Blood Spatter Analysis [can be defined as] – A field of forensic science that deals with the physical properties of blood and the patterns produced under different conditions as a result of various forces applied to the source of the blood.The blood spatter evidence can reveal information based on the angle of impact, drip pattern, dispersion, wipe pattern, velocity and location of the blood.
Blood Spatter analysis has been studied since the late 1890s, howeverinvestigators haven't always recognized how valuable it can be. It wasn’t until the late 1950s that this evidence began to be used to it’s full potential.There were three main people who were involved in the development of blood spatter research: Doctors Piotrowski, Kirk, and MacDonell.
The first known study of blood spatters occurred at the Institute for Forensic Medicine in Poland, by Dr. Eduard Piotrowski. Piotrowski recognized that “It is of the highest importance to the field of forensic medicine to give the fullest attention to bloodstains found at the scene of a crime because they can throw light on a murder and provide an explanation for the essential moments of the incident.”His work has been documented and preserved in the book "Concerning the Origin, Shape, Direction and Distribution of the Bloodstains Following Head Wounds Caused by Blows” in 1895[In the image: the original published copy in German]
Kirk studied the effect of velocity, angle of impact and the combination of the two. Cases that included the interpretation of blood spatters didn't appear until about 50 years after Piotrowski’s original research.In the highly publicized case of the State of Ohio v. Samuel Sheppard in 1955, Dr. Paul Kirk submitted blood spatter evidence, marking one of the earliest instances of the legal system recognizing the importance of blood spatter. Dr. Kirk established the relative positions of the attacker and the victim as well as showing that the attackerstruck the victim with his left hand.
The next significant person in the field was Dr. Herbert MacDonell, who published "Flight Characteristics of Human Blood and Stain Patterns" in 1971. In 1973, MacDonell developed the Bloodstain Evidence Institute, where he trained law-enforcement in blood spatter analysis and developed courses to continue to train analysts. As a result, he is widely recognized as the “father” of bloodstain pattern analysis in the Western hemisphere.In 1983, he and other attendees of the Bloodstain Evidence Institute founded the International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts (IABPA).
Since then, the field of bloodstain analysis has continued to grow and develop. It has now become standard practice for law enforcement to include during crime-scene investigation.Piotrowski recognized that “It is of the highest importance to the field of forensic medicine to give the fullest attention to bloodstains found at the scene of a crime because they can throw light on a murder and provide an explanation for the essential moments of the incident.”
Unknown femaleAt the time of her death, she held onto a chunk of hairFirst classifed the hair as nonhumanGoron later did research on different hairs and fibersGoron’s research led to many more discoveries and studies of different kinds of hair
Chemicals are found to longest impressions in the hair compared to anywhere elsePicture on the right explains how chemicals from the blood travel into our hair
Any surface with marks or writing so if there’s writing on the walls or floor, then that also falls under questioned documents.
Now that we know what questioned documents are, we’re gonna move on to QDE, the process of analyzing those documents. fraud investigation, forgery specialists, forensic stylistics, computer crime investigationEACH ASPECT OF THE DOCUMENT IS EXAMINED materials used to write the documents. What it’s made out of, etc.
Earliest QD examiner is Jean Mabillon. His work would later evolve into QDE.Albert S. Osborn invited some of his colleagues from the US and Canada to talk about and share research on QDE.3 decades, hos books regarded as classics in the field. Had more informal meetings with his colleagues until official formation of ASQDE, the field’s leading organization.
Not only fingerprints, but corresponding criminal histories; mug shots; scars and tattoo photos; physical characteristics like height, weight, and hair and eye color; and aliases.
The Henry Classification System allowed categorization of ten-print fingerprint records into primary groupings based on fingerprint pattern types. Placed fingerprints into categories and did not allow correct classification of individual prints. The Henry Classification System assigns each finger a number according to the order in which is it located in the hand, then assigned a numerical value to fingers that contain a whorl pattern; fingers 1 and 2 each have a value of 16, fingers 3 and 4 have a value of 8, and so on, with the final two fingers having a value of 1. Fingers with a non-whorl pattern, such as an arch or loop pattern, have a value of zero. The value of 1 is added to each sum of the whorls with the maximum obtainable being 32. Thus, the primary classification is a fraction between 1/1 to 32/32 where 1/1 would indicate no whorl patterns and 32/32 would mean that all fingers had whorl patterns
To surgically remove fingerprints doctors cut out your prints and replace it with skin from beneath your foot or in extreme cases doctors replace it with another persons fingerprint. Usually both the doctor and criminal are convicted in the end.
