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    Baca zinn ch07-lecture Baca zinn ch07-lecture Presentation Transcript

    • Diversity In Families NINTH EDITION Chapter Seven The Social Construction of Intimacy Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Chapter Seven Overview• Heterosexual Courtship and Mate Selection• Changing Sexual Behavior• Differentiated Forms of Intimacy• Same Sex Orientation and Intimacy Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Intimacy in Social Context• Intimacy is shaped by society. Major social changes have influenced intimate relationships.• People make decisions about intimate relationships in a social context.• The messages we get from the larger society are mixed. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Intimacy in Social Context• Sociological approach in examining intimacy has several assumptions: - We experience intimacy at the micro level, yet intimate relations are shaped and given meaning by macro level forces. - Human sexuality is not simply a biological drive but is formed by the social system and controlled by those in power. - Particular sexual practices are enforced by the dominant society. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Intimacy in Social Context• Over the past several decades a new emphasis on relationships and sexuality has emerged to create an “intimacy revolution” (Whyte, 1990).• Not only are macro level forces implicated in the contemporary need for intimacy, they may also shape our mate selection decisions.• Some connect the rise of interracial and same sex relationships in recent decades to more social independence for young people. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Intimacy in Social Context• We have separated our private selves from the public self that we display for others, and this separation has created a need for intimacy.• Intimate relationships permit people to be themselves without being judged.• In this strive for intimacy we expect our intimate partner to be all things for us. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Heterosexual Courtship• While mate selection used to involve family and community, it is today a more independent orientation.• Parents have less control over young adult’s decisions about mate selection.• All of these things have changed in the past few decades to allow young people more choices: the importance of education, the decline of Rural America, the lure of cities, changing work patterns, and more freedom for women. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Heterosexual Courtship• By the 1920’s couples started to go out on “dates” far from their parent’s supervision.• The initiation of dates shifted from a girl allowing a boy to “come calling” at her parent’s house, to a boy asking a girl out on a date. Girls did not ask boys because at the time girls were still considered second class citizens.• By the middle of the 20th century “going steady” was common in high school and college. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Heterosexual Courtship• Fewer teens date now than in the past.• Teen dating is associated with both positive and negative consequences.• Adolescents typically engage in “group dating” in the 21st Century.• Online dating is also a significant development in contemporary mate selection. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Figure 7.1Percentage of 8th, 10th, and 12th Grade Students Who Date Frequently, by Grade, Selected Years 1976-2006 Note: Frequent dating is used here to describe youth who report going out on one or more dates each week. Source: Child Trends, “Dating.” Child Trends DataBank, 2007. Online: http://www.childtrendsdatabank.org/pdf/73_PDF. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Heterosexual Courtship• Variations in Dating Practices: - Gender – Traditional gender role expectations still structure interactions, however the sexual double standard has weakened. - Class – Dating and courtship patterns vary by social class. - Race – Interracial relationships are likely to form in integrated settings such as the military, colleges and universities, and metropolitan areas. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Heterosexual Mate Selection• Factors in Mate Selection: - Legal – Legal regulations prohibit marriage between close relatives – states vary on what they consider “close”. - Homogamy means that people tend to marry others who are very similar to them in race, religion, ethnicity, and social class. - Hypogamy involves moving upward in social class through marriage. - Hypergamy involves marrying downward in social class. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Heterosexual Mate Selection• Qualities women and men think are important in selecting a mate (1996): - Mutual attraction; love - Dependable character - Emotional stability and maturity - Perhaps now partners are looking for a partner who is successful in the labor market. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Heterosexual Mate Selection• Structural Influences: - Availability of marriageable partners - Variety of group affiliations – varied affiliations with different groups provide opportunities to meet and stay in contact with dissimilar others.  People may marry outside their social group because of their multiple and interwoven group affiliations. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Heterosexual Mate Selection• Schools can play a major part in finding a potential mate. High school and then college further narrows choices of mates. Since college attendance is strongly associated with parent’s socioeconomic status, it is likely that college students will choose someone similar to marry because that is who is available.• Despite our belief that who we marry is a personal choice, structural influences remain strong in our mate selection. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Changing Sexual Behavior• The sociology of sexuality is an emerging area of research that examines how society shapes the expression of sexual desire through cultural images and social institutions.• The Social Constructionist approach examines the underlying social motivations and mechanisms that shape human social relationships and society. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Changing Sexual Behavior• The tenants of Social Construction theory are: - Human sexuality varies across time, space and the life of any individual. - Although sexuality is the site of our most intimate experiences, it is socially controlled and bound up with the basic inequalities that configure the structure of society – namely class, race and gender. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Changing Sexual Behavior• Biology alone does not determine human sexuality.• Activities condemned in one society may be encouraged in another, so sexuality is not all about biology.• Social institutions channel and direct sexual behavior according to what is defined as socially acceptable or “normal”. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Enlarging the Sexuality Frame• Homosexuality and Heterosexuality are social constructs, both at the macro level where society determines what same sex relationships means, and at the micro level where individuals obtain their sexual identity.• The terms sexual identity and sexual orientation refers to how people classify themselves.• Sexual identity and sexual behavior may differ. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Enlarging the Sexuality Frame• There is debate about whether homosexuality has genetic or social origins – is it inborn or shaped by experiences?• Despite whether there is biological evidence for sexual orientation – it is always a social identity as well.• Sexual orientations are not only a matter of genital activity, but also social creations with norms and values about sexuality. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • The Sexual Revolution• From a family-centered reproductive system in colonial days to romantic sexuality in the 19th century.• By the 1920s, sexuality became a major source of identity and self-discovery.