Project #2: How Stuff Works

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  • 1. Project #2: How Stuff Works By: Leah Sciabarrasi, Chelsea Fehskens and Sarah Stachura Spring 2009: EDC594
  • 2. How Stuff Works
    • Understanding a Printer
    • Understanding a Scanner
    • Installing a Hard Drive
    • Understanding Educational Technology
    • Understanding Design-It-Yourself Theory
    • Resources
  • 3. Understanding a Printer
  • 4. Printer Front
    • Ink Jet Printer/ Sometimes called a Bubble Jet Printer
    •  On/off button can be seen
    •  Paper tray is located here
  • 5. Printer Back
    • Serial Ports
    •  Power Cord
  • 6. Open Front
    • Inside view without taking the printer apart
    •  Print Head Assembly is on the right
  • 7. Ribbon
    • This ribbon is responsible for the Print Head Assembly’s movement
  • 8. Print Head Assembly
    • Holds the printer’s ink cartridges
    •  Ink cartridges spray a fine mist of ink as they move in front of the paper
    •  Uses a head to fire the ink onto the paper
    •  Printer head is made up of a firing chamber, a nozzle, and a thermoresistor or a piezocell
  • 9. Rollers
    • A set of rollers pull the paper in from the tray or feeder
    •  Advances the paper when the print head assembly is ready for another pass
  • 10. Paper Tray
    • Most inkjet printers have a tray that you load the paper into *See Picture
    •  Some printers dispense with the standard tray for a feeder instead
  • 11. Paper Feed Pad
    • Moves the paper through the printer
  • 12. Parallel Port
    • Connects the printer to the computer
    •  Also known as an interface port
    •  Most printers now use USB or wireless pots
  • 13. Circuit Board and Microprocessor
    • A small but sophisticated amount of circuitry is built into the printer
    •  Control all the mechanical aspects of operation
    • Also decodes the information sent to the printer from the computer.
    • The mechanical operation of the printer is controlled by a small circuit board
    •  This board contains a microprocessor and memory
  • 14. Bottom Cover
    • This cover protects the printer from outside elements
    •  Often made to not be removed
  • 15. Inside of the Outside Case
    • Included to show what the hard case looks like
    •  Case acts as a protective hard shell
  • 16. Yellow Cable
    • This small cable hooks the printer to the Circuit Board
    •  Acts as the information transmitter between the Print Head and the Circuit Board
  • 17. Inside of Printer
    • A first look inside after the hard case has been removed
    •  Items seen:
    • Circuit Board
    • Print Head Assembly
    • Stabilizer Bar and Belt
    • Stepper Motor
  • 18.
    • Holds the printer’s ink cartridges
    •  Ink cartridges spray a fine mist of ink as they move in front of the paper
    •  Uses a head to fire the ink onto the paper
    •  Printer head is made up of a firing chamber, a nozzle, and a Thermoresistor or a Piezocell
    Print Head Assembly
  • 19.
    • Moves the print head assembly back and forth across the paper
    •  Some printers have another stepper motor to park the print head assembly when the printer is not in use
    •  Parking means that the print head assembly is restricted from accidentally moving, like a parking brake on a car
    Stepper Motor
  • 20.
    • A belt: is used to attach the print head assembly to the stepper motor
    •  Stabilizer bar: The print head assembly uses a stabilizer bar to ensure that movement is precise and controlled
    Stabilizer Belt and Bar
  • 21. Understanding a Scanner
  • 22. Scanner Front
    • Top Front –cover- used to keep excess light out during process, keeps a uniform background that the scanner software can use as a reference point for determining the size of the document being scanned
  • 23. Scanner Back
    • Top Back- Parallel port- connecting through the parallel port is the slowest transfer method found on the scanner, FireWire- ideal for scanning high-resolution images, serial port- a standard port available on most printers for image transfer. These will interact with the driver in TWAIN (an interpreter that does not need to know specific details of the scanner in order to access it)
  • 24. Open Front
    • Open Front- cover- up to allow for document/ image loading, glass plate where documents are placed face down to be scanned. Most scanners have a scan area of 8.5X11 inches or 11X14 inches
  • 25. Bottom
    • Bottom- Scanner Head, Belt attached to a stepper motor- moves scan head slowly across document, Stabilizer bar- scan head is attached to ensure there is no wobble in the pass (a single complete scan of the document)
  • 26. Inside Front
    • Inside Front-Scan Head-consists of optic lens, mirrors, filter, and CCD array
  • 27. Inside Back
    • Inside Back- Belt attached to a stepper motor- moves scan head slowly across document, Stabilizer bar- scan head is attached to ensure there is no wobble in the pass (a single complete scan of the document)
  • 28. Mirror CCD Array
    • Mirror CCD Array- Optic Lens- focuses the image through a filter on the CCD array, where the data comes back together to form image
  • 29. Florescent Lamp
    • Florescent lens on top of scan head- used to illuminate the document. Can either be a cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL), a xenon lamp, or a standard fluorescent lamp (in order scanners).