DNA profiling is the gathering, processing, and analyzing of the unique sequences on the loci**Bio reminder! Locis are an area on a chromosome**Sequences called VNTRs (Variable number tandem repeats), which are different enough from person to person to use as identification
Although no solid evidence can be obtained from this process, it’s a behavioral and investigative tool intended to help investigators to accurately predict and profile the characteristics of unknown criminal subjects or offenders; Thus, guiding the investigation in the right direction. In modern criminology, offender profiling is generally considered the "third wave" of investigative science: 1) study of clues 2) study of crime itself 3) study of the psyche of the criminal.
In the 19th century, J.F., C.L., A.B., H.G. and several others realized the potential of p.p. Except, their research is generally considered to be prejudiced, reflecting the biases of their time. In the 1940s, investigations relied on mental health professionals to create a profile of an offender in order to aid the police investigation. Soon after, J.B. was called upon to analyze the information on the Mad Bomber in New York City, and he created an accurate profile of the offender. This caught the attention of the FBI, who then worked to develop a technique for profiling, based on the process used by Brussel.
Assisted in the autopsy of Mary Kelly. In his notes, he mentioned the sexual nature of the murders coupled with elements of apparent misogyny and rage. Bond tried to reconstruct the murder and interpret the behavior pattern of the offender. The profile said that 5 murders of the 7 in the area, at the time the report was written, had been committed by one person alone who was physically strong, composed, and daring. The unknown offender would be quiet and harmless in appearance, possibly middle-aged, and neatly attired, probably wearing a cloak to hide the bloody effects of his attacks out in the open. He would be a loner, without a real occupation, eccentric, and mentally unstable. He might even suffer from a condition called Satyriasis, a sexual deviancy that is today referred to as hypersexuality or promiscuity. Bond also mentioned that he believed the offender had no anatomical knowledge and could not be a surgeon or butcher. Dr. Bond later concluded that the same offender was responsible for the murder of Alice McKenzie.
Dr. Langer used speeches, Hitler's book Mein Kampf, interviews with people who had known Hitler, and some four hundred published works to complete his wartime report, which was eventually declassified by OSS and published by Langer (along with certain collateral material) as The Mind of Adolf Hitler in 1972
Studied photographs of crime scenes and analyzed the "mad bomber’s" mail to the press….Consolidated Edison, the city’s power company, the first bomb targeted its 67th Street headquarters. Police figured mysterious bomber would be a disgruntled current or former employee of Con Ed & profile helped police to track down G.M. who worked for Con Ed in the 1930s.Brussel’s profile led the Boston Police to the apprehension of Albert DeSalvo, the notorious serial sex murderer known as the Boston Strangler. The media dubbed Dr. Brussel as "Sherlock Holmes of the Couch".
David Meirhofer: a 23-year-old, white, single man who was a homicidal Peeping Tom, sex killer who mutilates his victim after death & takes body parts as souvenirs, and was a suspect in another murder case. First serial killer to be caught with the aid of the FBI's new investigative technique, called offender profiling or criminal investigative analysis. A decade later, the technique became a more sophisticated and systematic profiling tool known as the Criminal Investigative Analysis Program
Subtypes: power-assertive, power-reassurance, anger-retaliatory, and anger-excitation or sadism.Vidocq society: exclusive organization of forensic professionals who solve cold cases for law enforcement agencies, worldwide.HITS: database, which lists characteristics of violent crimes so that common threads can be investigated.Published a leading scholarly article for the FBI and violent crime investigators all over the world: "Profiling Killers: A Revised Classification Model for Understanding Sexual Murder"
After Howard Teten left the Behavioral Science Unit, John Douglas and Robert Ressler became pillars of offender profiling in the FBI. Spent much time studying convicted sex murderers and interviewing them, creating organized and disorganized typology. ^ Their studies provide more information on the behavioral patterns, traits and characteristics of criminals which can then be added to the offender profiling program.
