Diversity In Families                                              NINTH EDITION                                          ...
Chapter Twelve Overview•    The Rise in New Family Arrangement     - Families in Transition     - The Global Revolution in...
Chapter Twelve Overview•   Heterosexual Cohabitation     -    The rise of cohabitation     -    Who are cohabitators?     ...
The Rise in New Family Arrangements • The percentage of the U.S. population in     family households declined from 85     ...
The Rise in New Family Arrangements • Family Households include families in     which a family member is the householder  ...
The Rise in New Family Arrangements • There has been a decline in the  percentage of married couple households  with child...
Figure 12.1             Household by Type: 1970-2008 (percent distribution)Sources: Fields, Jason (2004). “America’s Famil...
The Global Revolution in Family Life•   Five Global Trends in Family Formation:     -    Womens age of first marriage and ...
The Global Revolution in Family Life• In Europe and North America many family    forms do not have marriage at their core....
How to Think About Family Diversification•   Family adaptations emerge in response to    changes and constraints in the ex...
How to Think About Family Diversification• Rather than thinking of varied family    arrangements as alternatives to an    ...
How to Think About Family Diversification• The Question of Lifestyles   - “Although studies of non-marital relationships  ...
How to Think About Family Diversification• The Question of Lifestyles continued   - Many non marital living arrangements t...
Single Life•   Single refers to the never married, the divorced,    the separated, and the widowed.•   The rise of single ...
Single Life•   Demographic and cultural factors combine to    create a "marriage squeeze" that is an    imbalance in the n...
Single Life: Class, Race and Gender• Slightly more women than men marry    sometime over the life course.•   50 million wo...
Characteristics of the “New” Single Woman • She creates a nurturing home where she     feels physically and emotionally   ...
Characteristics of the “New” Single Woman • She connects with the next generation     through the children of friends and ...
Experiencing Single Life•   Single life in the US is stigmatized.•   New research finds that single and married    people ...
Heterosexual Cohabitation• There are about 15 million people living    with an unmarried partner in the United    States.•...
Heterosexual Cohabitation•   Contemporary cohabiters are primarily young    adults – more prevalent among people younger  ...
Figure 12.2Percentage of High School Seniors Who “Agreed” or “Mostly Agreed” With the Statement That “It is usually a good...
Heterosexual Cohabitation• Cohabitation is shaped by gender, class, and race.   - Cohabiting women are younger than the me...
Heterosexual Cohabitation• Men view it more pragmatically, and    women view it more as a step toward    long-term commitm...
Figure 12.3     Unmarried-Partner Households by Sex of Partners and Race and                 Hispanic Origin of Householde...
Heterosexual Cohabitation• Another perspective holds that    cohabitation is not a step toward marriage,    but a family f...
Same-Sex Partners and Families• The emergence of non-heterosexual    families is a movement with large social,    politica...
Same-Sex Partners and Families•   Many of the couples include children.•   Domestic partners – two individuals who are in ...
Same Sex Partners and Families•   Research has long identified social networks as    the distinguishing feature of same se...
Figure 12.4                 Same-Sex Couples in the United States, 1990-2007    Sources: Gates, Gary J. (2007). “Geographi...
Same Sex Partners and Families• Gender:  - Studies comparing lesbian, gay and       heterosexual couples find important co...
Same Sex Partners and Families•   A shifting social context for Same Sex Partners.     -    In general gay and lesbian cou...
Figure 12.5Fortune 500 Companies Providing Domestic Partner Health Benefits by                              Year          ...
Families Separated by Time and Space• Transnational Families:   - Families that have one or more members in        the U.S...
Families Separated by Time and Space•   Transnational Families Continued:     -    Women involved in transnational employm...
Families Separated• Commuter Marriages:  - Commuter arrangements are largely due to       the changes in technology and th...
Commuter Marriages•   Studies of commuting couples have found both    advantages and disadvantages.     -    Benefits can ...
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition                                            ...
Commuting Couples•   Gender     -    Women tend to view this arrangement overall less          negatively than men. They a...
