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    Popple5 c7[2] Popple5 c7[2] Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 7 Fighting Poverty: Temporary Assistance to Needy Families The Policy-Based Profession An Introduction to Social Welfare Policy Analysis for Social Workers Fifth Edition Philip R. Popple & Leslie Leighninger Slides by Heather Kanenberg, University of Houston, Clear LakeThis multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: •Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; •Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; •Any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: Hot Button Issue• Clinton’s promise to “end welfare as we know it”• August 22, 1996, H.R. 3734, The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) was signed• Changed the fundamental structure of public assistance; replaced AFDC with TANF Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: AFDC & TANF• Consistently, beneficiaries are women and their children• While other welfare programs were transitioning to federal level regulation; AFDC was run through a federal/state partnership leaving states with significant influence on the program structure• AFDC & TANF were constructed to serve the poorest of the poor Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: TANF• Structural oppression built into the program, as society worked to separate programs for the ‘deserving poor’ from those for the ‘undeserving’.• Systematic separation of programs used by men and whites from those used by women and persons of color• Stigmatization of role of women as caregiver and mother• Social Insurance versus Welfare – the institutionalization of oppression Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: AFDC to TANF• Shifting from the concept of public assistance as a right of citizenship for all who are needy to a program that is temporary and for those who meet the strictest of qualifications• Presupposes that there are jobs available for all who are looking• Welfare became “Workfare” Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: Historical Analysis• Throughout the 19th and early 20th Century the problem of poverty was dealt with through local volunteer organizations and groups• Outdoor Relief was not popular• With the turn of the century came social changes: urbanization, industrialization, and immigration – thus social problems intensified Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: Historical Analysis• Child abandonment, widows, poverty, persons with disabilities, the unemployed, etc.• All influenced the development of welfare programs on the state level (first: Kansas in 1908)• White House Conference on Children – led to strong support for “Mothers Pensions” across the states Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: Historical Analysis• The Great Depression: Mothers Pensions and state level oversight was not enough• ADC – Aid to Dependent Children• AFDC – Aid to Families with Dependent Children – AFDC Architects never envisioned the concept of unwed mothers as the primary recipients of the program.• Themes of Deserving and Undeserving still threaded throughout the programs Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: Historical Analysis• Strategies for Reform over the decades: – Social Service Strategies – Institutional Strategies – Human Capitol Strategies – Job Creation & Subsidization Strategies – Child Support Strategies Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: Historical Analysis• Recent reform attempts: Family Support Act under Regan was an attempt to quiet calls for change; Claims were that it did not do enough to reform welfare• PRWORA: Dramatic changes to the structure of the program and benefits; thoughts by the Clinton Administration were to sign the bill then immediately begin reforming the problematic areas however, there’s not enough political will to reform the program Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Social Analysis: Problem Description• Two problems at the heart of public assistance: – Child Poverty – solved by providing benefits and cash to poor children – Adult Dependency – solved by reducing or eliminating benefits thereby forcing people to support themselves• How do we resolve the contradiction? Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: Social Analysis• Population: stereotype of the typical recipient. – What are the characteristics of the typical recipient in your state?• Size: assumption that the numbers of recipients is astronomical and growing exponentially. – The reality is that in 2006 only 1.8 percent of the population was receiving benefits under TANF. – The year 2002 brought the lowest caseloads since 1960. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: Social Analysis• Costs: – Expenditures on the part of the federal government declining – Benefits to recipients declining: 2003 a family with two children received $365 per months (average)• Race: – No significant changes between AFDC and TANF – 64% of recipients are minority group members Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: Social Analysis• Family Size: Stereotypes of numbers of children versus reality• Age of Mothers: Average age is 30• Schooling: nearly half of all TANF recipients never finished High school• Spells: What does the data really tell us; complex to calculate and interpretations depend upon which data you review Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: Social Analysis• Time Limits: significant difference between AFDC and TANF – No more than 60 Months – No more than 2 years at one time – Some extension possibilities and alternative programs; they rest on the state determination and provision Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: Social Analysis• Values & Welfare Reform – The US as Land of Opportunity – Individualism – Work – Traditional Nuclear Family – Sense of Community• Competing and conflicting values exacerbate the debates over welfare reforms Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: Economic Analysis• Macroeconomics: – Cost: The federal share of TANF was less than 1% of the 2009 budget. States contributions have declined since 1996. The program is not a significant contributor to deficits at the state or federal level – TANF spending is not increasing; has actually declined since 1996 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: Economic Analysis• Microeconomics: – TANF was structured with goal of preventing the program from being a work disincentive. Therefore the program forces labor market participation – Program forces recipients reliance on unreported funds to help fill the deficits each month; creates a problem for parents – Concerns regarding the programs impact on family structure and unwed births Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: Evaluation• Series of critical questions must be asked of the program to determine its efficacy and efficiency• What do we want to know? What constitutes success? Differences in responses from politicians versus recipients! Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: Evaluation• Impact of Reform on Rolls: 60% decrease in recipients between 1996 and 2006; 40% for reasons other than getting a job!• Wages of those no longer on the rolls• Upward mobility of recipients & Job permanency• Impact to the wellbeing of children Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Welfare Reform: Conclusion• National economic recession brings potential problems for TANF (increasing caseloads, demand, and extensions of services, etc.)• Cycle of social need and programmatic responses to need• Focus on Poverty and the Social Conditions that lead to the need for public assistance Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.