When John Duffy was later arrested, charged and convicted, it turned out 13 of Canter's 17 proclamations about the perpetrator were accurate
Dr. R.B. Jarvis, a psychiatrist with expertise on the criminal mind, predicted the age range of Bundy, his sexual psychopathy, and his above average intellect through p.p. because it is a method of suspect identification which seeks to identify a person's mental, emotional, and personality characteristics (as manifested in things done or left at the crime scene).
FBI agent, J.E.D. wrote a 12 pg profile on G.L.R. This case demonstrates the potential for incorrect predictions because even tho much of it was correct, there were characteristics that did not apply to him, such as being an outdoorsman and being incapable of closeness to other people. Ridgway was not an outdoorsman, but frequented the Green River with one of his wives, and also had a very close relationship with his last wife, which contradicted the point in the profile of being incapable of closeness.
History of forensics 2012
Manner of Death Erin Dillon
Manner of Death:(the way in which death wascaused) Natural – if autopsy reveals a natural disease (ex- cancer, pneumonia) Accident – if autopsy reveals something unexplained (ex- severe head injury with no symptoms of assault, but victim found near fallen ladder) Suicide - angle of bullet entry and gun powder residue indicate that the gun was fired while being held by the victim (or self inflicted wounds) Homicide – angle of bullet entry and gun powder residue indicate that the gun was fired by somone other than the victim
History o 1248: o Hsi Duan Yu (book) by Sung Tz’u – how to distinguish drowning victim from one who was strangled o Position of ―coroner‖ developed o 1761: o Giovanni Morgagni o Italian anatomist o Writes On the Seats and Causes of Diseases o 1910: o Richard Cabot o American physician o Studies 1000 autopsies- doctors are wrong about cause of death about 40% of the time
Importance In each case, something is learned by classifying the ―manner of death‖ – Natural: research can be conducted about the disease – Accident: this same accident may be prevented – Suicide: future suicides can be prevented by taking appropriate measures – Homicide: the killer can be persecuted if found
Special Cases Drug Overdose – – Classified as suicide Assisted suicide – – classified as ―Suicide‖ (unless otherwise required by state law) Deaths in which infants/young children die because of placement in a potentially hostile environment – (ex: bath tub with water, or being left in a locked car) – classified asAccident if there is no evidence of intent to harm the child. Death of infant/fetus due to maternal drug intoxication – – Can be classified as accident or homicide depending on whether or not it is deemed ―intentional‖ by a court
Description • The physical properties of blood and the patterns produced under different conditions as a result of various forces applied to the source of the blood • Angle of impact, drip pattern, dispersion, wipe pattern, velocity, location Powerpoint Templates Page 7
History• Began in 1890s• More developed in late 1950s• People: – Dr. Eduard Piotrowski – Dr. Paul Kirk – Dr. Herbert MacDonell Powerpoint Templates Page 8
Dr. Eduard Piotrowski • First truly scientific study of blood spatters • Institute for Forensic Medicine – Krakow, Poland • 1895 – Published book of his work – "Concerning the Origin, Shape, Direction and Distribution of the Bloodstains Following Head Wounds Caused by Blows‖ Powerpoint Templates Page 9
Dr. Paul Kirk • Studied the effect of velocity, angle of impact and the combination of the two • 1955 – The State of Ohio v. Samuel Sheppard – Established the relative positions of the attacker and the victim, as well as showing that the attackerstruck the victim with his left hand Powerpoint Templates Page 10
Dr. Herbert MacDonell • 1971 – Published "Flight Characteristics of Human Blood and Stain Patterns‖ • 1973 – Developed the Bloodstain Evidence Institute – Trained law-enforcement in blood spatter analysis and developed courses to continue to train analysts • ―Father‖ of bloodstain pattern analysis in the Western hemisphere • 1983 – founded the International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts (IABPA) Powerpoint Templates Page 11
Importance• Now a standard practice for law enforcement• “It is of the highest importance to the field of forensic medicine to give the fullest attention to bloodstains found at the scene of a crime because they can throw light on a murder and provide an explanation for the essential moments of the incident.” Powerpoint Templates Page 12
