is an ionized gas at high temperature, capable of conducting current due to free electrons.  Created by applying an electric arc to a low- pressure gas.
    41. 41.  Consists of a tungsten rod (cathode) and a water-cooled copper (anode).  Shaped in the form of a nozzle  Gas is introduced in the electrode gap and a dc arc is established between the electrodes to create plasma. PLASMA TORCHES
    43. 43. Topic : “Experience Implementation of Solid Waste” Location: San Francisco, Cebu City
    44. 44. PHILIPPINES Overview The accumulation of waste has been a constant problem in the Philippines due to following: Over-increasing Population that contributes to the increase in solid waste generation Urbanization & Economic Growth
    45. 45. The garbage of the municipality for the past 10 years become a major problem which: oAlmost 45 thousand people produced around 12 tons of garbage per day. oGarbage are left to streets, vacant lot, which become breeding places for flies and other insects that spread communicable diseases. oSome are thrown in drainage and canals which block the sewerage system that cause floods even with minimal rainfall. o Some are burned resulting in air pollution. San Francisco, Cebu City 10 Years Ago
    46. 46. The LGU of the municipality of San Francisco, lead by their mayor, successfully enacted all the policies, objectives, guiding principles of municipal ordinance based on the “R.A.9003”. It also consider and modifies the system to better suit the needs and resources of the community. 1. They created Solid Waste Management Office with competent personnel 2. Create a clear structure to run the Office 3. Allocate Budget Annually for Equipments and other Programs Solution to the Problem
    47. 47. Solution to the Problem CREATE A CLEAR STRUCTUREFOR OPERATION  17 garbage crew including drivers  2 persons assigned to the shredder machine for bio- waste  1 person assigned for shredder machine of residual waste  2 persons assigned for MRF gardening  1 person assigned for vermi composting  2 persons assigned for recycle hollow block making & bricks making  1 person assigned for pillow making
    48. 48. Solution to the Problem PROVIDE LOGISTIC IN OPERATION  1 Compactor Truck  3 Open Dump Truck  1 Shredder for Bio Waste  1 Shredder for Residual Waste  1 Pay loader  1 back hoe  10 bicycle  13 portable handheld radio transceiver
    49. 49. Operations Information Campaign Conduct information drive at School and Universities to Educate Students of different Ages Conducted IC in schools pertaining to the proper segregation of solid waste in school Orientation about proper solid waste management at Cebu Technological University
    50. 50. Educate People fron Local Government Employee down to Purok Level Conducted IC in Barangays about the implementation of the municipal comprehensive solid waste managementordinance. Create a BARANGAY ECOLOGICAL SWM TEAM to help and spread the campaign
    51. 51. Educate Business Sectors & conduct House to House Campaign Distributed flyers, leaflets, to vendors at the municipal public market to insure that garbage will be properly segregated Distribution of leaflets, flyers at houses on regarding the proper segregations of garbage generated in households.
    52. 52. Conduct Orientations and Putting up Signages Conduct orientation of the violators at barangays. The said violator are subject to render a community service at the area. Putting up Solid Waste Management Signage's
    53. 53. Color Coded Trash Bin and Orientation for SWM Enforcers Green–for biodegradable wastes Yellow–for residuals/special waste Blue–for recyclable/reusable waste A 3- day orientation seminar fro SWM Enforcers regarding the implementation of SWM Ordinance of the municipality
    54. 54. Operations Information Campaign Impact  Increase awareness  Increase attendance in coastal cleanup activities and purok street cleaning  More support gathered in tree growing activities  People have learned proper disposal of solid waste and initiated to clean up their surroundings.  Litter cans can now be seen in barangay MRF.  Change in attitude :  Most households makes segregation as a daily routine their lessening the workload of the garbage collectors. And to the solid waste management team during their house to house monitoring  90% of residents have stopped burning their garbage because of the intensive campaign.
    55. 55. Material Recovery Facilities MRF Garbage Operation Flow Chart
    56. 56. The garbage collection trucks at the material recovery facility, were ready for the collection in any routing schedule at the barangay’s but a condition of “No Segregation No Collection is the policy” is implemented The SWM enforcer checked the garbage in the household one hour before arrival of the garbage truck to insure the solid wastes are properly segregated Material Recovery Facilities Collection Management
    57. 57. • When the garbage truck arrived at the MRF, all residual waste, recyclables and special wastes, weighed and recorded for Documentation purposes Material Recovery Facilities Recoding Purposes
    58. 58. Composition of Solid Waste Biodegradable : 2449.02kg/day Recyclable : 251.05kg/day Residuals : 1210.10kg/day Special Waste : 52.93kg/day Total = 4,105.11 kg/day Material Recovery Facilities Recoding Purposes
    59. 59. Plastic shredder Pillow making shredded plastic cellophane as raw materials inside. Shredder machine for plastic cellophane 2Hp engine that can shred about 50 kls a day Hollow block with mixing shredded Plastic cellophane
    60. 60. Bio-Shredder Bio-shredder machine can shred of about 4 cubic meter bio waste per day Still Matting Composting Facility Vermi Coposting Facility Windraw Composting Facility
    61. 61. Ecological Garden Use old/used tires as base where we can plant lemon trees and at the same time lessen the risk of dengue victims where mostly used tires is mosquito’s favorite breeding area.
    62. 62. Vegetable & Medicinal Garden
    63. 63. HOW DOES A MRF WORK?
    64. 64. “Solid waste” is hazardous to health so it has to be handled carefully and disposed properly in order to protect our health and to maintain good environment. Solid Waste Management Summary
    65. 65. PREPARED BY: Leajo Renales Redem Cariño Leeyen Malic Ryan Dela Cruz