  • 30. Stabilizer Bar
    • Stabilizer Bar- scan head is attached to ensure there is no wobble in the pass (a single complete scan of the document)
  • 31. Stepper Motor
    • Stepper Motor- moves scan head slowly across document
  • 32. General ‘PMI’ Summary
    • The basic principle of a scanner is to analyze an image and process it in some way. Image and text capture (optical character recognition or OCR) allow you to save information to a file on your computer. You can then alter or enhance the image, print it out or use it on your Web page.
  • 33. Safety Issues Involving the Device
    • When disassembling any part of the scanner, make sure all power supplies are unplugged to remove the risk of electric shock
  • 34. 5 Common Problems with the Device and Ways to Solve these Issues 1/2
    • 1. Scanner is not detected - If it used to work, try unplugging and reconnecting the AC power cable for USB scanners. Unplugging and reconnecting the Firewire cable in XP also sometimes works.   Give it a few seconds to be detected.  
    • 2. Vertical lines on image are due to certain CCD cells not responding properly, and that "bad spot" is moved down the page by the carriage motor, making streaks. The problem can be due to dust inside the scanner, on the CCD or mirrors, blocking light from reaching the CCD. The problem can be defective electronics in the scanner, and these lines often appear as red, green or blue lines (stuck on), and sometimes in great numbers or width.
  • 35. 5 Common Problems with the Device and Ways to Solve these Issues 2/2
    • 3. Horizontal lines might be due to a flickering lamp or the scanner has an internal high frequency power supply for the lamp, and it might cause such a problem. A faulty or incorrect or insufficient power cube may be the problem. Is the problem everywhere, or random locations, or always in one place in the carriage travel? It could be irregular movement of the carriage due to lose belts or sticky guide rods or other mechanical interference can cause "glitches". You might notice the lamp flickering, or watching the carriage carefully while it moves might show some type of binding. Horizontal lines due to lamp problems are random, showing at whatever location of the carriage at that point in time, but a sticky carriage would probably always be seen at the same location. Effects of an insufficient power cube is probably seen all over the image.
    • 4. Lamp is burned out Replacing a cold cathode lamp means that you must ship the scanner back for service. In many cases, buying a new scanner will be less expensive, so you might consider it expendable. The scanner company's Customer Service Dept can at least tell you the situation about lamp replacement.
    • 5. Scanner cannot communicate with computer/ printer Make sure your drivers, firmware, and OS (operating system) are up-to-date and compatible with each other.
  • 36. Ways to Maintain the Device
    • Make sure your drivers, firmware, and OS (operating system) are up-to-date and compatible with each other. If you won't be using the scanner any more today, make sure the lamp is not on, for longer life. Use a cover to keep dust from getting onto/into the scanner.
  • 37. How to Adjust the Setting in Windows
    • To assign your custom scanner profile to an image, complete the following steps:
    • Click the File menu, and then click Open to open the image. If the Missing Profile dialog box is displayed, select Assign Profile (see Figure 7). Select the appropriate profile for your scanner from the list. In most cases, you also should select the Then Convert Document to Working RGB check box. Click OK , and the profile will be assigned to the image. You can then skip the rest of the steps here.
    • If the Missing Profile dialog box was not displayed, click the Image menu, point to Mode , and click Assign Profile (see Figure 8).
    • Select Profile .
    • From the drop-down list of profiles, select the custom scanner profile you created for the scanner that was used to scan your image.
    • Click OK . The colors in the image will now be interpreted based on your custom profile.