DESCRIPTION Evidence that involved any kind of hair usually underwent hair analysis Two kinds of hair analysis Chemical hair analysis: Used for retrospective purposes when certain chemicals cannot be found in blood or urine Microscopic analysis: Used for assessing different characteristics of hairs and comparing them to other hairs of “known sources”
IMPORTANT PEOPLE Murder case of Duchesse de Praslin Charles de Choiseul-Praslin married Fanny Sebastiani Had 10 children and lived a fairly happy life together Had housekeeper named Henriette Deluzy-Desportes Deluzy later had an affair with Praslin Fanny insists on getting rid of mistress, but Praslin keeps her for a bit August 18, 1847, ~4 am, Fanny is found dead in her bedroom with slashes across her chest; the room smelled of gunpowder and blood Inspector Pierre Allard investigated the case Found a pistol under the bed + realized wife’s head was crushed by a heavy instrument Noticed that the Duke’s gun + clothes stained of blood and hair Took a magnifying glass and compared hairs from the gun and of Fanny’s Praslin found guilty and convicted of his wife’s murder
IMPORTANT PEOPLE Francois Goron – First forensic scientist to use hair to identify people Was ordered to investigate the death of an unknown victim At the time, scientists could not differentiate between animal and human hair yet Goron was then able to discover that the hair had been dyed and identified the owner Eventually led to the arrest of the alleged killer
SIGNIFIGANCE Fairly easy practice of magnifying hair strands and comparing the structures Low cost Can be used as a replacement for blood or urine tests + lasts much longer Ability to measure a large number of toxins or other chemicals To see whether or not absorbed poisons link to behavioral / health problems
WORKS CITED "Hair Analysis." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 09 June 2012. Web. 10 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hair_analysis>. Steck- Flynn, Kathy. "Crime & Clues." Trace Evidence: Hair. N.p., 8 Sept. 2011 . Web. 10 Sept. 2012. <http://www.crimeandclues.com/index.php/forensic -science- a-csi/trace-a-dna/19-trace-evidence-hair>. Yusof, Mohd Yaakob. "Duke De Praslin Case File." Duke De Praslin Case File. N.p., 1 May 2012. Web. 10 Sept. 2012. <http://www.crimerack.com/2012/05/duke -de-praslin-case- file/>.
History of Forensic Science (Questioned Documents) by Claire Reyes
What are questioned documents? O ―Refers to any handwriting, typewriting, signature, or mark whose authenticity is in dispute‖ O Can include wills, contracts, letters, sales receipts—any surface with marks or writing
QDEO Questioned document examinationO Umbrella term for many subspecialties O Handwriting analysis, historical dating, typewriting analysis, paper/ink specialists…
Discovery and Development O Jean Mabillon(French monk) O 1681 De Re Diplomatica O Outlined diplomatics(analysis/verificat Oion of documents} Albert S. Osborn O prominent QD examiner O 1910 Questioned Documents O 1922 The Problem of ProofO 1942 founded American Society of Questioned Documents Examiners
Importance of QDEO major role in cases involving: O murder, forgery, counterfeiting, art crimes, gambling, kidnapping, organized crime, fraud, con games, theft, arson, burglary, serial murders, sex crimesO Verifying authenticity of document(s) help identify author(s) and (dis)prove fraud
What is forensic anthropology?• Anthropology—the study of humankind (in every aspect, including culturally, biologically, archeologically, an d linguistically. Anthropos means "man." Logy stands for the "science of".)• Forensic Anthropology—focuses on the study of the human skeleton to identify unknown remains that show evidence of a crime
The Development ofForensic Anthropology1878—Thomas Dwights "TheIdentification of the Human Skeleton: AMedicolegal Study" describes that the genderand stature characteristics of humans weredeterminable by examination of the bonesthemselves.1957—The growth stages of skeletal bonesare identified by Americans ThomasMocker and Thomas Stewart, formingthe basis of forensic anthropology.
Webster–Parkman Case (1849) 1849— John Webster and George Parkman were both Harvard professors. In November, Dr. Webster had disappeared. The chief witness Ephraim Littlefield revealed the vault in the medical school which contained some human remains. Most of it had been partially cremated, and so dental and skeletal fragments were used to identify the remains. It was Dr. Parkman. In November 23, John Webster was convicted for murder, and was hanged in August.