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Baca zinn ch12-lecture

  1. 1. Diversity In Families NINTH EDITION Chapter Twelve Emergent Families in the Global Era Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Chapter Twelve Overview• The Rise in New Family Arrangement - Families in Transition - The Global Revolution in Family Life• Single Life - The Singles Population - Gender, Race, Class - Experiencing Single Life Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Chapter Twelve Overview• Heterosexual Cohabitation - The rise of cohabitation - Who are cohabitators? - Gender, class and race• Same-Sex Partners and Families - Who is gay and what is a gay family? - Gay couples and families• Families Separated by Time and Space - Transnational families - Commuter Marriages and other long distance relationships Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  4. 4. The Rise in New Family Arrangements • The percentage of the U.S. population in family households declined from 85 percent of all households in 1960 to 68 percent in 2003. • Another major change is a decline in the percentage of households with children. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  5. 5. The Rise in New Family Arrangements • Family Households include families in which a family member is the householder – the person who owns or rents the residence. • A non family household includes the householders who live alone or share a residence with individuals unrelated to the householder such as a college friend sharing an apartment. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  6. 6. The Rise in New Family Arrangements • There has been a decline in the percentage of married couple households with children. - Two parent households with children dropped from 40 to 22 percent of all households between 1970 and 2008 (US Census Bureau, 2009). Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Figure 12.1 Household by Type: 1970-2008 (percent distribution)Sources: Fields, Jason (2004). “America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003.” Current Population Reports, P20-553. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of the Census, p. 4; “America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2008.” Current PopulationSurvey Reports (2009). U.S. Bureau of the Census. Online: http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/hh-fam/cps2008.html. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  8. 8. The Global Revolution in Family Life• Five Global Trends in Family Formation: - Womens age of first marriage and first birth has risen. - Families and households are smaller. - The burden on working age parents of supporting younger and older dependents has increased. - The proportion of female-headed households has increased. - Womens labor force participation has increased while mens has decreased; shifting the economic balance in families. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  9. 9. The Global Revolution in Family Life• In Europe and North America many family forms do not have marriage at their core.• Marriage is less central in organizing and controlling life course transitions, individual identities, intimate relations, living arrangements, childbearing and child rearing (Thornton and Young- Demark 2001). Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  10. 10. How to Think About Family Diversification• Family adaptations emerge in response to changes and constraints in the external world.• The family field has made the distinction between the “traditional family” and the “nontraditional alternatives”.• Not only does this oversimplify the incredible array of contemporary family arrangements, it also miscasts the idealized family as the normal family or the standard. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  11. 11. How to Think About Family Diversification• Rather than thinking of varied family arrangements as alternatives to an idealized traditional form, we should think of all family forms in their own right.• No one family structure is better than another – it is a question of lifestyles. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  12. 12. How to Think About Family Diversification• The Question of Lifestyles - “Although studies of non-marital relationships are not new phenomena, recent data facilitate a broader conceptualization of families than was possible before this decade” (Seltzer, 2001). Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  13. 13. How to Think About Family Diversification• The Question of Lifestyles continued - Many non marital living arrangements that appear new to middle class Americans are actually family patterns that have been traditional within African American and other ethnic communities for generations. - Practical and legal considerations require that we modify the conventional definition of the family. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Single Life• Single refers to the never married, the divorced, the separated, and the widowed.• The rise of single hood has its roots in urbanization and industrialization.• Research shows that many married individuals express loneliness similar to singles.• Today a growing share of adults are unmarried. - Since 1970 the postponement of marriage has led to a substantial increase in the percentage of young, never married adults. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Single Life• Demographic and cultural factors combine to create a "marriage squeeze" that is an imbalance in the number of women and men available for marriage.• Women no longer “have” to get married to survive – many women chose to remain single and pursue a career.• The pool of eligible men shrinks as women age, especially for professional women . - Among people aged 65 and older, men are in the minority. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Single Life: Class, Race and Gender• Slightly more women than men marry sometime over the life course.• 50 million women are now single, compared to 43 million men.• The proportion of never married adults has increased for Whites, Blacks and Hispanics. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Characteristics of the “New” Single Woman • She creates a nurturing home where she feels physically and emotionally comfortable. • Her work is satisfying not only financially but personally as well. • She is comfortable with her sexuality and she has fostered an empowering relationship to sex or has opted for sensuous celibacy. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Characteristics of the “New” Single Woman • She connects with the next generation through the children of friends and relatives. • She finds emotional intimacy with friends and family. • She builds a supportive community from various areas of her life. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Experiencing Single Life• Single life in the US is stigmatized.• New research finds that single and married people are really more similar than different.• Although there has been a sharp rise in the number of single people, marriage still remains a viable option for most.• To know someone is single tells us little about their living arrangements or their relationship commitments.• Today what it means to be single is no longer clear. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Heterosexual Cohabitation• There are about 15 million people living with an unmarried partner in the United States.• 60% of all marriages formed in the nineties began with cohabitation. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Heterosexual Cohabitation• Contemporary cohabiters are primarily young adults – more prevalent among people younger than 35. - A sizeable portion are divorced from a previous mate. - Increasing proportions of cohabiting couples include children in their households. - 2 out of 5 children today live in a cohabiting family at some point in their childhoods.