  • 38. Installing a Hard Drive
  • 39. Hard Drive
    • Back up any important data, make sure power supply is off to the PC. Remove cover of the PC unit.
  • 40. Take Out Screws
    • Draw a picture if necessary to remember the position of screws and cables/ connectors.
  • 41. Take Out Cables, Connectors, Hard Drive
    • Take out HD Cables and Connectors (pull the connector, not the cable itself).
  • 42. Top of Hard Drive
    • Platters- round mirror-like and magnetic, Head on an arm- reads and writes data to the platters.
  • 43. Bottom of Hard Drive
    • Back of HD
  • 44. Tools Used
    • Screwdriver, pencil/ paper (optional), safe place for removed screws such as a dish or cup, grounding bracelet
  • 45. Cables
    • 40 pin flat ribbon data cable connector, four pin power connection
  • 46. Hard Drive Installed without Cables
    • Drive installed without cables
  • 47. Hard Drive Installed with Cables
    • Drive installed with cables
  • 48. Problems Encountered
    • Screws are very small and the bottom two are hard to reach
    •  Removing the Drive was a tight squeeze: We had to turn the Hard Drive a few different angles to pull it out and put it back in
    •  Otherwise process was EASY!
  • 49. Understanding Educational Technology
    • Question: Can educational technology in the classroom help us to be better teachers and help our students to learn better?
  • 50. by Leah Sciabarrasi 1/3
    • Quote: Good teachers are more essential that ever… “Whenever new technology is introduced into society, there must be counterbalancing human response… the more high tech (it is), the more high touch (is needed).”
    • (J. Naisbitt, Author of Megatrends , 1984)
  • 51. by Leah Sciabarrasi 2/3
    • Personal Philosophy: Technology is something that can improve efficiency in classrooms and also be addressed as a subject in schools. However, it should never be used to teach students. It should be used by the teachers to aid the lessons. Effectively using technology in the classroom is a big issue that rarely gets addressed in schools.
    • One way to address the issue in one’s class might be to really plan out your activities and lessons to align with your teaching style. Once you feel confident in the lesson, you can easily find ways that technology might aid your lesson. One goal might be to always make sure you are teaching the lesson and can address the issue in more than one way. Technology can aid in one of these methods, but should not be the sole delivery of the information.
    • Another thing instructors might want to consider is researching Instructional Design Methods to get a good idea of how to develop their own process in their course. Educational uses of technology need a lot more time and care applied to the development of the lessons than what can be given in ordinary Instructional Design methods. However, Instructional Design still provides a good base example. Once you come up with a process for analyzing, designing, developing, implementing and evaluating your lessons that align to your learning style, you can then readdress the key components in education (as opposed to instruction). These components include many soft and hard skills that are not readily addressed in Instructional Design methods.
  • 52. by Leah Sciabarrasi 3/3
    • Instructional Technologies include many delivery methods for quick and easy learning. Like the methods, the technologies do not include a lot of retention techniques. Instead, they focus more on getting the information to the audience quickly and effectively. Would these types of techniques be useful in education? Simply stated, instructional technologies and educational technologies are two different things and should be treated as such. For example, while you might use print, audio and video for both situations, you may want to use more time-involved technologies such as interactive games that would focus on teaching, trying and retention in education situations.
    • While Instructional Technology is used as a model for Distance Learning, it should be used with caution. Part of the problem with full distance education is that simple soft skills and hard skills alike may be getting overlooked because of a self-paced modular design. If the student doesn’t seek out the extra resources, they may be lost in the cracks. Many instructors are willing to help students, but don’t know how online. A custom-grown Educational Technology Model might better suit a situation for Distance Ed. With Instructional Technology Design Processes as a base, a teacher or school could develop a model that better reflects attention, retention and support. Making sure the support is built into the class might be something overlooked in common Instructional Design Methods. Also, the common Instructional Design models and theories haven’t had a makeover sine they were created. I think that course developers should really take the time to develop their own model to fit their course.
    • In conclusion, educational technologies can aid in classroom involvement and add excitement to a lesson. However, they should never be used as the sole delivery of information. Lessons utilizing educational technologies should be developed using a custom-developed Educational Technology Design Process that suits the teaching style of the instructor.