The Murder of Louisa Bicknese 1897—Adolph Luetgert, a sausage manufacturer, claimed his wife ran away. His factory was searched. His wifes rings, a corset, and several bones.George Dorsey was one of the first Forensic expert to lead a forensic Anthropology investigation. He concluded that Luetgert murdered his own wife.
Importance of ForensicAnthropology With Forensic Anthropology, as long as there are bones, it is possible to determine whether or not a crime has taken place. Forensic Anthropologysolves what is unknown about unidentified individuals by analyzing greatly decomposed remains. What Forensic Anthropology can determine about an individual: age, sex, stature, ancestry, race, cause of death, health condition before death Without Forensic Anthropology, there would be more unidentified victims, more unsolved crimes. It is important in both legal and humanitarian contexts. It is needed to solve the final pieces and bring closure to affected families
•AFIS-Automated Fingerprint Identification System•Was launched on July 28, 1999.•A national fingerprint and criminal history system that matchesunknown fingerprints against a database to identify criminal andsuspects.•Primarily used by law enforcement agencies and is controlled by theFBI.
Henry Classification System •Developed by Sir Edward Henry •Developed in the late 19th century for criminal investigations in British India •First progression towards the modern AFIS system L L L L L R R R R R Pinky Pinky Ring Middle Index Thum Thum Index Middle Ring b bFinger 10 9 8 7 6 1 2 3 4 5NumberValue (if 1 1 2 2 4 16 16 8 8 4Whorl)Pattern Arch Loop Whorl Loop Arch Loop Whorl Arch Arch LoopValue 0 0 2 0 0 0 16 0 0 0 1+ (Sum of even finger value) = 1+(16+2) = 19 1+ (Sum of Odd finger value) 1+(0) 1
•First the examiner places the fingerprint into the system•The computer then narrows the search down to possible matchesknown as candidates.•The examiner then compares each canidate individually to makea possible match.•Even if the examiner declares a “match” in the system theytypically have to get a copy of the record from the state for a final
AFIS was developed by the FBI during the late nineties inorder to make criminal classification more effective andefficient.Errors:•Though this system is key to tracking down criminals andconvicting the guilty, many people has tired to get around it,by changing their fingerprints.•Some criminal has attempted to change their fingerprints
•AFIS allows law enforcement a fast and efficient way toidentify and connect criminals to evidence.•The average response time for an electronic criminalfingerprint submission is about 27 minutes, while electroniccivil submissions are processed within an hour and 12minutes.•Prior to this time, the processing of ten-print fingerprintsubmissions was largely a manual, labor-intensive process,taking weeks or months to process a single submission.
WHAT? Integrated Ballistics Identification System Built for the forensic identification of ballistic information Saves and searches for matches on bullets and casings as well as the previous cases they’ve been involved in Replaced the painstaking task of identification by examination by experts
People―Forensic Technology‖ created IBIS in 1991 toexamine and suggest possible matches beyondhuman capacityIBIS is maintained by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobaccoand Firearms and Explosives
ImportanceAvailable in 235 sites nationwide; one in every stateand most major metropolitan areasMajor connections between states and coasts can bemade using this technology that was not possiblebefore.
DNA Profiling -1987A system of identification using a sample of an individual’s DNA DNA is taken from samples of blood, saliva, urine, and semen to be used as evidence
Back to Bio• DNA is taken from samples of blood, saliva, urine, and semen to be used as evidence• DNA profiling is the gathering, processing, and analyzing of the unique sequences on the loci **Bio reminder! Locis are an area on a chromosome**• Sequences called VNTRs (Variable number tandem repeats), which are different enough from person to person to use as identification
Kary Mullis• December 28, 1944• BA of Science from Georgia Institute of Tech• 1983- Invented the Polymerase Chain Reaction• PCR= process which multiplies one strand of DNA billions of times withing hours• Won Nobel Prize in chemistry – 1993
Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys• British, working on advancing DNA technology at same time as Mullis• Credited with invention of DNA profiling• One of the first scientists to discover split genes
ImportanceNot only does DNA DNA can be useful in profiling provide identifying a criminal evidence against a or victim. It also can guilty suspect, but it answer questions can also free involving paternity. suspicion against an innocent one as well.
