Chapter 6: Learning A.P. Psychology – Ms. Andrade Period 1 Alia Griese Mahi Maan Zaina Mukhtar Leah Romm
Classical Conditioning Description Ivan Pavlov was the pioneer of classical conditioning; he used experiments performed on dogs to display the power of his discovery. By presenting a tone at the same time as he fed the dogs (causing them to salivate), he was able to condition them to salivate at the mere sound of the tone. Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response originally evoked by another stimulus. It mainly regulates involuntary , reflexive responses. Examples include emotional responses (such as fears) and physiological responses (such as immunosuppression). Terminology and Procedures Responses controlled through classical conditioning are said to be elicited . Classical conditioning begins with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) that elicits an unconditioned response (UCR) . Then, a neutral stimulus is paired with the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) until it becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) that elicits a conditioned response (CS) .
Classical Conditioning Basic Processes Acquisition occurs when a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus are paired, gradually resulting in a conditioned response. Acquisition depends on the stimulus contiguity , which is the temporal association between events. Extinction occurs when a conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented alone until it no longer elicits a conditioned response. Spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of non-exposure to the conditioned stimulus. Generalization occurs when a conditioned response is elicited by a new stimulus that resembles the original conditioned stimulus, as in Watson and Rayner’s study of Little Albert. Discrimination occurs when a conditioned response is not elicited by a new stimulus that resembles the original conditioned stimulus. Higher-order conditioning occurs when a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus.
Operant Conditioning Description Operant conditioning , established by B.F. Skinner is a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences. Operant conditioning governs voluntary responses. Thorndike’s Law of Effect : another name of operant conditioning is instrumental learning, a term introduced by Edward L. Thorndike -Thorndike wanted to emphasize that this kind of responding is often instrumental in obtaining some desired outcome - Law of Effect : if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened Skinner’s Demonstration: It’s All a Matter of Consequences -the fundamental principle of operant conditioning is uncommonly simple and was anticipated by Thorndike’s law of effect. -Skinner demonstrated that organisms tend to repeat those responses that are followed by favorable consequences. Terminology and Procedures Reinforcement occurs when an event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that response (a response is strengthened because it leads to rewarding consequences). Skinner created a prototype experiment: in this procedure, an animal (rat or pigeon), is placed in an operant chamber. Operant chamber or Skinner box: is a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled to emit means to send forth Reinforcement contingencies are the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers. The cumulative recorder creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of time. -horizontal axis= the passage of time, vertical axis= the accumulation of responses; key consideration: is the slope of the line that represents the record of responding - a rapid response rate produces a steep slope, whereas a slow response rate produces a shallow slope
Operant Conditioning Basic Processes Acquisition occurs when a response gradually increases due to contingent reinforcement. Acquisition may involve shaping —the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of the desired response. Extinction occurs when responding gradually slows and stops after reinforcement is terminated. Resistance to recovery occurs when an organism continues to make a response after reinforcement for it has been terminated.. Generalization occurs when responding increases in the presence of a stimulus that resembles the original discriminative stimulus. Discrimination occurs when responding does not increase in the presence of a stimulus that resembles the original discriminative stimulus. Primary reinforcers are inherently reinforcing, whereas secondary reinforcers develop through learning.
Primary Reinforcers – (aka unlearned) events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs (tied to physiological needs) Ex: Food, water, warmth, sex, affection Secondary Reinforcers – (aka conditioned) events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers (depends on learning) Ex: Money, good grades, attention, flattery, praise However, organisms do not always make responses that lead to favorable outcomes Schedules of reinforcement – determining which occurrences of a specific response result in the preservation of a reinforcer Continuous reinforcement – every instant of designated response reinforced; and it is the simplest form of reinforcement Intermittent reinforcement – (aka partial) from time to time; this reinforcement is more resistant to extinction But, schedules that provide only sporadic delivery of reinforcers yield great resistance to extinction. Ratio Schedules – require organisms to make designated responses a certain number of times to gain each reinforcer Fixed Ratio – the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses (Ex: a rat is reinforced every tenth lever press) Variable ratio – reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses since it varies (Ex: slot machine in a casino pays off once every sixth tries on the average) Interval Schedules Fixed Interval Schedule – reinforcer is given to first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed (Ex: rat reinforced for first lever press after 2 minutes interval has elapsed and must wait 2 minutes before next reinforcer) Variable Interval Schedule – reinforcer is given for first response after a variable time interval has elapsed (Ex: rat reinforced for first lever press after one minute interval has elapsed, but following intervals are 3 and 2 minutes, average with 2 minutes. Variable-ratio Schedule – tend to produce rapid, steady responding and great resistance to extinction, making it the most rapid response (Ex: gambling/slots reward) Operant Conditioning