• People are much more cautious about marrying. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Figure 12.2Percentage of High School Seniors Who “Agreed” or “Mostly Agreed” With the Statement That “It is usually a good idea for a couple to livetogether before getting married in order to find out whether they really get along,” by Period, United States. Note: From Monitoring the Future surveys conducted by the Survey Research Center at the University of Michigan. Source: “National Marriage Project (2009).” The State of Our Unions 2008: The Social Health of Marriage in America. Online: http://marriage.rutgers.edu. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Heterosexual Cohabitation• Cohabitation is shaped by gender, class, and race. - Cohabiting women are younger than the men they live with. - Cohabitors have less traditional notions about gender roles. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Heterosexual Cohabitation• Men view it more pragmatically, and women view it more as a step toward long-term commitment.• Rates of cohabitation are somewhat higher among African Americans and Hispanics. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  25. 25. Figure 12.3 Unmarried-Partner Households by Sex of Partners and Race and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 2000 (Percent of all coupled households. For information on confidentiality protection, nonsampling error and definitions, see http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/docs/sf1.pdf.) Note: Percent same-sex partners and percent opposite-sex partners may not add to total percent unmarried-partner households because of rounding.Source: Simmons, Tavia, and Martin O’Connell (2003). “Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000.” Census 2000 Special Reports. U.S. Bureau of the Census (February). Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Heterosexual Cohabitation• Another perspective holds that cohabitation is not a step toward marriage, but a family form in its own right for couples who don’t see marriage as a defining characteristic of their lives.• Minority cohabitating couples are more likely to have children than their white counterparts. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Same-Sex Partners and Families• The emergence of non-heterosexual families is a movement with large social, political and legal ramifications.• Researchers estimate that four to ten percent of the adult population are homosexual.• Demographic data reveal that homosexual couples are an overwhelmingly urban population. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  28. 28. Same-Sex Partners and Families• Many of the couples include children.• Domestic partners – two individuals who are in a long-term committed relationship and are responsible for each other’s financial and emotional well-being.• Gay and Lesbian couples tend to be more highly educated than their heterosexual counterparts.• Homosexuals are denied significant legal and economic benefits by the prohibition on homosexual marriage. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  29. 29. Same Sex Partners and Families• Research has long identified social networks as the distinguishing feature of same sex families. - Networks are made up of “chosen” family connections. - “Chosen” families are formed from networks of lovers, friends, co parents, children conceived through artificial insemination, adopted children, children from previous relationships and other blood kin.• Gays and Lesbians are broadening the definition of the family. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  30. 30. Figure 12.4 Same-Sex Couples in the United States, 1990-2007 Sources: Gates, Gary J. (2007). “Geographic Trends among Same-Sex Couples in the U.S. Census and the American CommunitySurvey.” The Williams Institute, p. 3. Online: http://repositories.cdlib.org/uclalaw/Williams/census/gates_1; O’Connell, Martin andDaphne Lofquist (2009). “Counting Same-Sex Couples: Official Estimates and Unofficial Guesses.” U.S. Census Bureau Working Papers. Online: http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/hh-fam.html. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  31. 31. Same Sex Partners and Families• Gender: - Studies comparing lesbian, gay and heterosexual couples find important contrasts in their characteristic patterns of intimacy. - Gender shapes domestic values and practices more strongly than sexual identity. - Research highlights the effects of gender on relationship quality. - Gay and Lesbian couples tend to be egalitarian. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  32. 32. Same Sex Partners and Families• A shifting social context for Same Sex Partners. - In general gay and lesbian couples face a catch–22. They are legally prohibited from marrying but they face serious discrimination because they are not married. - The domestic partner movement has been quite successful in securing employment benefits for same sex families.  It has achieved remarkable success in corporate settings.  90% of employers who offer domestic partner benefits make them available to both same sex and different sex couples, thus cohabitating heterosexual couples also benefit. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  33. 33. Figure 12.5Fortune 500 Companies Providing Domestic Partner Health Benefits by Year Source: Human Rights Campaign Foundation (2009). The State of the Workplace, 2007–2008. Online: http://www.hrc.org/workplace. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  34. 34. Families Separated by Time and Space• Transnational Families: - Families that have one or more members in the U.S. and one or more members in another country. - The family spans national boundaries. - Globalization is creating new immigration patterns and producing new family forms around the world. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  35. 35. Families Separated by Time and Space• Transnational Families Continued: - Women involved in transnational employment are frequently mothers. Transnational motherhood is an arrangement whereby immigrant women work in one country while their children live in another country.  This arrangement is difficult for parents and children. - Transnational families are flexible family arrangements in which fathers often care for the children. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  36. 36. Families Separated• Commuter Marriages: - Commuter arrangements are largely due to the changes in technology and the workplace. - Commuter marriages are those in which dual career couples set up residences in separate locations, usually in response to the demands of their work. - Many couples view this as a temporary life style. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  37. 37. Commuter Marriages• Studies of commuting couples have found both advantages and disadvantages. - Benefits can include: A sense of autonomy, achievement and satisfaction; greater self esteem and self confidence; the ability to pursue careers without immediate and everyday family constraints. - Disadvantages can include: The separation can be stressful, loneliness and lack of companionship, missing sense of order, uncertainty about the relationship, hectic schedules. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  38. 38. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
  39. 39. Commuting Couples• Gender - Women tend to view this arrangement overall less negatively than men. They are free from schedules and household chores and they have the ability to work uninterrupted. - A study of African American couples found that while commuting produced stronger identities for both husbands and wives, gender differences were also present. Wives’ new identities centered on their confidence in managing home, career and travel responsibilities. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
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