Psychological ProfilingWhat Why• a set of techniques used by To assist the court in law enforcement agencies determining whether or not to try to identify there is sufficient behavioral perpetrators of serious evidence to suggest a common crime scheme or plan in order to address forensic issues, suchWho as whether similar crimes may• Thomas Bond, Walter C. be tried together or whether Langer, James A. Brussel, other crimes may be brought Howard Teten, Richard in as evidence Walter & Bob Keppel, John When Douglas & Robert Ressler, David Canter • 1978
Psychological Profiling• No solid evidence• Accurately guides investigation• Behavioral and investigative tool• Predict and profile the characteristics of unknown criminal subjects or offenders• Investigates offenders behavior, motives and background
Holmes & Holmes2008 Profiling Violent Crimes: An Investigative Tool (4 ed.)Three main goals• provide law enforcement with a social and psychological assessment of the offender• provide law enforcement with a “psychological evaluation of belongings found in the possession of the offender”• give suggestions and strategies for the interviewing process
History• Middle Ages: inquisitors trying to profile heretics• 19th century: Jacob Fries, Cesare Lombroso, Alphonse Bertillon, Hans Gross +• 1940s: James Brussel & FBI
Notable Profilers• Thomas Bond• Walter C. Langer• James A. Brussel• Howard Teten• Richard Walter & Bob Keppel• John Douglas & Robert Ressler• David Canter
Thomas Bond•1880s medical doctor & policesurgeon•Tried to profile the personality of Jackthe Ripper using signature personalitytraits of the offender to assist policeinvestigation.•5/7 murders in the area at that timefit his profile: •Strong •Composed •Daring •Quiet & harmless appearance •Middle-aged, neatly attired •Loner, mentally unstable, satyriasis •No real occupation •No anatomical knowledge
Walter C. Langer•Psychoanalyst from Boston, MA•Chief of the US Office of StrategicServices asked him to develop a"profile" of Adolf Hitler’s behavioraland psychological analysis for theconstruction of strategic plans, givenvarious options•1972: published The Mind of AdolfHitler
James A. Brussel• Greenwich Village psychiatrist, NewYork States assistant commissionerof mental hygiene.•NYC serial bomber•detailed description of the unknownoffender: heavy middle-aged man,unmarried, living with sibling, skilledmechanic from Connecticut, RomanCatholic immigrant, obsessive love forhis mother but hatred for father,personal vendetta againstConsolidated Edison, "chances are hewill be wearing a double-breasted suit.Buttoned.”•George Metesky in Waterbury,Connecticut arrested in January 1957and confessed immediately.•Albert DeSalvo aka Boston Strangler•“Sherlock Holmes of the Couch‘”
Howard Teten•veteran police officer from California,joined the FBI in 1962•instructor in applied criminology atthe old National Police Academy inWashington, D.C.•disagreed with Dr. Brussel’sFreudian interpretations, but heaccepted other tenets of hisinvestigative analysis•1972 FBI’s Behavioral ScienceUnit at Quantico was formed•Joined FBI Instructor Patrick J.Mullany and Col. Robert K. Resselwhose profile led to the arrest of DavidMeirhofer•1st serial killer caught using FBI’s newinvestigative technique which becamemore sophisticated 10 years later
Richard Walter & BobKeppel•1974•Keppel: homicide detective, used newmethods of psychological profiling toinvestigate notorious serial killers TedBundy and the Green River Killer•Walter: criminal psychologist inMichigans notorious prison system•Walter interviewed over 2000murderers, sex-offenders and serialkillers to group all killings and sexcrimes into four distinct "subtypes“•Walter co-founded the Vidocq society•Keppel and Walter created the HunterIntegrated Telemetry System•Published "Profiling Killers: A RevisedClassification Model for UnderstandingSexual Murder"
John Douglas & RobertRessler•1978•FBI•created organized and disorganizedtypology – still used today•Ressler founded the National Centerfor Analysis of Violent Crime•studies provide more informationwhich can be added to offenderprofiling program.
