Baca zinn ch13-lecture
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Baca zinn ch13-lecture Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Diversity In Families NINTH EDITION Chapter Thirteen Family Policy for the Twenty-First Century Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 2. Chapter Thirteen Overview• The Ideological Fault lines - The Social Conservatives - The Progressives• The Government’s limits on the definition of marriage• The Government and Reproductive Rights• Welfare - The shrinking welfare state - The personal responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act - The conservative solution - The progressive solution Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 3. Chapter Thirteen Overview• Working Parents - Parental Leave - Child Care• Meeting the Needs of Disadvantaged Children - Poor children at risk - Funding programs to help disadvantaged children• Principles to guide family policy Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 4. Ideologies• Conservatives: - Conservative ideology upholds the modern nuclear family as the standard for all families. - Conservatives are alarmed and appalled by the breakdown of the traditional family. - Conservatives find the principal causes of family decline to be cultural and political. - Conservatives tend to blame all of societies ills on the breakdown of the nuclear family. - The decline of traditional family values is at the core of this social breakdown. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 5. Ideologies• Progressives: - View family forms as socially and historically constructed. - Believe that society, through government, should come to the aid of families, promoting diversity, eliminating institutional racism and sexism and other social issues. - They recognize family in many forms. - The key for progressives is the impact of social forces confronting today’s families. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 6. The Government’s Definition of Marriage• At the forefront of today’s cultural wars is the definition of marriage.• Is marriage limited to a man and a woman or are we willing to recognize many different unions?• For cultural conservatives, making same-sex marriages legal abandons the basic building block of the family.• Progressives generally support same-sex marriages or at the very least “civil unions.” Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 7. Teen Sexual Behavior• 3 million pregnancies in the US are unplanned.• 1 out of 5 teens has intercourse before age 15 and 60% of US teenagers have sex before 18.• More than 50% of teens are engaged in oral sex.• Each year, US teenagers bear over half a million children.• The US teen pregnancy rate is higher than any other developed country. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 8. The Government and Reproductive Rights• There are two views about sex education: - 1.) Provide students with comprehensive sequential sexuality education, throughout the grades K-12. - 2) Promote abstinence only (the policy of the federal government since 1996). Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 9. Abortion• Was a common procedure in the US until the last third of the 19th century. Beginning in about 1867, the American Medical Association began a crusade against abortion. By 1900 all states had antiabortion legislation.• In the 20th Century there was a move back toward legalized abortion.• About 1.2 million abortions occur each year. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 10. Welfare• In 2007, some 12.5% of the population were below the poverty line for a family of three or four.• From 1935 to 1996 the U.S. had a minimal welfare program for those in need.• Changes to the welfare system in 1996 make welfare assistance temporary and withdrew $55 billion of federal aid to the poor. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 11. Welfare• The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996: - States administer welfare through block grants. - Work is required within two years. - A welfare recipient is limited to a lifetime total of five years. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 12. Welfare• The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 continued: - Unmarried teen parents must live at home and go to school to receive assistance. - Additional cuts were made to other federal programs that assist the poor. - Many public benefits are denied to legal immigrants. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 13. Consequences of the 1996 Act• Is Welfare Reform Working? - Almost 8 million people have left the welfare rolls. - Many of the women who left welfare, even if they found work, remained in poverty. - For some, poverty declined.• Two consequences of changing the welfare system have been increased hunger and homelessness.• The results seem to be mixed. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 14. The Great Recession of 2007• Requests for food stamps rose sharply.• Requests for welfare case loads increased markedly.• Unemployment rates doubled in two years, putting the least skilled at heightened risk of losing their jobs. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 15. The Conservative Solution• Encourage Marriage: - The July 2003 welfare reauthorization bill proposed to spend nearly two billion dollars over six years to encourage welfare recipients to marry. - Goal was to move families out of poverty. - The money would be spent on relationship counseling, marital enrichment classes, public service campaigns to encourage marriage and even to provide cash bonuses to people on welfare who marry. - Marriage offers social and financial benefits. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 16. The Progressive Solution• A Stronger Safety Net: - Progressives argue that the welfare reform of the 1990’s failed to address the structural sources of joblessness and poverty. - The economic downturn and the federal and state slowdowns in spending for social programs have resulted in difficult times for the poor and near poor. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 17. Working Parents• During the last half of the 20th century, women entered the labor market in huge numbers.• Maternity leave for new parents is uneven.• Child Care: - There are huge child care problems due to both parents being in the work force. - The biggest problem facing most of these working parents is finding accessible and acceptable child care. - The US has no comprehensive child care program. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 18. Work Related Policies and Gender Inequality• Businesses and governments in the US have been slow to respond to the needs of women in the labor force.• Another source is structural – women are relatively powerless and it is to the advantage of the powerful to keep women in marginal and low paying jobs.• Women are the ones taking leave for childbirth. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 19. Disadvantaged Children• Poor children in the U.S. are the most neglected in the developed world.• In 2007 one in six children were below the poverty line. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 20. Poor Children at Risk• Infant Mortality• Infectious Disease• Exposure to Toxic Chemicals• Hunger and Malnutrition• Educational Deficits Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 21. Figure 13.1 Poverty Rates by Age: 1959-2007 Note: The data points are placed at the midpoints of the respective years. Data for people 18 to 64 and 65 and older are not available from 1960 to 1965.Source: DeNavas-Walt, Carmen, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Jessica C. Smith (2008). “Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2007.” In Current Population Reports, P60-235. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 22. The Societal Responses to Disadvantaged Children• Reducing poverty for the elderly while increasing poverty for the young. - As a nation, the US has taken deliberate actions to reduce poverty among older Americans while simultaneously allowing childhood poverty to increase. - During the last 20 years federal benefits to the elderly have risen from 1/6 of the federal budget to 30 percent. • At the same time, cutting programs for children. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 23. Inadequate Government Programs for Impoverished Youth • Evidence is clear that investing in children saves money in the long run, however, the government programs neglect the needs of poor children. • The Children’s Defense Fund has argued that government spending on poor children is actually sound fiscal policy. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 24. Funding Programs to Help Disadvantaged Children• The federal government needs to invest in children by lifting them out of poverty, providing health care and eliminating educational deficits. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  • 25. Principals to Guide Family Policy• Society must come to the aid of our children: - Determine the facts - Establish as a society, principles that will guide family policies - Policies and behaviors that enhance our moral obligation to others - A call for Government programs that provide for people who cannot provide for themselves - Acceptance of a special commitment to children - A commitment to women Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.