  • 53. by Chelsea Fehskens 1/3
    • Quote: “Motivated students learn from any medium if it is competently used and adapted to their needs. Within its physical limits, any medium can perform any educational task. Whether a student learns more from one medium than from another is at least as likely to depend on how the medium is used, as on what medium is used.” (Schramm, 1977)
  • 54. by Chelsea Fehskens 2/3
    • After reading the article “Manufacturing Greatness” and viewing the PowerPoint presentation entitled “Introduction to Technology” I feel that technology in the education setting faces various problems and scrutiny. Many of the quotes given in the presentation were from many years ago while some were more recent; this shows that technology has faced many trials and skepticism.
    • The quote I decided to select from the PowerPoint that reflects my philosophy regarding educational technology is listed on the previous slide. I chose this quote because I think and feel that students can learn from any learning material if it is presented in the correct manner. It is a teacher’s job as an educator to create lessons and materials that fit to your students. Resources such as books, movies, artifacts, technology equipment and the Internet can be adapted to fit individual students. I could easily teach a history lesson from a book or I could use the Internet as a text resource. While the Internet may seem like “more fun” to some students I think that it is the teachers responsibility to make the book just as exciting as the Internet.
    • Often precious class time is spent trying to get the technology to work or turn on that could be used in more efficient ways. If technology is going to be incorporated into the classroom seamlessly then it needs to be ready and needs to perform just as well as a book might.
  • 55. by Chelsea Fehskens 3/3
    • Furthermore, I do not believe that technology alone can make us better teachers or students just by using it. Education is complex; if the teacher is a bad teacher then technology will not cover this up. The same logic applies to students, if the student does not want to learn, then technology will not make them suddenly smarter.
    • I feel that using and integrating technology into the educational curriculum involves a dedication of time, money, training and management. Without these guidelines in place the technology will just become a misused tool. Although, if you have a dedicated technology staff and administration team then technology can have endless possibilities in the classroom. Technology can enhance student and teacher outcomes if it is adapted to the educational need or student.
    • I agree with Tod Machover, from the article “Manufacturing Greatness”, technology will not wipe out talent and technology may just be helping people become active amateurs. Educational technology will help students along and enhance their learning experience but the base knowledge needs to be taught by confident teachers.
  • 56. by Sarah Stachura
    • Coming soon.
  • 57. Understanding DIY Theory
  • 58. Understanding DIY Theory 1/2
    • Resourcefulness is a trait students can use later in their education and careers. The DIY Theory teaches this lesson above all else.
    • Scaffolding is a one method of beginning a new lesson based on prior knowledge. DIY designed lessons allow students to develop their own scaffolding to solve problem-based assignments.
    • Lifelong Learning is a skill that should be introduced to a student early on. Problem-based projects developed with the DIY Theory in mind can instill a level of importance in students when it comes to Lifelong Learning.
    • When students are asked to design their own projects from scratch, this often provides more opportunities for feedback, reflection and revision.
    • Students who design their own products will have working knowledge of analyzing, organization, design and development.
  • 59. Understanding DIY Theory 2/2
    • Students that address a ‘public or audience’ in the DIY model and gain experience with working for higher in the real-world. Whether developing for a target audience where their work becomes adopted by a company or distributing their product among the public, their product begins to form a life of its own.
    • If students learn to think in terms of design, they will be better prepared to pull ideas and resources together for projects in the future.
    • The DIY movement can spark home-grown ideas in students and encourage them to share their ideas and creations with others. This may spark other mature repercussions such as cooperation, teamwork and networking. Students will soon be utilizing the biggest resource of all, themselves.
    • Being a DIY designer means having to think about the brand you are creating. Students begin to realize how brands are put together, what works and what the target market is. They are able to experience branding on an economic level. By combining ownership and laborer, students are able to experience all avenues of production and costs.
    • Most importantly, DIY visioning helps students to think beyond the familiar. From the reincarnated common thoughts that pop into our heads arises a breath of fresh air. This new air provides new life to any project and holds people’s attention.
  • 60. Resources
    • eHow (2009). How To’s . Retrieved March 5, 2009, from
    • Green, C. (2009). Design Ideas . Retrieved March 5, 2009, from
    • How Stuff Works. (2009). Scanner, Print . Retrieved March 1, 2009, from
    • Lupton, E. (2009). Teaching with the Web . Retrieved March 5, 2009, from