David Canter•1986•psychologist and criminologist•composed British crimes firstoffender profile for the RailwayRapist/Killer•John Duffy arrested, charged &convicted•13/17 proclamations were accurate•Profiling became commonplace inlarge-scale police searches afterwards
Importance• Psychiatrist, Dr. Richard B. Jarvis used this in the investigation of the serial murders committed by Ted Bundy.
Flaws• FBI agent, John E. Douglas’ investigation of Gary Leon Ridgway, aka Green River Killer.• Incorrect information can lead to false positives or false negatives
Television & Film Examples• Law & Order: Criminal Intent• 1990s Profiler• 1991 The Silence of the Lambs• 2005 Criminal Minds• 2011 Criminal Minds: Suspect Behavior
About• Convicted of 2nd degree murder of wife, Marilyn Sheppard• Pleaded not guilty• Sentenced to life in prison
Controversy• Sam Sheppard claimed “bushy haired man” murdered his wife• Freed July 16, 1964 after finding 5 violations of Sheppard’s constitutional rights during his trial• Trial to reinstate conviction on Nov. 1, 1966 – Found not guilty
Inspiration• Basis for movies, TV shows, and books
Why is this important?• Showed flaws in the system at that time• Need for more accurate genetic tests
Description-1932-FBI Crime Laboratory Created-Began with only one full time employee-located in Washington D.C.
Description-forensic research/analysis facility-offers expertise to law enforcement agencies-services include analyzing: -bio evidence -weapons -drugs-offers courtroom expert witness testimony for investigations
People-Special Agent Charles Appel-Forensic scientist-Was the only full time staff at first-Area of special interest was in questioned document examination-Samuel Pickering- chemical analysis specialist- first subject matter expert
Importance-one of the best and most well known research facility in the world-serves as a source of information and criminological support in American Law
Works Cited-http://www.fbi.gov/about- us/history/highlights-of- history/articles/laboratory-http://www.enotes.com/fbi-crime- laboratory-reference/fbi-crime-laboratory
Why• Landsteiner was curious to find out why some people died and some people became better during blood transfusions• Discovered that the wrong blood inserted in ones body can cause death
Importance• Blood transfusions were now possible• Blood banks were created to preserve blood for 2-3 week periods to make major surgeries possible
How• Landsteiner cross tested sera and red cells from scientists working in his lab, including his own. His findings revealed that blood from certain scientists caused the blood of others to clump, suggesting the existence of at least two antibody classes.• Eventually discovered the four types of blood.
What• Definition: A blood type is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells• Types: A, B, AB, O
What is CODIS?• “Combined DNA Index System”• FBI’s program of support for criminal justice DNA databases as well as the software used to run these databases• National DNA Index System (NDIS) is considered one part of CODIS ▫ Contains the DNA profiles contributed by federal, state, and local participating forensic laboratories
Development• Outgrowth of the Technical Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (TWGDAM) ▫ Developed guidelines for standards of practice in the United States and Canadian crime laboratories as they began DNA testing in the late 1980s• FBI Laboratory began pilot project with six state and local crime laboratories to develop software to support each laboratorys DNA testing and allow sharing of profiles• The DNA Identification Act of 1994 formally authorized the FBI to operate CODIS ▫ Did not become fully operational until 1998
Importance• DNA profile of the suspected perpetrator is developed from the swabs in the kit• Forensic unknown profile attributed to the suspected perpetrator is searched against their state database of convicted offender and arrestee ▫ If there is a match, laboratory will go through procedures to confirm the match obtain the identity of the suspect• DNA profile from the evidence also searched against the state’s database of crime scene DNA profiles ▫ If there is a match, laboratory goes through the confirmation procedures the match will have linked two or more crimes together• Law enforcement agencies involved in these cases are then able to share the information obtained on each of the cases and possibly develop additional leads
Bibliography• "CODIS and NDIS Fact Sheet." Federal Bureau of Investigation. U.S. Department of Justice, n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2012. <http://www.fbi.gov/about- us/lab/codis/codis-and-ndis-fact-sheet>.• "CODIS Markers." DNA Consultants. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2012. <http://dnaconsultants.com/Detailed/335.h tml>.