• In modern times, sexuality is highly commercialized and is supposed to provide individual identity and happiness apart from reproduction. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • The Sexual Revolution• Advertising and entertainment media have been important forces contributing to sexual permissiveness.• Sex sells almost anything today!• The media’s fixation on sex has served to involve children and youth earlier and earlier in thinking about sex and sexual activity. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Scientific Research on Sexuality• National survey’s have found substantial changes in women’s sexual behavior over the past decades, but smaller and significant changes in men’s sexual behavior.• The most valuable part of the new survey’s on sexuality is that they look at sexuality in a social context.• People’s sexual choices are shaped by the social networks in which they operate. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Scientific Research on Sexuality• National Health and Social Life Survey found: - Adultery is the exception more than the rule. - People in the US are divided into three groups according to how often they have sex: 1/3 have sex twice a week or more; 1/3 have sex a few times a month; and 1/3 a few times a year. - The incidence of homosexuality is low. 2.6 percent of men and 1.4 percent of women report a homosexual identity. - Married couples have sex the most. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Scientific Research on Sexuality• Of course, questions still remain about whether people tell the truth about their sexual behaviors.• The Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors is the newest research on sexuality: - Surveyed 27,500 middle and older adults in 29 countries on the subject of the physical and emotional qualities of their sex lives. - The highest levels of sexual well being are found in western countries where gender equality is the highest. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • AIDS• The number of new U.S. cases has risen every year since 2001.• Because the most common means of HIV transmission is male to male sexual contact, the majority of new AIDS cases involve men.• In 2004, 70% of women who were diagnosed with AIDS were infected through heterosexual contact.• HIV has increasingly become a disease of color with African American men being diagnosed at a rate 7 times that of White men. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Teen Sexuality• Adolescents today have more sexual freedom than did the preceding generations – they have become sexually active earlier than their parents.• Approximately 50% of teenagers have had sexual intercourse by the time they finish high school – the average age tends to be around 17.• U.S. has the highest rates of teenage pregnancy. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Teen Sexuality• The National Survey of Adolescents and Young Adults (Conducted by the Kaiser Foundation) finds that: - Young people report considerable pressure to have sex. - One third of adolescents have engaged in oral sex, but one in five are unaware that oral sex can transmit sexually transmitted disease. - Many young people remain reluctant to discuss sexual health issues with partners, family and health providers. - Young people report that alcohol and drugs often play a dangerous role in their sex lives. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Teen Sexuality• Research finds that many teens who have never had sexual intercourse are having oral sex, which they do not count as “having sex” (Peterson, 2000).• Sex education in school is a controversial topic. After 1996 Federal support for sex education shifted from comprehensive sex education to abstinence-only programming.• As a long term strategy abstinence-only programs seem a little unrealistic. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Figure 7.2 Estimated Impacts of Abstinence Education Program on Reported Number of Sexual PartnersSource: Christopher Trenholm et al., “Impacts of Abstinence Education on Teen Sexual Activity, Risk of Pregnancy, and Risk of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 27(2) (2008), p. 268. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Teenage Childbearing• Over the past several decades teenage childbearing has been seen as a major social problem.• Hispanics are now more likely to have a teen pregnancy than African American teens.• Early motherhood makes young women vulnerable but not poor – most teen mothers were poor before they got pregnant. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Differentiated Forms Of Intimacy• His and Her Sex - Women and men want and expect different things from their intimate heterosexual relationships. - The model for male sexuality stresses performance while the female model stresses the emotional relationship. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • His and Her Sex• The expectations and styles of love vary by gender: - Men tend to be more casual about sex, they can easily compartmentalize their feelings about love and sex. - Women view sex as a bonding experience. - Some researches feel that sex is the main domain in which male dominance is reinforced and female subservience is reinforced. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Figure 7.4 Sex and Gender Source: Judith Mackay, The Penguin Atlas of Human Sexual Behavior. New York: Penguin Putnam, 2000, p. 21. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • His and Her Love• Most people experience love at least once in their lives.• Men and women differ in their styles of being in love as well as what they expect from a loving relationship.• Gendered love styles bolster men’s dominance of women. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Same-Sex Orientation and Intimacy• Variance from the norm of heterosexuality was legally prohibited until 2003.• Broad social support networks are missing for gay and lesbian couples .• Gender plays an important part in intimate relationships, whether heterosexual or gay. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Same-Sex Orientation and Intimacy• The conditions under which sexuality and love are experienced also vary with social class, however differences are becoming less clear.• The NHSLS discovered that the lower class inclined toward a no non-sense, silent approach to sex vs. a self- conscious, elaborate approach of higher classes. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Social Class and Intimacy• The experience of sexuality and love varies by social class.• While most people uphold the ideology of love, there are class differences in resources to sustain that ideal.• Differences of color, culture, and ancestry create clear sexual boundaries. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Intimacy and Race• Throughout US history, powerful sexual stereotypes have been central in creating and sustaining the racial hierarchy.• Despite the current trends in multiracial dating, the sexual marketplace is still a minefield for people of color.• Their choice of intimate partners is defined by a racial hierarchy that places Anglo/white people at the top. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Contemporary Differences in Sexual Behavior• We know little about intimacy issues among racial ethnics than we should, given that there are more people of color in society than ever before. There are two reasons: - 1.) Stereotypes that portray racial-ethnic women and men as more sexual and less capable than Whites of controlling animal instincts. (Jagger and Rothenberg 1984:385). - 2.) The prevailing ideology of love as a white, middle class emotion. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.
    • Claiming Control of Intimacy• Because intimacy is socially constructed, it offers the possibility for agency, change and growth.• Sexuality has been separated from reproduction.• Women have a wider range of options.• People throughout society are struggling to transform intimate relationships and to enhance pleasure and love. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Diversity in Families, Ninth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Maxine Baca Zinn • D. Stanley Eitzen • Barbara Wells All rights reserved.