Consequences Two ways to reinforce/increase a response Postive reinforcement Negative reinforcement – response strengthened because it is followed by removal of an averse stimulus/pain (rat presses lever to stop shock) Escape Learning – an organism acquires a response that decreases some aversion stimulation (rat runs to other part of cage to escape shock) and this leads to: Avoidance Learning – an organism acquires a response that prevents some aversion stimulation from occurring (rat runs to other part of cage when light signals that shock is about to happen) Avoidance Learning shows how “classical conditioning” and “operant conditioning” can work together in the acquisition of a phobia and in difficulty of distinguishing a phobia CC – acquire: warning light OC – maintain avoidance response: response of fleeing to other side PUNISHMENT Decreasing a response Punishment – when event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response (EX: spanking, taking toys away from child, being grounded, people making fun of you) Problems with punishment – unanimous agreement that harsh, abusive punishment is detrimental to children (EX: strong emotional responses and more aggressive than average) MAKE PUNISHMENT MORE EFFECTIVE To make punishment more effective, while reducing side effects, one should: Apply punishment swiftly – delay undermines impact Use punishment just severe enough to be effective – severe punishment increases likelihood of undesirable side effects Make punishment consistent – inconsistency makes confusion Explain the punishment – constraint of age Use noncorporal punishment, such as withdrawal of privileges as much as possible – give children hours to contemplate behavior that got them into trouble Operant Conditioning
Observational Learning Description Pioneered by Albert Bandura , observational learning occurs when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models. Bandura does not see observational learning completely separate from classical or operant conditioning. He asserts that it greatly extends the reach of these conditioning processes; Bandura has demonstrated that both classical and operant conditioning can take place “vicariously” through observational learning. Observational learning involves being conditioned indirectly by virtue of observing another’s conditioning. Punishment Bandura’s theory of observational learning can help explain why physical punishment tends to increase aggressive behavior in children Parents who depend on physical punishment often punish a child for hitting other children– by hitting the child, the parents may sincerely intend to reduce the child’s aggressive behavior, but they are serving as models of such behavior; because parents usually accomplish their immediate goal of stopping the child’s hitting, the child witness’ the reinforcement of aggressive behavior
Observational Learning Basic Processes: Bandura has identified 4 key processes that are crucial in observational learning - attention : you must pay attention to another person’s behavior and its consequences - retention : you must store a mental representation of what you have witnessed in your memory - reproduction : enacting a modeled response depends on your ability to reproduce the response by converting your stored mental images into overt behavior - motivation : your motivation depends on whether you encounter a situation in which you believe that the response is likely to pay off for you Acquisition vs. Performance -Bandura points out that organisms can store cognitive representations of learned responses that they may or may not perform, depending on the reinforcement contingencies -thus he distinguishes between the acquisition of a learned response and the performance of that response -he maintains that reinforcement affects which responses are actually performed more than which responses are acquired
Observational Learning & The Media Violence -children spend on average of about 40 hours per week with various types of entertainment media -children are very impressionable, and extensive evidence indicates that they pick up many responses from viewing models on TV -1960’s: Bandura and his colleagues conducted research on the issue Featured Study -this study was designed to explore the influence of observing the consequences of another’s behavior on the learning of aggressive behavior in children -in a previous study, the same researchers showed that children exposed to an aggressive adult model displayed more aggression than children exposed to a similar but non-aggressive model -first study: used live (in person) adult models who did or did not play roughly with a 5ft-tall Bobo Doll while in the same room w/ children -second study: research teams investigated whether filmed models were as influential as in-person models (tv depiction of an adult model roughing up the Bobo doll led to an increased aggression just as the exposure from the live model) -third study: investigators used filmed models and manipulated the consequences experienced by the aggressive models. Observational Learning
Instinctive drift occurs when an animal’s innate response tendencies interfere with conditioning processes Evolutionary Perspectives on Learning: -Radical theorists believe there is no such thing as the learning process -There are many learning processes, sculpted by evolution Latent Learning & Cognitive Maps Latent learning - learning that is not apparent from behavior when it first occurs -things are learned but not actively displayed until they are presented Signal Relations Robert Rescorla -“environmental stimuli serve as signals and that some stimuli are better and more dependable than others” -CS-UCS relations influence whether CS is “good” -“Good” signal = one that allows accurate an prediction of the UCS Response Outcome Relations & Reinforcement -reinforcement is not automatic when favorable consequences follow a response -people actively reason out the relations between responses and the outcomes that follow -Response is more likely to be strengthened if the person thinks that the response caused the outcome New Directions In The Study Of Conditioning New Emphasis on Cognitive Processing
Personal Application: Achieving Self-Control Through Behavior Modification 5 Steps: Specify your target behavior Gather baseline data Identify possible controlling antecedents Determine initial level of response Identify possible controlling consequences Design your program - Select strategies to increase or decrease response strength Execute and evaluate your program Bring your program to an end
Review & Practice 1. A salesperson earns a commission for each item of clothing she sells. Commission on the clothing sales is an example of which type of reinforcement schedule? a.fixed-ratio | b.fixed-interval | c.variable-interval | d.variable-ratio 2. Name the UCS, CS, UCR, and CR: Mikey is a little boy who initially liked pasta. After having a week-long flu sickness, he returns to day-care, where he always is given lunch. The day he returns, they serve spaghetti and, because of his previous illness, throws it up. Since that day, the smell of pasta (any type, not just spaghetti) gives him that same nauseous feeling. 3. Businesses often provide good meals and pleasant surroundings when initially meeting with new clients. In these situations, clients may develop positive feelings toward their business host and the company he or she represents. If this occurs, then the pleasant surroundings have functioned as: a.a discriminative stimulus. | b.an unconditioned stimulus. | c.secondary reinforcers. | d.a conditioned stimulus. 4. True or False?: According to the law of effect, if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened. 5. On a cumulative recorder, a rapid response rate produces a ________ slope.